These are facts, historical facts.
The Maltese Falcon
• # R.M.S. Titanic and Nova Scotia
• # 1929 Earthquake and Tsunami
• # Oak Island Treasure
• # First Nations
• # Automobiles and Highways
• # Railways
• # Coal Mining
• # Royal William, 1833
• # Saxby Gale, 1869
• # True Stories from Nova Scotia's Past
• # Slaves in Nova Scotia
• # Prince Henry Sinclair
• # Seven Years War
• # Assorted Historic Documents
• # Continental Congress
• # The Eddy Rebellion, November 1776
• # John Allan (1746-1805)
• # The American Revolution, 1773-1783
• # The Penobscot Expedition, 1779
• # War of 1812
• # Nova Scotia's Private Navy
• # HMS Shannon and USS Chesapeake, June 1813
• # The American Civil War, 1861-1865
• # CSS Tallahassee, 1864
• # Canadian Navy
• # Joshua Slocum (1844-1909)
• # Simon Newcomb (1835-1909)
• # Guglielmo Marconi (1874-1937)
• # William Cottnam Tonge (1764-1832)
• # Joshua Mauger (1725-1788)
• # Bernard J. Hibbitts
• # Counties, Towns, Villages, Municipalities
• # Town of Lunenburg, 250 years 1753-2003
• # Nova Scotia Stamps
• # Early History of the Internet in Nova Scotia
• # Nova Scotia Newspapers
• # Broadcast Radio
• # Pre-Confederation Documents
• # Brief History of Scots Law
• Massachusetts Boundaries, 1691 included Maine and Nova Scotia
• The Northwest Angle of Nova Scotia Exactly where is this infamous Northwest Angle of Nova Scotia, that determined the location of today's International Boundary?
On 29 November 1798, the legislature of St. John Island
voted to change the colony's name to Prince Edward Island.
The name change went into effect on 1 January 1800.
The stated reason for the change was the excessive
confusion caused by having three population centers
on British North America's Atlantic coast all named
for Saint John: the island colony and two cities
(not to mention the Saint John River valley).
John Mitchell's Map (the whole map)
“British and French Dominions” edition, 1755
11,686 × 8,255 pixels, JPG file size: 97 megabytes
Note the territories labelled
“Nova Scotia or Acadia”
and “Province of Maine”
Nova Scotia as it appears on the Mitchell Map (1755)
(Nova Scotia then included the territory now known as New Brunswick
and part of what is now eastern Maine)
High resolution: Nova Scotia – Mitchell Map (1755)
2400 × 1900 pixels, 1.94 megabytes
Nova Scotia as it appears in Google Maps (2012)
(Yellow labels added)
Bay of Fundy
Radio at Sea by S. G. Roscoe, Halifax
This is a first-rate history of communications at sea, written by the radio operator of the H.M.S. Bounty. Includes a lot of information about the history of communications in and around Nova Scotia.
1. A Bit on the Beginning
2. The Duke of Kent's Signal Stations (Semaphore Telegraph, 31 stations!)
3. The First International Code of Signals...Captain Maryatt
4. Silver Leaf
5. The Titanic
6. Distress Communications
7. The Fairmiles
8. The Navy Fleet after the War
9. The Radio Shack
10. Kent Line Ltd. & Atlantic Towing Ltd.
11. A Few Operating Experiences
12. TwFeb 24, 1999elfth and Final Section
The National Post interviews Spud Roscoe 2 February 1999, on the occasion of the official end of the use of the Morse Code for communication with ships.
6 August 2000 — Treasure Island Oldies makes history.
First ever Internet Simulcast (Internet to a broadcast FM station)
with CKEP-FM, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia
CKEP 97.9 MHz FM 10:00pm August 6, 2000 RealAudio [4:03:01]
In December 2012, Treasure Island Oldies
is heard on these Nova Scotia radio stations:
QCCR-FM Liverpool, Nova Scotia
Over-the-air broadcast radio: 93.3 FM
Treasure Island Oldies: Saturday, 11am to 3pm
Cove FM St. Margaret's Bay, Nova Scotia
Treasure Island Oldies: Saturday, 8pm to midnight
“CoveFM is now available on Tune In Radio.
“There are Apps available for Android, Iphone,
Blackberry and other mobile devices.”
Thomas Temple (1614-1674) Wikipedia
Sir Thomas Temple Dictionary of Canadian Biography
On 12 September 1657 an agreement was made between Thomas Temple and Col. William Crowne for a division of their property. Temple's share extended from what is now Lunenburg in Nova Scotia to the River St. George in Maine, including the whole coast of the Bay of Fundy on both sides and a hundred leagues [about 500 km] inland...
The Wayback Machine has archived copies of:
Archived: 1999 May 05
Archived: 2000 August 15
Archived: 2001 April 30
Archived: 2002 June 23
Archived: 2003 April 18
Archived: 2004 October 09
Archived: 2005 June 17
Archived: 2007 August 12
Archived: 2009 February 04
Archived: 2010 November 23
Nova Scotia Stamps
1851 Nova Scotia 3-penny blue
1851 Nova Scotia 1-shilling purple
Nova Scotia 1-cent postage stamp, first issued 1860, 21×27mm
Nova Scotia 5-cent postage stamp, first issued 1860, 21×27mm
cancelled at Halifax, 3 September 1867
Nova Scotia 8½-cent postage stamp, first issued 1860, 21×27mm
imperfect vertical perforation
Before 1860, Nova Scotia postage stamps were denominated in pence.
The stamps shown above were part of the first issue
of Nova Scotia stamps denominated in cents.
The 1929 Bluenose stamp is the most famous
of Canadian stamps, recognized around the world.
Source: National Archives of Canada
Nova Scotia stamps and postal history by Frederick R. Mayer Foundation
Pre-adhesive (before 1851)
Earliest known letter from Nova Scotia bearing a postmark
October 1767, Lunenburg to London
Canadian Postal Rates 1943-2012
Stamp collectors are licking their lips over an upside-down Canadian stamp. About 70 of the $2 stamps were printed in error in 1994, with the Provincial Normal School in Truro, Nova Scotia shown upside down. The lettering and dollar figures are correct... The stamps made the cover story of the current issue of Canadian Stamp News.
[The Globe and Mail 4 May 1996]
$2 Truro Provincial Normal School Inverted Inscriptions
In April of 1996, the discovery of the $2.00 Truro Provincial Normal School definitive issue with Inverted Inscriptions was announced and two of the four panes discovered were exhibited at the Capex'96 International Philatelic Exhibition in Toronto in June of that year.
The Wayback Machine has archived copies of this document:
Hilbert Buist webpage 1: Bon Voyage
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Hilbert Buist webpage 2: Delay in Halifax
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Hilbert Buist webpage 3: R.M.S. Britannia
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Hilbert Buist webpage 4: On His Way in the World
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Archived: 1998 February 07
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Archived: 2000 May 26
These countries each "have accessed our website more than 250 times"
during September 1995 to September 1996:
• United Kingdom
• New Zealand
• South Korea
• South Africa
British colonies and plantations in America
The phrase “His Majesty's colonies or plantations in America” or the phrase “the British colonies and plantations in America” or similar phrases, included the following:
Journals of the Continental Congress: Franklin's Articles of Confederation, 1775 July 21 Articles of Confederation and perpetual Union, enterd into agre proposed, by the Delegates of the several Colonies of New Hampshire, &c, in general Congress met at Philadelphia, May 10, 1775.
ART. I. The Name of this Confederacy shall henceforth be the United Colonies of North America...
ART. XIII. Any other and every Colony from Great Britain upon the Continent of North America and not at present engag'd in our Association shall may upon Application and joining the said Association be receiv'd into this Confederation, viz. [Ireland] the West India Islands, Quebec, St. Johns, Nova Scotia, Bermudas, and the East and West Floridas; and shall thereupon be entitled to all the Advantages of our Union, mutual Assistance and Commerce. These Articles shall be propos'd to the several Provincial Conventions or Assemblies, to be by them consider'd... (boldface emphasis added)
Constitution of South Carolina, 1776 March 26 WHEREAS the British Parliament, claiming of late years a right to bind the North American colonies by law in all cases whatsoever, have enacted statutes for raising a revenue in those colonies and disposing of such revenue as they thought proper, without the consent and against the will of the colonists. And whereas it appearing to them that (they not being represented in Parliament) such claim was altogether unconstitutional, and, if admitted, would at once reduce them from the rank of freemen to a state of the most abject slavery; the said colonies, therefore, severally remonstrated against the passing, and petitioned for the repeal, of those acts, but in vain, and whereas the said claim being persisted in, other unconstitutional and oppressive statutes have been since enacted by which the powers of admiralty courts in the colonies are extended beyond their ancient limits, and jurisdiction is given to such courts in cases similar to those which in Great Britain are triable by jury; persons are liable to be sent to and tried in Great Britain for an offence created and made capital by one of those statutes, though committed in the colonies; the harbor of Boston was blocked up; people indicted for murder in the Massachusetts Bay may, at the will of a governor, be sent for trial to any other colony, or even to Great Britain... And whereas the delegates of all the colonies on this continent, from Nova Scotia to Georgia, assembled in a general Congress at Philadelphia, in the most dutiful manner laid their complaints at the foot of the throne, and humbly implored their sovereign that his royal authority and interposition might be used for their relief from the grievances occasioned by those statutes, and assured His Majesty that harmony between Great Britain and America, ardently desired by the latter, would be thereby immediately restored, and that the colonists confided in the magnanimity and justice of the King and Parliament for redress of the many other grievances under which they labored. And whereas these complaints being Only disregarded, statutes still more cruel than those above mentioned have been enacted, prohibiting the intercourse of the colonies with each other, restricting their trade, and depriving many thousands of people of the means of subsistence, by restraining them from fishing on the American coast... (boldface emphasis added)
Question: Why was the first continental congress held?
Answer: The First Continental Congress was called and convenied in 1774 to redress the grievances of the American colonists against both the alarming reduction in colonists' rights as well as the drastic increases in taxes being imposed on the colonists by the British government. Their grievances were with not only the King of England, King George III, but with the British Parliament as well, as both of these divisions of the English government refused to listen to or redress the concerns of the American colonists.
The members of the First Continental Congress were official delegates of each of the American colonies, chosen and sent by the elected legislatures of each American colony; each delegate present acted in an official capacity on behalf of their respective colony with power and authority granted to them of their respective colony to act and cast votes on behalf of the colony they represented.
The delegates of the First Continental Congress did not plan to nor did they propose independence from England at this time in 1774; they simply needed to collectively define their grievances against England and collectively ask for redress from the English government. Although the Congress patiently waited for a response, their official petition to England went ignored, even though more than a full year was given for rebuttal. This lack of response led to the calling of another session of the Congress, named the Second Continental Congress. The idea of and the call for independence from England did not come until the convening of this Second Continental Congress, held in 1776 (and culminating in the Declaration of Independence on July 4).
It is interesting to note that invitations to send delegates to the Continental Congresses were sent by the colonies of Virginia and Massachussetts to all of the original American colonies, including not only the 13 colonies who responded with delegates, but to Georgia, East Florida, West Florida, Quebec, and Nova Scotia as well. (boldface emphasis added)
Georgia did not participate in
John Dickinson's Draft Letter to Quebec, 1774 October 24-26
To the Inhabitants of the Province of Quebec
When the Fortune of War after a gallant and glorious Resistance
Page 237 October 24, 1774against superior Numbers had incorporated You with the Body of British Subjects, We rejoiced in the truly valuable Addition both on our own and your Account, expecting, as Courage & Generosity are naturally united, our brave Enemies would become our (best) hearty Friends, and that the Divine Being would bless the Dispensations of his overruling Providence to You, by securing to You & your latest posterity, the inestimable advantages of a free British Consitution of Government, which it is the Priviledge of all British Subjects [to] enjoy.
These Hopes were confirmed by the Proclamation issued in the Year 1763, plighting the public Faith for your full Enjoyment of those advantages therein solemnly promised.
Little did We imagine, that any succeeding Ministers would so audaciously and cruelly abuse the royal Authority, as not only to with hold from You the irrevocable Rights to which You were thus justly entitled, Rights purchased from arbitrary Monarchs by our Ancestors, at the Expence of their Blood, but, with a detestable Cunning even to direct the Exercise of those Rights in such an incidious Manner, as might most effectually tend to prejudice You against the proffored Blessings, and incline You to think, that You only rejected a rough Casket belonging to others, while You should throw away inclosed Jewells above all Price, your own legal property, that your base Deceivers might profit by your innocent Error.
But since We have liv'd to see the unexpected Time, when Ministers of this flagitious Temper have dared to violate the most sacred Compacts & obligations, and as You, educated under another Form of Government, have artfully been kept from discovering the unspeakable Worth of that Form You are now undoubtedly entitled to, We esteem it our Duty, for the weighty Reasons herein after mentioned, to explain to You, as well We can, the Nature of some of its most important Branches. "In every human Society," says the celebrated Marquis Beccaria, following the steps of the immortal Montesquieu in impressing sentiments of Humanity, "there is an Effort continually tending to confer on one Part the height of Power and Happiness, and to reduce the other to the extreme of Weakness & Misery. The intent of good Laws, is to oppose this Effort, and to diffuse their Influence, universally, & equally."
These few Lines have intensely collected into a small Compass, the (Principles) Causes of almost all Civil Discords. Rulers stimulated by the pernicious "Effort," and Subjects, animated by the just "Intent of opposing good Laws against it," have that vast Variety of Dissensions, that fill the Histories of so many Nations. All these Histories demonstrate the Truths of this simple Position, that to live by the Will of one Man or sett of Men, is the production of Misery to
Page 238 October 24, 1774all Men. On the solid Foundation of this Principle, has been rear'd up the Fabrick of the British Constitution, with such a Strength, as for Ages to defy Time, Tyranny, Treachery, internal and foreign Wars: And upon this Model, tho on a smaller Scale, has been form'd the Constitution of each British Colony, and that also, (by an indissoluble Right vested in you are) with which by an unalienable Title You have been invested.
The first grand Right under all these, is that, of the People having a Share in (the Government of themselves, By this, is secured to them) their own Government by their Representatives chosen by themselves and in Consequence thereof, being ruled by Laws which they themselves approve, not by Edicts of Men over whom they have no Controul. This is a Bulwark surrounding and (wholly) defending their property, which by their honest Cares and Labours they have acquired, so that no portions of it can legally be taken from them, but with their full & free Consent, when they in their Judgment deem it just & necessary to give them for public Services, and precisely direct the easiest, cheapest, and most equal Method, in which it shall be collected.
The Influence of this Right extends still farther. If Money is wanted by Governors who have in any Manner oppressed the People, they may retain it, until their Greivances are redrest, & thus peaceably procure Relief, without trusting to despised Petitions, or disturbing their domestic Tranquility.
The next great Right, is that of Trial by Jury. This provides, that neither Life, Liberty, or property can be taken from the Possessor, until twelve of his Countrymen and Peers, clear of Objections, of his Vicinage, who from that Neighbourhood may reasonably be suppos'd to be acquainted with his Character and the Characters of the Witnesses, upon a fair Trial and full Enquiry, face to face, in open Court, before (the assembled Country such of) as many of the People as chuse to attend, shall pass their impartial Sentence upon Oath, against him; a Sentence, that cannot injure him, without injuring their own Reputation, & probably their Interest also, as the Question may turn on Points, that in some Degree concern the general Welfare; and if it does not, their Verdict may form a Precedent, that on a similar Trial of their own, may militate against them.
(The last Right We shall mention, relates to personal) Another Right relates merely to the Liberty of the person. If a Subject is seiz'd & imprisoned, tho by Government, he may by Virtue of this Right immediately obtain a writ term'd a Habeas Corpus from a Judge whose sworn Duty it is to grant it, and thereupon (be brought before him; and it is the Duty of the Judge instantly to discharge him, unless the Commitment is founded on Law.) procure any illegal Restraint to be inquired into & redress'd.
Page 239 October 24, 1774(The last Right We shall mention) A fourth Right is that of holding Lands by the Tenure of easy Rents, and not by the Tenure of rigorous and oppressive services frequently forcing the possessors from their Families & their Business to perform what ought to be done in all well regulated States, by Men hired for the Purpose.
The last Right We shall mention, regards the Freedom of the Press. The Importance of this consists, besides the advancement of Truth, Science, Morality & art, in general, in its Diffusion of liberal Sentiments on the administration of Government, its ready Communication of Thoughts between Subjects, & its consequential promotion of Union among them, whereby Oppressive Officers are sham'd or intimidated into a more honourable & just Mode of Conducting Affairs.
These are the invaluable Rights that form a considerable Part of that mild (and equitable) System of Government...
Page 242 October 24, 1774...Great Britain is at a very [great] Distance. Her Fleets and Armies. The Happiness of a People inevitably depend on their ability & their Spirit to assert it wanted to complete striving of) You may make them your unalterable Friends. For their own Sakes, they never will desert or betray you. The Injuries of Boston, have rous'd every Colony to an Association, from Nova Scotia to Georgia. (boldface emphasis added) You are the only Link wanting to complete the bright & strong Chain of Union. Nature (intended you for the[. . .]) has join'd your Country to theirs. Do You join Your politicial Interests. Be assured, that the Happiness of a People inevitably depends on their Liberty, & their Spirit to assert it. The value & Extent of the (Blessin[gs]) advantages tendered to You are immense. Heaven grant, You may not discover them to be Blessings, as the unwise generally do, after they have bid an eternal Adieu." (Be not alarm'd with false Fears of Differences in religious Sentiments. The united Body of Swiss Cantons is happily composed of Roman Catholic & Protestant States, & defy the World to hurt them.)
We are too well acquainted with the Liberality of Sentiment distinguishing your Nation, to imagine, that Difference of Religon will prejudice You against a hearty Amity with Us. You know that the transcendent Nature of Freedom elevates those who unite in her Cause, above all such low-minded Infirmities. The Swiss Cantons furnish a memorable proof of this Truth. Their union is compos'd of Roman catholic & protestant States, living in the utmost Concord & Peace with one another and thereby enabled ever since they bravely vindicated their Freedoms, to defy and defeat every Tyrant that has invaded them.
We know, there are among You, & among all Societies, Men who prefer their own Interest to the Welfare of their Country. The Temper of such selfish persons renders them incredibly active in opposing all public spirited Measures, from an Expectation of being well rewarded for their sordid Industry, by their Superiors to whom those Measures are displeasing. We doubt not, but these Men will throw in your Way every Objection & Difficulty, their partial Aims can forge or form. But We address the Body of the Canadian People, on a subject of the last Importance, not to one or another Class or Rank among them, but to the whole...
This Our Invitation asks You not to commence Acts of Hostility against the Government of our Common Sovereign. It is only that You will consult your own Glory & Welfare, and not suffer Your selves to be enveigled or intimidated by infamous Ministers so far as to become their Instruments, and plunge your Swords into our innocent Bosoms, that ardently wish You every kind of Liberty & Felicity, and will rejoice to embrace You a loving Brethren in one social Band, founded on the generous Principles of equal Liberty, & cemented by such an Exchange of endearing Offices as to render it perpetual.
In Order to complete this highly desireable Union, We submit to your Consideration, whether it may not be expedient for You to meet together in your several Towns & Districts & (chuse Representatives) elect Deputies, who afterwards meeting in a provincial Congress, may chuse Delegates to represent your Province in the Continental Congress to be held at Philadelphia (in the Province of Pennsylvania) on the Day of 1775.
In the present Congress beginning on the fifth Day of the last Month, and continued by adjournments to this Day, it has been with universal Pleasure and an unanimous Vote resolved, that You should be invited to accede to our Confederation, which has no other Objects, than the perfect Security of the natural & civil Rights of all the constituent Members according to their respective Circumstances, and the Preservation of a happy & lasting Connection with Great Britain on the great, & salutary & constitutional Principles herein before mentioned. For effecting these Purposes, We have addrest an humble & loyal Petition to his Majesty, praying Relief of our Grievances; and have associated to stop all Importations from Great Britain & Ireland after the first Day of next December, & all Exportations to those Kingdoms & the West Indies, after the tenth Day of next September, unless the said Grievances are redrest.
That Almighty God may incline your Minds to approve our (just) equitable & necessary Measures, to add yourselves to Us, to put your Fate whenever You suffer Injuries you are determined to oppose not on the small Force of your single province, but on the consolidated Powers of North America, and may grarit to our joint Exertions an Event happy as our Cause is just, is the (sincere &) fervent Prayer of Us your sincere & affectionate Friends & Fellow Subjects.
MS. In the hand of John Dickinson.1 Congress resolved to prepare an address to the people of Quebec on October 21 and for that purpose appointed a committee consisting of Thomas Cushing, Richard Henry Lee, and John Dickinson. On October 24 the committee reported a draft, which was debated and recommitted, and on the 26th reported a second
Page 244 October 24, 1774draft, which was "debated by paragraphs and amended, 8 & approved." JCC, 1:101, 103, 105. Little is known about the evolution of this document, but since few significant changes are to be found between the draft printed here and the final version, it is probable that this document is essentially the committee's second draft and was written October 24-26 (1774)...
Preliminary Articles of Peace – 1782 November 30 Articles agreed upon, by... the Commissioner of his Britannic Majesty... on the one part; and... the Commissioners of the United States of America... on the other part...
• ARTICLE 1: His Britannic Majesty acknowledges the said United States, Viz New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia, to be free Sovereign and independent States; That he treats with them as such; And for himself, his Heirs and Successors, relinquishes all Claims to the Government, Propriety, and territorial Rights of the same, and every part thereof; and that all Disputes which might arise in future, on the Subject of the Boundaries of the said United States, may be prevented, It is hereby agreed and declared that the following are, and shall be their Boundaries Viz:
• ARTICLE 2: From the north west Angle of Nova Scotia, Viz that Angle which is form'd by a Line drawn due north, from the Source of St. Croix River to the Highlands, along the said Highlands which divide those Rivers that empty themselves into the River St Laurence, from those which fall into the Atlantic Ocean, to the northwesternmost Head of Connecticut River; thence down along the middle of that River... thence down along the middle of St. Mary's River to the Atlantic Ocean. East, by a Line to be drawn along the middle of the River St Croix, from its Mouth in the Bay of Fundy to its Source; and from its Source directly North, to the aforesaid Highlands which divide the Rivers that fall into the Atlantic Ocean, from those which fall into the River Se Laurence; comprehending all Islands within twenty Leagues [about 100 km] of any part of the Shores of the united States, and lying between Lines to be drawn due East from the points where the aforesaid Boundaries between Nova Scotia on the one part and East Florida on the other shall respectively touch the Bay of Fundy, and the Atlantic Ocean; excepting such Islands as now are, or heretofore have been within the Limits of the said Province of Nova Scotia... (boldface emphasis added)
The complete text of the Peace Treaty signed 30 September 1783, also known as The Paris Peace Treaty, which ended the United States War for Independence. Includes a surveyor's description (Article Two) of the westernmost boundaries of Nova Scotia in 1783 (very different from the modern boundary).
Ottawa: Federal Government Orders in Council 1867-1882
OIC 1871-1453, page 1
Subject: Minister of Public Works recommends changing the name of the Nova Scotia Railway station "now known as Coal Mines" to Stellarton, the local authorities and the Post Office and the Telegraph Company having already adopted that name...
Approved: 27 October 1871
OIC 1870-1172, page 1
OIC 1870-1172, page 2
OIC 1870-1172, page 3
Subject: Minister of Public Works recommending appointments on Nova Scotia Railway, viz. as station master and telegraph operators - William McCallum (first at Bedford, then at Elmsdale), Thomas M. Boggs (at Brookfield), M. Munford Jr. (at Ellershouse), Walter Sweet (at Newport), George F. Boggs (at Bedford) and Andrew M. Davidson (at West River)...
Approved: 18 February 1870
OIC 1877-0997, page 1
OIC 1877-0997, page 2
Subject: Appointment of Captain Nelson Card as lighthouse keeper at Isle Haute, Bay of Fundy, at $500.00 per annum...
Approved: 12 November 1877
OIC 1868-0961, page 1
OIC 1868-0961, page 2
OIC 1868-0961, page 3
Subject: Approval of payment of $2,700 to pay the steamship Linda for "maintaining communication between St. John, New Brunswick and Yarmouth, Nova Scotia," for the Post Office, having performed twenty-seven weekly trips at $100 per trip...
Approved: 19 November 1868
OIC 1874-1308, page 1
Subject: Approval of $6000 for the purchase of Bunkers Island near Yarmouth, Nova Scotia, for the purpose of constructing a Quarantine Station and Marine Hospital...
Approved: 5 November 1874
OIC 1879-0951, page 1
OIC 1879-0951, page 2
OIC 1879-0951, page 3
OIC 1879-0951, page 4
OIC 1879-0951, page 5
OIC 1879-0951, page 6
OIC 1879-0951, page 7
Subject: Telegraph line between Halifax and Canso – acceptance of the tender of the Dominion Telegraph Company to build and maintain "in perpetuity" a one-wire electric telegraph line between Halifax and Canso along the Eastern Shore Road...
Approved: 28 June 1879
OIC 1883-1311, page 1
OIC 1883-1311, page 2
OIC 1883-1311, page 3
OIC 1883-1311, page 4
OIC 1883-1311, page 5
OIC 1883-1311, page 6
Subject: Incorporation of The Yarmouth Power Knitting Company Limited, Yarmouth, Nova Scotia, for the purpose of manufacture and sale of all kinds of knitted hosiery and underwear... The capital stock of the Company to be $12,000... Abel C. Robbins, Hugh Currie, William A. Chase, James B. Kinney and Alexander L. Kerr to be the first directors of the Company...
Approved: 5 June 1883
OIC 1883-1789, page 1
OIC 1883-1789, page 2
OIC 1883-1789, page 3
OIC 1883-1789, page 4
Subject: Incorporation of The Yarmouth Duck and Yarn Company Limited, Yarmouth, Nova Scotia, for the purpose of manufacturing, spinning, weaving, dyeing, bleaching, printing, buying and selling of cotton, cotton duck, twine... The capital stock of the Company to be $150,000... William D. Lovitt, Samuel Killam, Abel C. Robbins, Frank Killam, Bowman Corning, Thomas E. Kelley and John Oldfield to be the first directors of the Company...
Approved: 18 August 1883
OIC 1881-1248, page 1
OIC 1881-1248, page 2
OIC 1881-1248, page 3
OIC 1881-1248, page 4
Subject: Incorporation of The Nova Scotia Glass Company Limited, New Glasgow, Nova Scotia, for the purpose of manufacturing, selling and dealing in all kinds of glass ware... The capital stock of the Company to be $50,000... Andrew Walker, Adam Carr Bell, James Eastwood, Graham Fraser and Peter A. McGregor to be the first directors of the Company...
Approved: 7 September 1881
OIC 1882-1422, page 1
OIC 1882-1422, page 2
OIC 1882-1422, page 3
OIC 1882-1422, page 4
OIC 1882-1422, page 5
Subject: Incorporation of The Nova Scotia Steel Company Limited, New Glasgow, Nova Scotia, for the purpose of making steel from scrap steel, scrap iron and pig iron... The capital stock of the Company to be $160,000... James D. McGregor, Graham Fraser, James M. Carmichael, John F. Stairs, and Henry S. Poole to be the first directors of the Company...
Approved: 12 July 1882
Lost At Sea
Sheevaun Nelson's website
The Eddy Rebellion
The Eddy Rebellion in Nova Scotia, November 1776
Jonathan EddyEddy, Jonathan, farmer, soldier; born 1726/27 at Norton, Massachusetts, son of Eleazer E. and Elizabeth (Cobb) Eddy; married 4 May 1749 to Mary, daughter of Dr. William Ware; came to Cumberland, Nova Scotia, in 1763, after serving as captain in the Seven Years' War; deputy provost marshal of Cumberland County; first magistrate on the Penobscot River; Member of the Nova Scotia Legislative Assembly for Cumberland Township, 1770-1775; leader in the rebellion in Cumberland in 1776; served as colonel in the American Revolutionary forces, living at Sharon, Massachusetts; in 1781 granted land at Eddington, Maine, where he died in August, 1804.
The Legislative Assembly of Nova Scotia 1758-1983: A Biographical Directory, edited and revised by Shirley B. Elliott, 1984, ISBN 088871050X. This volume was prepared as a contribution of the Public Archives of Nova Scotia to the celebration of the bicentenary of the establishment of representative government in Canada.
Jonathan Eddy Wikipedia
Note...a certain John Eddy was indicted by the grand jury for treason, but escaped before he could be brought to trial. The principal offense was that of enlisting men for the British service.
Footnote 90 in Volume 7 of The Writings of George Washington from the Original Manuscript Sources, 1745-1799, 39 volumes, John C. Fitzpatrick, Editor, Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1931-1944; reprint, New York: Greenwood Press, 1970
This John Eddy is not to be confused with Jonathan Eddy, a resident of Cumberland County, Nova Scotia, in the 1760s and 1770s, and a Member of the Nova Scotia Legislative Assembly for Cumberland Township, 1770-1775. From the beginning, Jonathan Eddy supported the revolutionary side in the war, and certainly did not enlist men for the British service.
If Eddy had succeeded...(In 1776) we had civil unrest at Fort Cumberland when Colonel Jonathan Eddy of the Continental Army tried to foment an uprising on behalf of the American revolution among the New England settlers who replaced the French Acadians. If Eddy had succeeded, and he might very well have, Canada today would not have an Atlantic coast...
— Mrs. Dianne Brushett (MP for Cumberland-Colchester):
House of Commons, Ottawa — Hansard, 27 January 1994
Planter Studies Centre Planters: the old English term for colonists
Migration from New England, 1759-1774 The Colony of Nova Scotia stood on New England's frontier during the tumultuous time of the Seven Years' War (1756-1763) between England and France over their North American Empires. Between 1760 and 1774, approximately 8000 Planters (colonists) from Connecticut, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and New Hampshire came to Nova Scotia, bringing with them their own culture, a mixture of Old World traditions and New World adjustments...
Tantramar Heritage British forces captured Fort Beausejour in June of 1755, and renamed it Fort Cumberland... In 1776, many of the Yorkshire families found themselves caught up in the Eddy Rebellion when a group of New Englanders and sympathizers laid siege to Fort Cumberland...
Fort Beausejour - Fort Cumberland, by Parks Canada
Fort Beausejour is a star-shaped fort built in 1750-51 by by order of Marquis de la Jonquière, Governor of Canada, in the course of the French struggle with the British for possession of Acadia (Nova Scotia). Fort Beausejour was taken by Lt. Col. Robert Monckton with volunteers from New England, known as Shirley's Regiment, raised by Lt. Col. John Winslow, aided by men of the Royal Artillery, and other British troops, after a two-week siege, June 3-16, 1755. Renamed Fort Cumberland. Besieged by rebels under Jonathan Eddy, November 4-24, 1776. Defended by the Royal American Fencible Regiment under Lt. Col. Joseph Gorham and relieved by Major Thomas Batt with a body of Royal Marines and Royal Highland Emigrants, who routed the besiegers.
24 August 1763: List of names of 374 Acadian Prisoners at Fort Cumberland (formerly Fort Beausejour)
"Tantramar Flashbacks" in The Sackville Tribune-Post, 9 May 2001
For a time, in 1775-76, it appeared that Nova Scotia (which then included present day New Brunswick) might be the fourteenth colony to rebel... In Cumberland Township (now Cumberland County, Nova Scotia) local leadership for the revolutionary cause was provided by its two MLAs, John Allan (1746-1805) and Jonathan Eddy (1726-1804). The uprising known as Eddy's Rebellion reached its peak in November of 1776...
"Tantramar Flashbacks" in The Sackville Tribune-Post, 19 December 2001
The Christmas season was anything but merry on the Tantramar in 1776. During the previous autumn this region had been directly involved in the American Revolution. Although the Eddy Rebellion was over, its impact was still in evidence. The remains of torched homes and farm buildings could be found throughout the countryside. Desperation and starvation lined the faces of many homeless refugees (from both sides) who were huddled in Fort Beausejour, now renamed Fort Cumberland...
They Intended to Make of Nova Scotis the 14th State of the Union
a column from the Yarmouth Vanguard
Fort Lawrence / Beaubassin Heritage Association The area, presently known as Fort Lawrence, located on the East side of the Missaquash River, in the region known as Chignecto which consisted of the area surrounding the border between present day New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, was originally called Beaubassin, meaning "beautiful bay". Beaubassin was founded in 1671 and was the first major French settlement, outside of Port Royal, in Acadia. The first Frenchman to visit the area was Champlain in 1605...
The Yorkshire Emigration Yorkshire's Ayup Online Magazine
The Townships of Sackville, Cumberland and Amherst were laid out in 1763 each containing 100,000 acres (Cumberland Township disappeared and was replaced by Amherst Township in 1783)... The first shipload of Yorkshire immigrants to arrive was in 1772... The Chignecto Isthmus felt the greatest impact of the immigration. Settling at Amherst were: Black, Freeze, Robinson, Lusby, Oxley, Foster and others; at Nappan, Maccan, River Philip: Brown, Ripley, Shepley, Pipes, Coates, Harrison, Fenwick and others: Westmorland Point, Point de Bute and Fort Lawrence: Keilor, Siddall, Wells, Smith Lowerson, Truemen, Chapman, Donkin (actually from Northumberland), Read, Carter, King, Trenholm, Dobson and others; and at Sackville: Dixon, Bowser, Atkinson, Anderson, Bulmer, Harper, Patterson, Fawcett, Richardson, Humphrey, Wry, and others. Aside from the Chignecto region up to 15% of the families settled in Annapolis County and included the names: Clark, Wilson, Oliver, Milner, Mills, Halliday, Jefferson and others. The settlement generally known as "the Yorkshire Immigration" has had a profound effect on settlement patterns in eastern Canada, and may have significantly contributed to the political landscape of the Maritimes. Loyal Yorkshiremen helped British forces at Fort Cumberland (now Fort Beausejour National Historic Park) quell the Eddy Rebellion of 1776...
Assembly 5 (April 1770-October 1785)
There were nine members during this time for Cumberland County and Cumberland Township. Their chief claim to fame seemed to be non-attendance and one of them, Jonathon Eddy, was dismissed from the House for becoming "a rebble". This was true... It was claimed that one of the causes of poor attendance was the almost impossible task of getting to Halifax. The Halifax authorities claimed the main reason was the "rebellious nature" of the Cumberland inhabitants. There was, however, a small rebellion commonly called the "Eddy Rebellion" in 1776...
Petition of Nova Scotia Inhabitants To "His Excellency George Washington Esquire Generalissmo of the Army of the Twelve United Colonies of America" February 8, 1776
Lieut. Lewis Frederick Delesdernier a Cumberland County, Nova Scotia, refugee, came to Machias in 1776. In May, 1777, he was commissioned first lieutenant in the Continental Army by Col. John Allan, and acted as his secretary while Col. Allan commanded the Eastern Indians. Soon after the close of the Revolution he removed to Passamaquoddy and was the first collector of customs and the first postmaster of Eastport.
Dyer Family History In November 1777, Jones Dyer accompanied Colonel John Allan, Superintendent of the Eastern Indians, and a party of American "Patriots", to St. Andrews, where they held a council with the Indians. The following day an attempt was made to capture Allan by inviting him aboard a sloop. Allan suspected the scheme, and instead of going himself sent Jones Dyer of Machias, Louis F. Delesdernier, and four others. All of them were seized as they boarded the craft, which was a Loyalist vessel, the Howe, from Halifax.
Jonathan Eddy (1726-1804) The hamlet of Eddington, in Penobscot County, Maine, (on Highway Nine "The Airline", well-known to many motorists from Nova Scotia) is named in honour of Jonathan Eddy.
Howard Trueman's book
Continental Congress Considers the Plight
Congress assembled. Present, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina and South Carolina; and from the State of Massachusetts, Mr. [Rufus] King, and from Georgia, Mr. [William] Houstoun...
The Eddy Rebellion: Ink-on-Paper ReferencesPapers relating to Trials for Treason in 1776-7, The Nova Scotia Historical Society, #1 (1878) — The Eddy Rebellion; eight pages
The Siege of Fort Cumberland, 1776: An Episode in the American Revolution, by Ernest Clarke, 304 pages, published 1995 by McGill-Queen's University Press, Montreal & Kingston, ISBN 0773518673, ISBN 077351323X; — A detailed account of the 1776 siege and the events leading up to it
Footprints in the Marsh Mud: Politics and Land Settlement in the Township of Sackville 1760-1800, by James D. Snowdon, M.A. thesis, University of New Brunswick, 1974; reprinted, Tantramar Heritage Trust, 2000 — pages 74-80: the Eddy rebellion
A Century at Chignecto: The Key to Old Acadia, by William Richard Bird, Ryerson Press, Toronto, 1928 — Chapters VI-XVI: the events of 1750-1755, and the Eddy Rebellion of 1776
Dictionary of Canadian Biography, Vol.IV, pages 540-542 — Lt. Col. Robert Monckton (1726-1782)
Dictionary of Canadian Biography, Vol.V, pages 295,296 — Jonathan Eddy (1726-1804)
Memoir of Colonel Jonathan Eddy, of Eddington, Maine: With Some Account of the Eddy Family, and of the Early Settlers on Penobscot River by Joseph W. Porter, published 1877 by Sprague, Owen & Nash, Augusta, Maine, 73 pages
History of Penobscot County, Maine, with Illustrations and Biographical Sketches (1617-1882) (edited by Henry A. Ford?) published 1882 by Williams, Chase & Co., Cleveland, Ohio, 922 pages
Military Operations in Eastern Maine and Nova Scotia During the Revolution, chiefly compiled from the journals and letters of Colonel John Allan, with notes and a memoir of Col. John Allan by Frederic Kidder, 336 pages,
published 1867 by Joel Munsell, Albany, New York;
reprinted 1971 by Kraus Reprint Co., Millwood, New York;
reprinted 1997 ISBN 0832854581, 336 pages, by Higginson Book Company
Sketch of Col. John Allan of Maine, by George H. Allan, New England Historical and Genealogical Register, July 1876, pages 353-359
Narrative of Col. John Allan, edited by Peter E. Vose, New England Historical and Genealogical Register, July 1858, pages 254-257
The Neutral Yankees of Nova Scotia, A Marginal Colony During The Revolutionary Years by John Bartlet Brebner, 387 pages with fold-out map, published 1937 by Columbia University Press, New York (reprinted 1970 by McClelland and Stewart, Toronto ?)
Machias And the Invasion of Nova Scotia, by Daniel Cobb Harvey (1886-1966), 14-page phamphlet; reprinted from the Annual Report of the Canadian Historical Association, 1932, pages 17-28
Nova Scotia in the Critical Years, 1775-76 by Wilfred Brenton Kerr, The Dalhousie Review, Vol. 12, 1932
The Maritime Provinces of British North America and the American Revolution by Wilfred Brenton Kerr, published 1941 by Busy East Press, Sackville, N.B.; reprinted 1970 by Russell & Russell Inc., New York (a division of Atheneum House Inc.) 172 pages
The American Invasion of Nova Scotia, 1776-77 by Wilfred Brenton Kerr, Canadian Defense Quarterly, July 1936, pages 433-445
Bermuda and the American Revolution: 1760-1783 by Wilfred Brenton Kerr, published 1936 by Princeton University Press, New Jersey, 142 pages; reprinted 1969 by Archon Books
The American Revolution and Nova Scotia Reconsidered by George A. Rawlyk, Dalhousie Review, Autumn 1963, pages 379-394
Revolution Rejected, 1775-1776 George A. Rawlyk editor, published 1968 by Prentice-Hall of Canada, Scarborough, Ontario
Nova Scotia's Massachusetts: a study of Massachusetts - Nova Scotia relations, 1630 to 1784 by George A. Rawlyk, 298 pages, ISBN 0773501428, published 1973 by McGill University Press, Montreal, and Queen's University Press, London, Ontario
A People Highly Favoured of God: the Nova Scotia Yankees and the American Revolution by Gordon Stewart and George Rawlyk, 219 pages, ISBN 770508669, published 1972 by Macmillan, Toronto
New Ireland: Loyalists in Eastern Maine During the American Revolution, by Robert Wesley Sloan, Ph.D. Dissertation, Michigan State University, 1971
New England Rubicon: A Study of Eastern Maine During the American Revolution, by John Howard Ahlin, Ph.D. Dissertation, Boston University, 1962
The Forts of Chignecto: A Study of the Eighteenth Century Conflict Between France and Great Britain in Acadia by John Clarence Webster, 196 pages, 400 copies published 1930 by the author, Shediac, N.B.; now (2002) available as a print-to-order reprint
History in a Government House: a Study of Those Who Administered the Government of Acadia and That of Nova Scotia Until 1784 — Read Before the Nova Scotia Historical Society 1 April 1926 by John Clarence Webster, 16 pages, published 1926 by the author, Shediac, N.B.
Canada and the American Revolution: The Disruption of the First British Empire by George M. Wrong, 511 pages, published 1935 by Macmillan, New York; reprinted 1968 ISBN 0815402619 by Cooper Square Publishers; reprinted ISBN 0781248752 by Reprint Services Corporation
Privateering and Piracy: The Effects of New England Raiding Upon Nova Scotia During the American Revolution, 1775-1783, by John Dewar Faibisy, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Massachusetts, 1972
Acadia in the Revolution, by George J. Varney, Magazine of American History, July 1882, pages 486-495
Nova Scotia and New England During the Revolution, by Emily P. Weaver, American Historical Review, October 1904, pages 52-71
A history of Tatamagouche, Nova Scotia by Frank H. Patterson, 143 pages, published 1917 by Royal Print & Litho, Halifax; reprinted 1973 by Mika Publishing Co., Belleville, Ontario
Acadia: The Geography of Early Nova Scotia to 1760 by Andrew Hill Clark, 470 pages with maps, published 1968 by University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, Wisconsin; reprints available in 2002 ISBN 0835760006 from Books On Demand
Journal of Abijah Willard by Abijah Willard, edited by John Clarence Webster, 75 pages, New Brunswick Historical Society, [1930?], Saint John, N.B. [Abijah Willard was an officer in the expedition which captured Fort Beausejour in 1755. Abijah Willard, Esq., was named in the Banishment Act of the State of Massachusetts, September 1778.]
Allan, John, farmer, merchant; born 3 January 1746 at Edinburgh Castle, Scotland; son of William and Isabelle (Maxwell) Allan; married 10 October 1767 to Mary, daughter of Mark Patton; elected Member of the Nova Scotia Legislative Assembly for Cumberland Township in by-election, took seat 30 October 1775; seat declared vacant 28 June 1776 for non-attendance; served as clerk of the Sessions; Justice of the Peace, sheriff, clerk of the Supreme Court; later became a soldier in the American Revolutionary Army. As a participant in the Eddy Rebellion he fled from Cumberland County in August 1776 for political reasons; died 7 February 1805, in Maine.
Colonel John Allan kept the area from the St. Croix River
One Hundred and Twentieth Maine Legislature
First Regular Session
New Brunswick Historical Tidbits by Mitch Biggar
On May 29th, 1776, John Allan learned that the HMS Vulture had returned to Annapolis, Nova Scotia. So on May 30th Allan set out from Machias, Maine, with a party of forty-three men. Allan was joined by thirteen canoes of men at Musquash Cove... When the authorities in Halifax heard of this they sent the warship HMS Mermaid and the sloops HMS Hope and a detachment of soldiers to repel the American force...
April 21st, 1785The petition of John Allan, Supt. of Indian Affairs, Eastern Department, praying compensation for services and expences, was referred to the Board of Treasury to report. [Note: The Board reported June 7, 1785. The petition, dated April 20, 1785, is in No. 42, I, folio 79.]
Source: Journal of the Continental Congress, 1774-1789
Historical Collections for the U.S. National Digital Library
June 6th, 1785Board of Treasury, June 6th 1785.
The Board of Treasury to whom was referred the petition of John Allan Esq. late Superintendant of Indian affairs for the eastern department, Report.
That in the opinion of the Board, the Commission held by John Allan Esq. late Superintendant of Indian affairs for the eastern department, under the authority of Congress, can only be considered as a civil commission, and therefore that his claim for the emoluments granted to officers in the military line of the United States cannot be admitted.
With respect to the claims made by the Petitioner for his wages as Superintendant of Indian affairs from the 3d of June, 1783, till his dismission, and that the sum due on the certificate granted to him under the administration of the late Superintendant of finance, on the 4th June, 1783, should be discharged. The Board considering the pretensions of Mr Allan, as founded on the same basis with other civil officers of the United States submit to the consideration of Congress the following Resolve,
That the sum of eight hundred and seventy dollars 45/90 be paid to John Allan late Superintendant of Indian affairs June 13, passed for the Eastern department being the amount of his salary from the 3d June, 1783, till the 1st May, 1784, the time he received intelligence of his dismission from service.
That the Registers certificate given to John Allan Postponed 13 June; 17 June assigned the 4th. June, 1783, for three thousand four hundred and ninety four dollars being the balance due him for past services to that period be paid and cancelled out of the requisition for the year 1784.
[Note: This report is in the Papers of the Continental Congress, No. 138, 1, folio 75. Allan's petition is in No. 42, I, folio 79.]
Source: Journal of the Continental Congress, 1774-1789
Historical Collections for the U.S. National Digital Library
Continental Congress Pays John Allan
The American Revolution
Proclamation of Rebellion, by King George III 23 August 1775
Pictou During the American Revolution
Whereas, during the present unjust and cruel war, waged by the King of Great Britain, against this State and the other United States of America, divers persons holding or claiming property within this state, have voluntarily been adherent to the said King, his fleets and armies, enemies to this State and the said other United States, with intent to subvert the government and liberties of this state and the said other United States, and to bring the same into subjection to the crown of Great Britain; by reason whereof, the said persons have severally justly forfeited all rights to the protection of this state...
( Mercy Otis Warren was the wife of James Warren, speaker of the Massachusetts House of Representatives)
War of 1812
To Great Britain the War of 1812 was simply a burdensome adjunct|
of its greater struggle against Napoleonic France.
To the Canadians it was clearly a case of naked American aggression.
But to the Americans it was neither simple nor clear.
The United States entered the war with confused objectives...
Chapter 6: The War of 1812 American Military History, Army Historical Series
Office of the Chief of Military History, United States Army
Index: Naval History of Great Britain by William James
War of 1812: Naval Actions
compiled by William James from contemporary accounts
The information below was compiled
by William James
from contemporary accounts
|USS Constitution||HMS Guerriere||19 August 1812|
|USS Wasp||HMS Frolic||18 September 1812|
|USS United-States||HMS Macedonian||25 October 1812|
|USS Constitution||HMS Java||28 December 1812|
|USS Hornet||HMS Peacock||24 February 1813|
|USS Chesapeake||HMS Shannon||1 June 1813|
|USS Argus||HMS Pelican||14 August 1813|
|USS Enterprise||HMS Boxer||5 September 1813|
|USS Essex||HMS Phoebe||28 March 1814|
|USS Frolic||HMS Orpheus||20 April 1814|
|USS Peacock||HMS Epervier||29 April 1814|
|USS Wasp||HMS Reindeer||28 June 1814|
|USS Wasp||HMS Avon||1 September 1814|
|USS President||HMS Endymion||15 January 1815|
|USS Constitution||HMS Levant & Cyane||20 February 1815|
|USS Hornet||HMS Penguin||23 March 1815|
|USS Peacock||HEICS Nautilus||30 June 1815|
Honourable East India Company
HMS: His Majesty's Ship
USS: United States Ship
|Decatur||HMS Dominica||5 August 1813|
|Prince of Neufchatel||HMS Leander||28 December 1814|
|Chasseur||HMS St. Lawrence||26 February 1815|
The Wayback Machine has archived copies of this document:
Archived: 2000 September 29
Archived: 2001 April 26
Archived: 2003 April 28
Note by ICS: This is found in Pierre Berton's two-volume History of the War of 1812. In the entire two volumes, this is the only mention of Halifax or Nova Scotia, or of any of the events that occurred on the North Atlantic Ocean during 1812-1814. This single sentence is found in Berton's description of a minor encounter on the border between Quebec and New York state — someone in Quebec making a jocular passing reference. I have great respect for Pierre Berton; he is a marvellous story-teller who has done more than anyone else to make Canadians more aware of their own history, but in his History of the War of 1812 he completely overlooked that part of the war that occurred on the east coast. There is no mention of the capture of Bangor, or Castine, or any other event in Maine. One could ask: just how successful would the defenders of Canada West and Canada East have been without the supplies and reinforcements sent from Britain across the Atlantic during 1812-1814? The United States government was fully aware of the importance of this transatlantic supply line, and assigned substantial resources to an effort to establish an effective blockade to prevent supply ships from reaching the St. Lawrence River. Without the naval base at Halifax, the American blockade would have far more effective, and crucial supplies and thousands of soldiers would have been prevented from reaching the defenders of Central Canada.
This is found on page 218 of volume two "Flames Across the Border 1813-1814" of Berton's history of the War of 1812. Volume one, "The Invasion of Canada, 1812-1813" contains not a single word about events associated with east coast or the transatlantic supply line during this time.
The high degree of concentration of Canadian doctoral studies [in history] in a few universities gave a disproportionate influence in the discipline to a small group of distinguished scholars from these institutions... Within the Canadian field... more than half of all the doctoral theses in progress in 1967 were directed by eight men. Of these, three were at Toronto, two at Laval, two at Western, and one at McGill... Geographically, nearly five out of six candidates were in Toronto, Quebec, Montreal, and London. The remainder were sprinkled in niggardly fashion at Vancouver, Edmonton, and in several tiny programmes, none having as many as five candidates. There appears to have been no effective programme in the Atlantic provinces... (boldface emphasis added)
The Penobscot River (above) was the
western boundary of Nova Scotia, 1763-1783.
Probably the most unusual source of funding for any Canadian college|
was that of Dalhousie University, which was founded in 1818 under the
name of College of Halifax. A large portion of its original endowment came
from customs duties collected at Castine, now in the State of Maine but
then in Massachusetts, while that port was occupied during the War of 1812
by a British force based in Halifax, Nova Scotia.
Nova Scotia Loyalist Pages
Timeline of the Seven Years War 1754-1763
The period 2004-2013 is the 250th anniversary of the
Seven Years War, a.k.a. the French and Indian War.
Includes important events in Nova Scotia.
American Civil War
Confederate Operations in Canada
the Confederate States and the Union Government
Note: The ship Chesapeake involved in this action
is not the Chesapeake that was captured by HMS Shannon in 1813.
The Chesapeake Affair (1863) The Halifax British Colonist, 22 December 1863
The excitement in Halifax on Saturday last exceeded anything witnessed here for some time. It was only during the morning of that day that the fact became generally known that three men had been illegally seized by the officers of the Federal (United States) gunboats in port...
Department of the Navy – Naval Historical Center, Washington Navy Yard, Washington DC
Chesapeake was the wooden steamer Totten, built in Philadelphia in 1853 and first registered there. In 1857, Totten was rebuilt and renamed Chesapeake – owned by a New York shipping company, it was described at that time as schooner-rigged with single funnel... On 7 December 1863, Chesapeake was captured by a group acting in the name of the Confederacy under alleged authority of a second-hand letter of marque issued 27 October to the former captain of a privateer sold as unseaworthy in Nassau some months earlier... On 12 December 1863, Chesapeake coaled (replenished its fuel) at Shelburne, Nova Scotia, shipped four men and was seeking enough fuel to make Wilmington, North Carolina. USS Ella & Annie captured Chesapeake on the morning of the 17th, in Sambro, a small harbor near the entrance to Halifax Harbour, with three crewmen...
Royal William of 1831
Designed for service between Quebec and the Maritime Provinces, Royal William (named for William IV) was built for the Quebec and Halifax Steam Navigation Company, of which Samuel Cunard was a part owner. After a successful first season during which she completed three round trips between Quebec and Halifax, Royal William was quarantined in 1832 because of a cholera epidemic...
Royal William of 1831
Royal William of 1831 There were two early steamers (steam ships) named Royal William. This article is about the first Royal William, built in 1831, which steamed out of Pictou, Nova Scotia, in 1833 to be the first ship to cross the Atlantic under steam all the way. The second Royal William, built in 1837, crossed the Atlantic in 1838...
Royal William stamp
The Blue Riband of the North Atlantic
Titanic was not a Cunard ship.
Titanic was a White Star ship,
two decades before the merger
of White Star with Cunard
Titanic's Mystery Ship
by the Yarmouth County Museum
The Cable Ship Mackay-Bennett was named for the two founders of the
Commercial Cable Company, which was incorporated in New York in 1883.
James Gordon Bennett (1841-1918) (the younger) was the owner
of the New York Herald newspaper, having inherited it from his father
James Gordon Bennett (the elder).
John William Mackay (1831-1902) had made a fortune in mining after
emigrating in 1840 to the United States from Ireland; in 1859 he joined the
rush to Nevada, where silver had been discovered. Mackay and J.G. Fair,
later joined by William Shoney O'Brien and J.C. Flood, acquired control
of valuable silver mines, which yielded them great fortunes.
Bennett and Mackay both used telegrams extensively in their businesses,
and wished to compete with the Anglo-American Company and others, which
at that time had formed a syndicate known as "The Pool", and enjoyed a near
monopoly of transatlantic traffic while being able to keep telegraph rates high
and profits large. The two men agreed to work together to found a new
transatlantic telegraph company in 1883. The Commercial Cable Company
quickly laid two undersea telegraph cables from Europe, landing the North
American ends at Hazel Hill, near Canso, Nova Scotia.
To maintain these cables the company kept a specially-designed cable ship,
the Mackay-Bennett, in Halifax, ready to go to sea at any time on short
notice if a cable failed.
Slaves in Isle Royale (Cape Breton Island) by Kenneth Donovan
Ad in New York newspaper, July 1783
For sale: Negro Man, for Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia Slave AdsRunaway Slave Ad, Nova Scotia
They somehow overlooked identifying this advertisement – published when? where?
That's the kind of basic information one would think that an archive
would be sure to include for a historic document like this.
To Be Sold At Auction 3 November 1760
Former Slaves in Nova Scotia
Between 1783 and 1785, more than 3000 Black persons
Boston KingBoston King
Boston King was one of the many enslaved African Americans – perhaps as many as 100,000 – who risked punishment and even death [in the 1770s] in order to reach the British lines and a chance at freedom... In 1776, British troops under the command of General Billy Howe captured New York City. The city continued to be a British stronghold for the duration of the war, and large numbers of enslaved blacks sought refuge there... Prior to the evacuation of New York, Congress instructed General Washington to obtain American property held by the British, including slaves, as stipulated under the terms of the agreement signed in Paris in November, 1782. Sir Guy Carleton, negotiating on behalf of the British, dismayed the Americans when he expressed an intention to honor the proclamations of freedom issued by previous commanders... After his conversion to Methodism in 1786, Boston King began to preach in Birchtown and Shelburne in Nova Scotia, eventually moving to Preston...
Famine of 1787
...the country was visited with a dreadful famine, which not only prevailed at Burch Town, but likewise at Chebucto, Annapolis, Digby and other places. Many of the poor people were compelled to sell their best gowns for five pounds of flour, in order to support life. When they had parted with all their clothes, even to their blankets, several of them fell down dead in the streets, thro' hunger. Some killed and eat their dogs and cats, and poverty and distress prevailed on every side...
— Boston King
Memoirs of Boston King Methodist Magazine, March 1798
Memoirs of Boston King: The complete text Methodist Magazine, March 1798
Legal Racial Discrimination
History of How Blacks Came to Nova Scotia
Mississippi State University /msstate.edu/
Sailing Alone Around the World Captain Joshua Slocum's book (online site #1)
RailwaysThe saga of the Samson, Canada's Oldest Locomotive
Pictures of the Samson
Excellent maps showing the railway travelled by the Samson
Nova Scotia Railway Heritage Society NSRHS website startup: 10 February 2003
Historical Nova Scotian Railway Photographs Canadian National Railway stations
Historical Nova Scotian Railway Photographs Dominion Atlantic Railway stations
History of Railway Companies in Nova Scotia
This website was launched at a ceremony in Halifax on 6 October 1999. Senator Willie Moore was there, representing the federal Department of Industry. The provincial Department of Education was represented by Michael Jeffery, Director of Learning Resources and Technology. Both departments supported the development of this website.
[The Halifax Daily News, 7 October 1999]
History of Silver's Garage
Medical History Museum of Nova Scotia
Books about Kings County, Nova Scotia
West Hants Historical Society: Books for Sale
The oldest newspaper in Canada began publication in 1752 in Halifax, Nova Scotia, as the Halifax Gazette. The first issue is dated March 23rd, 1752. In 1766, the name was changed to the Nova Scotia Gazette. Today it continues regular publication as the Royal Gazette.
The Tiny Tattler, "Canada's Smallest Newspaper", 1933-1943
The Inverness Oran
The Weymouth Bridge
The Bedford-Sackville Weekly News
The Halifax Daily News
William Cottnam Tonge
died 6 Aug 1832 at Georgetown, Demerara [Guyana]
William Cottnam Tonge Winckworth Tonge married Martha Grace Cottnam. Four sons were born to them. Their first born was William Cottnam Tonge...
Are There Islands On The Marsh? by Bill Hamilton
...William Cottnam Tonge (1764-1832), son of Winckworth Tonge (1727-1792), followed his father's footsteps in Nova Scotian politics and is regarded as the forerunner of Joseph Howe. For more than a decade the younger Tonge was the "unofficial" leader of the opposition and a "thorn" in the side of the governing establishment...
Tantramar Flashback column, Sackville Tribune-Post, 1 March 2000
Tonge - Smith House (North Street, Chester, Nova Scotia) by C.L. (Chipman Lyman) Smith, Public Archives of Nova Scotia, MG 100 Vol 239 #13
Naval Office Shipping Lists for Nova Scotia (1730-1820) three microfilm reels
Special Collections Division, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri —
The Navigation Acts of 1698 provided for the collection of detailed information regarding every vessel entering and clearing British ports. The principal ports of Nova Scotia were Halifax, Sydney and Arichat — and Benjamin Green, Winckworth Tonge and William Cottnam Tonge were the principal naval officers whose records are filmed. The lists include date of entry, name of ship, home port, when the ship was built and registered, the name of the master, the name of the owner, measured tonnage, number of guns, size of crew and details of the cargo carried including the names of passengers and the number of slaves or indentured servants. The guide to the collection provides tabulations that establishes the relative importance of different regions as suppliers to Nova Scotia and compares Halifax and Boston shipping.
History of Riverton
Nova Scotia Separatists (1867)Nova Scotia Separatists (1867) by Lloyd Duhaime
In Nova Scotia in 1867 there was a strong feeling that the province should get out of Confederation. The provincial general election of 1867 had swept the government of pro-confederate Premier Charles Tupper out of office. Anti-confederate not only won 35 of 38 seats in the provincial assembly, but also 18 of 19 Nova Scotia ridings in the federal election...
History of Oxford School
Sunrise in Economy happened at 6:13am
My estimate is that at sunrise, sun was approx 40% eclipsed
This picture was taken at 6:19am looking toward Bass River, with Kodak 100asa film, a shutter speed of 1/125 sec, and fstop of f11
Max was around 6:33am at around 90%
Eclipse ended at 7:32am at this location.
History of McNabs Island
by Brian Kinsman
but the Wayback Machine has archived copies of:
History of Georges Island in Halifax Harbour
King's Head Lighthouse
Pictou County: 45°39'N 62°29'W
His Majesty King George III promised:
Royal Proclamation of 1763
1776 Watertown Treaty: Text
...That each party to this Treaty shall and will consider the enemies of the other as enemies to themselves, and do hereby solemnly promise and engage to, and with each other, that when called upon for that purpose, they shall, and will to the utmost of their abilities, aid and assist each other against their public enemies; and particularly, that the people of the said Tribe of lndians shall and will afford, and give to the people of the said State of Massachusetts Bay and the people of the other United States of America during their present war with the king of Britain, all the aid and assistance within their power. And that they the people of said Tribes of Indians shall not, and will not directly or indirectly give any aid, or assistance to the troops or subjects of the said King of Great Britain, or others adhering to him or hold any correspondence or carry on any commerce with them during the present war...
1776 Watertown Treaty Re-Enacted June 1987
Micmac Indian Nation and state officials on June 24, 1987 re-enacted the signing of the 1776 Treaty of Watertown, which made them the first ally with the newly formed United States...
The Paris Peace Treaty September 1783
PRE-CONFEDERATION: Peace and Friendship Treaties
Facing Canada's Darkest Hours
by Tom Brodbeck, Winnipeg Sun, 12 June 2005
...the explicit Government of Canada policy at the time to abolish aboriginal culture, language, political structure – everything. I find most people today are still unaware of the federal government's official policy of extinguishing aboriginal culture and language. They may have heard some aspects of it. But most of them have no idea that it was official government policy... Trouble is, we gloss over this stuff in Canada – at best. At worst, we try to conceal it. We don't teach it to our children in public schools. We teach them Canadian history and some aspect of aboriginal history. But we don't get into the finer points of how our federal government committed attempted cultural genocide... After all the commissions and studies and reviews, we're still sweeping this dark period of history under the carpet...
Time to Stop Honouring Monsters of the Past
...there be granted to be paid out of the public treasury to any company, party or person... who shall voluntarily, and at their own cost... go out and kill a male Indian of the age of 12 or upwards... for as long as the war shall continue... and produce his scalp in evidence of his death, the sum of £100 in bills of credit of this Province of New England; and £105 for any male... who shall be taken captive;... and... £50... for women, and for children under the age of 12... killed... and £55...(for those) taken prisoner, together with plunder... A party of Gorham's rangers one day brought in 25 scalps, claiming the bounty of £10 per scalp. It was strongly suspected that not all of the scalps were those of Indians, but included some Acadians too. The paymaster protested the payment, but was ordered to pay £250 anyway...
The Chijekwtook River – Why Not? by Ed Coleman, 24 September 2004
...The Mi'kmaq name for the Cornwallis River (in Kings County, Nova Scotia), which Dr. Watson Kirkconnell says was Chijekwtook, meaning deep, narrow river...
Edward Cornwallis – The Evidence Against Him by Ed Coleman, 1 October 2004
...Cornwallis issued a proclamation on October 2, 1749, authorizing and commanding "all Officers Civil and Military, and all His Majesty's Subjects or others to annoy, distress, take or destroy the Savage commonly called Micmac, wherever they are found, and all as such as aiding and assisting them, give further by and with the consent and advice of His Majesty's Council, do promise a reward of ten Guineas for every Indian Micmac taken or killed, to be paid upon producing such Savage taken or his scalp if killed to the Officer Commanding at Halifax, Annapolis Royal, or Minas."
Edward Cornwallis – The Evidence Against Him
Gorham of Gorham's Rangers – Some Glimpses by Ed Coleman, 5 November 2004
Does anyone recall the controversy that arose six years ago when a proposal was made to name a road between Bedford and Sackville the Capt. John Gorham Boulevard?...
The John Gorham Controversy
A collection of 45 "clippings" about the John Gorham Boulevard controversy from Nova Scotia newspapers, January - February, 1998...
Time to end 250 years of sorrow for Mi'kmaq
...On October 1, 1749, Governor Edward Cornwallis met with his Council aboard HMS Beaufort, a British warship anchored in Chebucto Harbour, Halifax, to set strategy to conduct their war with the Mi'kmaq Nation. Among those council members present were a future governor, Charles Lawrence (Acadian Expulsion), and Captain John Gorham (bounty hunter). The plan adopted by the council was to mount an attempt to exterminate the Mi'kmaq. Thus, bounty hunters and anyone else interested in making extra money were offered £10 per Mi'kmaq scalp. The bounty was increased by council on June 21, 1750, to £50. Contemporary records indicate that the hunt was bountiful and that possibly thousands of Mi'kmaqs were killed before the bounty was revoked by Cornwallis on July 17, 1752...
Treaty Denial 1779-1982 by Simon Osmond
Confronting Canada's Colonial Legacy
...Colonialism depends on a constructed, instrumental racism for its moral legitimation. Incommensurability between colonizer and colonized is invoked to demonstrate the superior nature of the colonizer and the inevitability of the new order... Justifications are created: the "natives" are lazy, simple, wild, inept, lascivious or immoral... They are the repository of vice and fault, contrasted with the rectitude and competence of colonial society... The denial of Canada's origins in colonial enterprises prevents scholars and legislators from grappling with the consequences of that initial relationship. This denial takes the form of legal acrobatics by the judiciary to deny treaty status to "Indian" treaties... to deny sovereignty in historically sovereign Aboriginal nations, and so to deny contemporary Aboriginal claims... Settled colonies were regarded as extensions of Britain in the sense that British subjects took their rights under the common law with them when they moved to the colonies... The inhabitants of conquered colonies, on the other hand, had no such rights...
Historians and Indians
Until quite recently, the concept of race has run through all histories of North American Indians. Invariably, scholars have portrayed Indians as inherently inferior to Europeans. This perceived inferiority is sometimes ascribed to divine predestination, sometimes to a lack of the capacity to learn the arts of civilization, sometimes to an inability to live in the presence of civilized Europeans... Throughout this conceptual change, the idea persisted that Indians were savage creatures of the wilderness, in contrast and antagonism to the "civil" society of Europeans... One can trace the abolition of Indian humanity back to Captain John Smith and the Reverend Samuel Purchas, whose seventeenth-century propaganda in behalf of the Virginia Company has been enormously influential among historians. Smith denounced the Chesapeake Powhatans as "cruel beasts" with "a more unnaturall brutishness than beasts." His comparison with predatory animals remains to the present day a favorite device to dehumanize Indians... One can also trace these concepts to Massachusetts's colonial governor John Winthrop, Sr... Winthrop believed that divine providence must be presented "according to truth with due weight," and he achieved due weight by omission of sources reflecting Indian understandings... Lewis Henry Morgan, often called the founder of American anthropology, thought that Indians were so passionately devoted to "the hunter life" that "the red race has never risen, or can rise above its present level." Nature had created Europeans as "the highest type of mankind," which has "proved its intrinsic superiority by gradually assuming the control of the earth..."
Convention Concerning Indigenous and Tribal Peoples in Independent Countries
27 June 1989, Adopted by the General Conference
Article 3 §1. Indigenous and tribal peoples shall enjoy the full measure of human rights and fundamental freedoms without hindrance or discrimination...
Draft Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples via University of Saskatchewan
Article 1. Indigenous peoples have the right to the full and effective enjoyment of all of the human rights and fundamental freedoms which are recognized in the Charter of the United Nations and in the human rights law...
Universal Declaration of Human Rights United Nations General Assembly, December 1948
Article 1: All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood...
Who Has Treaty Rights?
...Aboriginal Rights were not lost through "conquest" in the Maritimes, and no treaties specifically ceded lands to the Crown. The wording of some treaties, however, recognized "settlements already made or lawfully to be made" and this seems to indicate that lands actually occupied by settlers were understood by the Indians to have been ceded. All other lands were to be acquired "lawfully" from the Indians. The only settlements "already made" at the time of the Proclamation of 1763 were Annapolis Royal, Canso, and Halifax...
Confederated Native Court Judgement and Reasons 1997
...In the Anglo-American legal tradition which applies in North America, in 1215 Magna Carta settled that no person is above the law, not even the king, and therefore none other. Judges are "persons" for this purpose. And just because theirs is the function of interpreting the law, judges are not placed above the law. They can not change the law simply by making it conform to their sentimental inclinations... The said Indians...are by no means to be deprived of their liberty or the possession of their property...; and that they may and should, freely and legitimately, enjoy their liberty and possession of their property...
The Battle for Aboriginal Treaty Rights CBC
It's a battle over the land and its resources. The fight has taken place on the land, in the courts and in the media. When government and native groups signed treaty agreements over a century ago, neither side imagined the repercussions. Canada's native people say treaties have been ignored...
The Struggle for Aboriginal Rights and Rule of Law Toronto, 1999
The Extension of the Common Law to Settled, Ceded and Conquered Territories, and the Survival of Indigenous Laws...
Law in History Australia and New Zealand Law and History Society Conference
The University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand, 6th-8th July 2001 —
In classical international law, there were fives modes of acquisition of territory. These were:
Mustard Gas in the Bras d'Or Lakes
List of Nova Scotia First Nation Communities The registered Indian population of Nova Scotia was 10,599 as of December 31, 1995...
Court Decisions, Indians in Nova ScotiaRex v. Heisler
Indian Lands – Gold River Reserve in Lunenburg County
Nova Scotia Supreme Court, 27 August 1913
Re Indian Reserve, City of Sydney, N.S.
"...the undersigned has the honour to report he finds it expedient, having regard to the interest of the public and of the Indians located on the small Sydney Reserve, that the said Indians should be removed... to another place outside the limits of the city of Sydney... They would be there away from the liquor shops and the undesirable foreigners settled at the Coke Ovens, where they often get liquor – always a source of trouble to them..."
Exchequer Court of Canada,16 March 1916
R. v. Syliboy
Indians – Cape Breton – Treaty of 1752 – Scope and effect
The Treaty of 1752 made between Governor Hopson and certain of the Mick Mack Indians of Nova Scotia, was not in reality a treaty... The Indians' rights of sovereignty, even of ownership, were never recognized. Nova Scotia had passed to Great Britain not by gift or purchase from or even by conquest of the Indians but by treaty with France, which had acquired it by priority of discovery and ancient possession; and the Indians passed with it...
Nova Scotia County Court, 10 September 1928
Afton Band of Indians v. Attorney General of Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia Supreme Court Trial Division, 22 February 1978
Municipal Government in Nova Scotia
Astonishingly, this history does not name the 45 towns|
or the 22 villages which have formed such an important
part of local government in Nova Scotia.
History of County Boundaries in Nova Scotia
The County Incorporation Act of 1879
The Establishment of Elective Rural Municipal Government
in Nova Scotia
Astonishingly, this history does not|
name the 24 rural municipalities.
|Rural Municipalities||Date of
|Municipality of Annapolis County||1879 Apr 17|
|Municipality of Antigonish County||1879 Apr 17|
|Municipality of the District of Argyle
(southeastern part of Yarmouth County)
|1879 Apr 17|
|Municipality of the District of Barrington
(western part of Shelburne County)
|1879 Apr 17|
|Municipality of Cape Breton County||1879 Apr 17||1995 Aug 1|
|Municipality of the District of Chester
(eastern part of Lunenburg County)
|1879 Apr 17|
|Municipality of the District of Clare
(western part of Digby County)
|1879 Apr 17|
|Municipality of Colchester County||1879 Apr 17|
|Municipality of Cumberland County||1879 Apr 17|
|Municipality of the District of Digby
(eastern part of Digby County)
|1879 Apr 17|
|Municipality of the District of Guysborough||1879 Apr 17|
|Municipality of Halifax County||1879 Apr 17||1996 Apr 1|
|Municipality of the District of Hants East
(eastern part of Hants County)
|1879 Apr 17|
|Municipality of the District of Hants West
(western part of Hants County)
|1879 Apr 17|
|Municipality of Inverness County||1879 Apr 17|
|Municipality of Kings County||1879 Apr 17|
|Municipality of the District of Lunenburg
(western part of Lunenburg County)
|1879 Apr 17|
|Municipality of Pictou County||1879 Apr 17|
|Municipality of Queens County||1879 Apr 17||1996 Apr 1|
|Municipality of Richmond County||1879 Apr 17|
|Municipality of the District of Shelburne
(eastern part of Shelburne County)
|1879 Apr 17|
|Municipality of the District of St. Mary's||1879 Apr 17|
|Municipality of Victoria County||1879 Apr 17|
|Municipality of the District of Yarmouth
(northwestern part of Yarmouth County)
|1879 Apr 17|
Note: The above are the 24 rural municipalities established by
the County Incorporation Act of 1879.
|Regional Municipalities||Date of
|Cape Breton Regional Municipality||1995 Aug 1|
|Halifax Regional Municipality||1996 Apr 1|
|Region of Queens Municipality||1996 Apr 1|
|Town of Amherst||1889 Dec 18|
|Town of Annapolis Royal||1892 Nov 29|
|Town of Antigonish||1889 Jan 9|
|Town of Bedford||1980||1996 Apr 1|
|Town of Berwick||1923 May 25|
|Town of Bridgetown||1897 Sep 15|
|Town of Bridgewater||1899 Feb 13|
|Town of Canso||1901 May 14|
|Town of Chester||2002 ?|
|Town of Clark's Harbour||1919 Mar 4|
|Town of Dartmouth||1873 Apr 30||1961 Jun 27|
|Town of Digby||1890 Feb 28|
|Town of Dominion||1906||1995 Aug 1|
|Town of Glace Bay||1995 Aug 1|
|Town of Hantsport||1895 Apr 1|
|Town of Inverness|
|Town of Kentville||1886 May 1|
|Town of Liverpool|
|Town of Lockeport||1907 Feb 26|
|Town of Louisbourg||1995 Aug 1|
|Town of Lunenburg||1888 Oct 29|
|Town of Mahone Bay||1919 Mar 31|
|Town of Middleton||1909 May 31|
|Town of Mulgrave||1923 Dec 1|
|Town of New Glasgow||1875 May 6|
|Town of New Waterford||1995 Aug 1|
|Town of North Sydney||1885 Apr 24||1995 Aug 1|
|Town of Oxford||1904 Apr 19|
|Town of Parrsboro||1889 Jul 15|
|Town of Pictou||1874 May 4|
|Town of Port Hawkesbury||1889 Jan 22|
|Town of Shelburne||1907 Apr 4|
|Town of Springhill||1889 Mar 30|
|Town of Stellarton||1889 Oct 22|
|Town of Stewiacke||1906 Aug 30|
|Town of Sydney Mines||1995 Aug 1|
|Town of Trenton||1911 Mar 18|
|Town of Truro||1875 May 6|
|Town of Westville||1894 Aug 20|
|Town of Windsor||1878 Apr 4|
|Town of Wolfville||1893 Mar 4|
|Town of Yarmouth||1890 Aug 6|
Note: The above are 40 of the 45 towns that have existed in Nova Scotia.
|Village of Aylesford|
|Village of Baddeck|
|Village of Bible Hill||1946|
|Village of Brooklyn|
|Village of Canning|
|Village of Chester|
|Village of Cornwallis Square|
|Village of Greenwood|
|Village of Kingston|
|Village of Lawrencetown|
|Village of New Minas||1968 Sep 1|
|Village of Port Williams|
|Village of Pugwash|
|Village of River Hebert|
|Village of St. Peter's|
|Village of Sherbrooke|
|Village of Tatamagouche|
|Village of Wallace|
Note: The above are 18 of the villages that exist in Nova Scotia.
History of Nova Scotia Planning Acts Prior to 1969
May 8, 1899 Barquentine Addie Morrill 595 tons hailing from Boston. Captain King, from New York bound to Bridgewater to load lumber for Buenos Ayres. Anchored off Getsons Cove. Pilotage 7 dollars.Yarmouth, Nova Scotia History Through Photos
Old Photographs, Cape Forchu, Markland — Yarmouth
Argyle Township, Old Photographs
Provided By Argyle Township Court House & Archives
Old Photographs, Yarmouth Streets
Canadian NavyHMCS Sackville — the Canadian Naval Memorial Trust
Monthly Chronology of Canadian Naval History
Canadian Navy of Yesterday and Today information about the ships and aircraft of Canada's navy, from its inception in 1910 until present day...
Canadian Navy Photo Archive 1
Canadian Navy Photo Archive 2
Canadian Naval Aviation Photo Archive
Ships of the RCN, 1910 - 1965
World War Two Canadian Ship Listing, 1931-1945
Postwar Canadian Ship Listing, 1945 - Present This list attempts to give an accurate and in-depth look at the ships that served with the postwar Canadian Navy. Designations are based on Canadian Navy Official designations...
Seasoned SailorsSeasoned Sailors is an ongoing production of a series of short historical videos, each running less than an hour and focussing on one or another of Canada's gallant band of World War Two naval heroes... Doug Fisher, national journalist: "To a country and people short on appealing stories of our naval past, the series Seasoned Sailors is a blessing... the RCN's Debbie Piers – a natural story teller. Listen to him, watch him and the magnitude of what our small ship men did for us comes rolling over you."
A Starshell Video Review – Seasoned Sailors: Dick Leir
Guest of the Emperor...
SubmarinesSubmarines of the RCN The RCN's involvement with subs originated on the eve of World War One, when the Premier of British Columbia purchased two submarines. They were built in Seattle, and intended for the Chilean Navy, but were sold to British Columbia when Chili defaulted...
Uboats in the Royal Canadian Navy At the end of the Second World War, a couple of German U-boats surrendered to the Royal Canadian Navy. U190 and U889 surrendered on May 12th and 13th, 1945, respectively. These large IXC/40 type submarines were commissioned into the RCN, and were used for testing and evaluation...
U-Boats After World War Two
U-190 surrendered at Halifax, U-889 surrendered at Shelburne...
They were known as unterseebootes, or U-boats...
Submarine Association of Canada (Eastern Branch)
SAOC (Eastern Branch) — formerly Submarine Old Comrades Association
Radio in the Canadian NavyRadio Communications in the RCN by Jerry Proc
A remarkably detailed and informative description of radio communications in the Canadian Navy in the 1940s - 1960s.
Naval Radio Station Albro Lake Dartmouth, Nova Scotia
Receiving site at Albro Lake and a transmitter site at Newport Corner
Canadian Forces Station Mill Cove Lunenburg County, Nova Scotia
Broadcast RadioHistory of CBA Radio Sackville, New Brunswick [CBA Atlantic]
CBC 50kW transmitter serving all three Maritime Provinces
History of CKDH Radio Amherst
History of CFTA Radio Amherst
History of CICR Radio Parrsboro
Broadcasting Notice of Consultation CRTC 2009-158, 25 March 2009
Application by Parrsboro Radio Society to amend the licence... 99.1 MHz...
Broadcasting Decision CRTC 2009-631, 7 October 2009
Denial of application...
History of CKCL-FM › CKCL-AM › CKCL-FM › CKTO-FM Truro
CKCL-AM began operation in 1947; it left the air forever on 12 May 2001.
History of CKCL-AM › CKTY-AM › CKTY-FM Truro
History of CKEC Radio New Glasgow [CKEC East Coast]
Broadcasting Decision CRTC 2006-87, 24 March 2006
Approval of conversion from AM to FM... 94.1 MHz... 36,680 watts...
History of CKEZ Radio New Glasgow
Broadcasting Decision CRTC 2012-278, 9 May 2012
The CRTC approves the application for a broadcasting licence... 97.9 MHz... 46,720 watts...
History of CJFX Radio Antigonish [CJFX St. Francis Xavier Univ.]
History of CFXU Radio Antigonish
History of CKBG Radio Middle Musquodoboit
Broadcasting Decision CRTC 2010-125, 2 March 2010
The CRTC approves the application for a broadcasting licence... 107.3 MHz... 50 watts...
Broadcasting Decision CRTC 2012-499, 17 September 2012
Revokation of broadcasting licence for CKBG-FM Middle Musquodoboit, Nova Scotia...
History of CKBW Radio Bridgewater [CKBW BridgeWater]
History of CJHK Radio Bridgewater [CJHK HanK Snow]
CJHK-FM went on the air 26 July 2010 as “Hank FM.”
Acadia Broadcasting Limited launches Hank FM, christens new North Street location
by Patrick Hirtle, Lighthouse Publishing Company, 3 August 2010
listings_and_histories/radio/histories.php%3Fid%3D1366%26historyID%3D1342 History of CJQC Radio Liverpool [CJQC Queens County]
a.k.a. QCCR Radio Liverpool [Queens County Community Radio]
Broadcasting Decision CRTC 2009-580, 15 September 2009
CRTC approval of application for a broadcasting licence... 99.3 MHz, 50 watts...
Official call letters not yet assigned
A radio station for Queens County?
Queens County Advance, 11 February 2008
A Radio Station For Queens County
Queens County Community Radio
History of CFAB Radio Windsor [CFAB Avard Bishop]
History of CKEN Radio Kentville [CKEN KENtville]
History of CKWM Radio Kentville
History of CIJK Radio Kentville
Broadcasting Decision CRTC 2007-221, 6 July 2007
Approval of application for a broadcasting licence... 89.3 MHz...
North East Radio Watch, 16 June 2008
There's a new FM signal on the air in eastern Canada; Kentville, Nova Scotia, to be precise.
Newcap's CIJK ("K-Rock 89.3") launched Thursday (12 June 2008) morning at the
frequency-appropriate time of 8:09:30...
History of CKAD Radio Middleton
History of CKDY Radio Digby [CKDY DigbY]
History of CJLS Yarmouth [CJLS Laurie Smith was the original owner]
CJLS-AM began operation on 1 April 1934; it ceased operation in June 2003.
History of CHNS Radio Halifax [CHNS Halifax Nova Scotia]
CHNS radio, full-page advertisement in
The Maritime Merchant, (v47 n26) 29 June 1939
Size of this ad as printed: 17.5cm × 25.4cm
The Maritime Merchant front page banner
volume XLVII (v47 n26), 29 June 1939
History of CHFX Radio Halifax
(CHNS-FM before 9 February 1970)
History of CBH/CBHA (CBC Radio One) Halifax
(CBH-AM Radio One 1944-1989) (CBH-FM Radio One 1978- )
Duplicated service for Radio One (simultanous transmission
in Halifax both on AM and FM) existed from 1 June 1978 to 1 October 1989.
On 1 October 1989, CBH ceased operations on AM 860 kHz.
CBC Radio One was now provided on FM via CBHA at 90.5 MHz.
Public Notice CRTC 1985-86, 2 May 1985
Review of CBC Long Range Radio Plan... Phasing-out of those AM stations
which were replaced with FM facilities and vacating their frequencies...
Decision CRTC 85-752, 11 September 1985
The CRTC expects the CBC to phase out its AM station in Halifax by 1 November 1985...
Decision CRTC 85-962, 11 October 1985
The CRTC renews the broadcasting licence for CBH Halifax
from 1 November 1985 until 31 October 1986...
Decision CRTC 86-709, 6 August 1986
The CRTC strongly urges the CBC to undertake immediately
a close assessment of its radio coverage in Halifax...
History of CBH-FM (CBC Radio Two) Halifax
History of CJCH Radio Halifax [CJCH Chronicle Halifax]
(In 1939, the Chronicle and the Herald were two separate, competing newspapers.)
History of CFDR & CFLT Radio Halifax-Dartmouth
History of CFRQ Radio Halifax-Dartmouth
History of CKDU Radio Halifax [CKDU Dalhousie University]
History of CIEZ Radio Halifax
History of CIOO Radio Halifax
History of CKUL Bedford, HRM
Public Notice CRTC 1989-39, 1 May 1989
The CRTC hereby calls for applications from other parties...
Decision CRTC 90-216, 5 March 1990
Applications by Arthur J. Hustins, Jr. and Finlay MacDonald, both
representing companies to be incorporated, competing for a licence...
History of CJNI Radio Halifax
Broadcasting Decision CRTC 2004-513, 26 November 2004
The CRTC approves the application for a broadcasting licence to operate a
specialty English-language commercial FM radio station in Halifax, Nova Scotia.
The station will operate in a spoken word News/Talk format... 95.7 MHz... 22,100 watts...
History of CKHZ Radio Halifax
The official on air date of this new station at 103.5 MHz was 14 August 2006.
Broadcasting Decision CRTC 2004-514, 26 November 2004
The CRTC approves the application for a broadcasting licence... 103.5 MHz... 78,000 watts...
History of CKHY Radio Halifax
Broadcasting Decision CRTC 2004-515, 26 November 2004
The CRTC approves in part... Easy Listening FM radio station in Halifax...
Broadcasting Decision CRTC 2005-333, 20 July 2005
The CRTC approves the application by Global Communications Limited (Global) to operate
its new English-language FM radio station in Halifax at 105.1 MHz... 32,000 watts...
Broadcasting Notice of Consultation CRTC 2009-158, 25 March 2009
The CRTC has received several applications for a licence to serve Halifax...
Broadcasting Decision CRTC 2009-631, 7 October 2009
The CRTC approves the application of HFX Broadcasting Inc. for a broadcasting licence to operate
an English-language commercial FM radio undertaking in Halifax... 105.1 MHz... 32,000 watts...
History of CFEP Eastern Passage, HRM [Eastern Passage]
History of CHCN-FM Radio 106.9 MHz Cole Harbour, HRM
Cole Harbour Community Radio Society, 9 May 2000
Approval of application for a broadcasting licence
Cole Harbour Community Radio Society, 1 May 2001
Extension of time limit
Cole Harbour Community Radio Society, 2 May 2003
Revocation of licence
History of CIGO Radio Port Hawkesbury [101.5 “The Hawk”]
“The Hawk” was the first Nova Scotia radio station to convert from AM to FM, in April 2000.
Decision CRTC 99-492, 17 November 1999
Approval of conversion from AM to FM
Broadcasting Decision CRTC 2010-691, 17 September 2010
Approval of application to change the authorized contours of the radio station
K-LEE Radio AM 1600 kHz Baddeck
History of CBI-AM (CBC Radio One) Sydney [CBI Cape Breton Island]
Broadcasting Decision CRTC 2007-222, 9 July 2007
CBI Radio One — Approval of conversion from AM to FM
History of CBI-FM (CBC Radio Two) Sydney [CBI Cape Breton Island]
History of CJCB Radio Sydney [Cape Breton]
History of CKPE Radio Sydney
History of CHER Radio Sydney
Broadcasting Decision CRTC 2006-355, 11 August 2006
Approval of conversion from AM to FM
History of CHRK Radio Sydney
Broadcasting Decision CRTC 2007-220, 6 July 2007
Approval of application for a broadcasting licence... 101.9 MHz CHRK-FM...
History of CKCH Radio Sydney
Broadcasting Decision CRTC 2007-220, 6 July 2007
Approval of application for a broadcasting licence... 103.5 MHz CKCH-FM...
CJIJ Radio FM 99.9 MHz Membertou
Public Notice CRTC 2001-70, 15 June 2001
Changes to conditions of licence for certain native radio undertakings
CRTC: CJIJ, New Native FM radio, 27 February 2002
Approval of application for a broadcasting licence
History of CICU Radio Eskasoni
Decision CRTC 93-759, 23 December 1993
Approval of application for a broadcasting licence... 94.1 MHz, one watt...
History of CKJM Radio Cheticamp
CNRH Canadian National Railways Halifax (a "phantom" station)
Canadian National Railways used the CHNS facilities and staff to run Phantom Station CNRH until they closed down their network in 1931...
CNRH "Phantom" radio station CNRH (Canadian National Railway Halifax)
A Phantom Radio Station was one which did not possess any technical facilities and was licensed to broadcast only over an existing physical station. The phantom's licensee's assigned station call was used only during the period of time where the facilities of the physical station were leased. The physical station ostensibly 'signed off' and the call letters of the phantom station were announced and possibly used throughout the period. At the conclusion of the leased time, the phantom 'signed off' and the physical station 'signed on' again... The Phantom stations disappeared in the early 1930s...
Call Letters of Canadian Radio Stations
History of CBHT
The early days of CBC Television in Halifax. Do you remember the days of Don Tremaine, Max Ferguson and Rube Hornstein? They're here, along with Don Messer and Marg Osbourne and Charlie Chamberlain, and a young whippersnapper named Frank Cameron, and others...
History of CBHFT (French television) Halifax
We're into the sales business helping to promote and sell an audio cassette featuring the highlights of sixty years of CBC radio broadcasting in the Maritimes. It features the best audio clips available from the CBC Archives in Halifax. Ern Dick, former national CBC Archivist, started by calling together a group of retired CBC radio programmers to make suggestions for suitable material. Then researchers sifted through the Archives to find the clips.
The radio stations at Glace Bay, Nova Scotia, and Poldhu, England, worked together to carry messages both ways — eastward and westward — across the North Atlantic Ocean. Messages sent from Glace Bay were received at Poldhu, and messages sent from Poldhu were received at Glace Bay. Both stations were connected by land lines (telegraph circuits consisting of wires carried on insulators at the top of wooden poles) to inland points
Timeline of the First Thirty Years of Radio
The 1901 Transatlantic Radio Experiment Marconi in Newfoundland
Fessenden and Marconi: Their Differing Technologies and Transatlantic Experiments During the First Decade of the Twentieth Century
...Marconi kept building larger antenna systems, larger since he was striving for greater transmission distance and improved signal reception, which lowered the operating frequency. At Poldhu the frequency of his station in October 1902 was 272 kHz. His initial station at Table Head, Glace Bay, NS in December 1902 was a massive structure comprising 400 wires suspended from four 61 metre wooden towers, with down leads brought together in an inverted cone at the point of entry into the building. The frequency was 182 kHz. By 1904 his English antenna had become a pyramidal monopole with umbrella wires, and the frequency was 70 kHz. In 1905 his Canadian antenna, moved to Marconi Towers, Glace Bay was a capacitive top-loaded structure, with 200 horizontal radial wires each 305 metres long, at a height of 55 metres, and the frequency was 82 kHz. By late in 1907 he was using a frequency of 45 kHz...
Celebrating the Centenary of the First Transatlantic Wireless Signal 1901-2001
Marconi, Guglielmo, Marchese (1874-1937)
In 1925-26, the advent of the very successful Marconi-Franklin short-wave beam system shook the all powerful cable companies to their core. The new technology, which concentrated the signal in a "beam" instead of scattering it in all directions, was a winner. (Think of a flashlight projecting a beam of light, compared to a candle which spreads light in all directions.)
Cable & Wireless PLC website
In 2000, Cable & Wireless is a major global telecommunications business with revenue of over £9,000,000,000 (US$14,000,000,000) in the twelve months April 1999 to March 2000, and customers in 70 countries. Its operations around the world offer a full range of telecommunications services. Cable & Wireless' focus for future growth is on IP (internet protocol) and data services and solutions for business customers. It is developing advanced IP networks and value-added services in the United States, Europe and the Asia-Pacific region in support of this strategy...
The Cable & Wireless family tree
Names of the most important companies which eventually were merged to form Cable & Wireless
Halifax and Bermudas Telegraph Company
In 1889 the British Government decided to go ahead with the project and link the naval base at Nova Scotia with the British Naval harbour at Hamilton, Bermuda. The Halifax & Bermudas Telegraph Company was established to carry out the work...
The End of the Cable Monopoly
In the early years of the 20th century, telegraph cables had a monopoly on long distance communications. However, the seeds of competition began to emerge in 1907 when the Italian Marchese Guglielmo Marconi established a wireless telegraph service between Clifden in Ireland and Glace Bay in Canada...
The Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company
In 1909, Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Company began operation of his first trans-atlantic radio telegraph service. In 1910 he conceived a plan to link the whole British Empire by radio...
Coal MiningHistory of Coal Mining in Nova Scotia
The Louis Frost Notes, 1685 - 1962. A previously unpublished internal document of the Dominion Coal Company, written c. 1962. A long document, with a lot of details...
A Great Treasure: The Geology and History of Coal in Nova Scotia
by J. H. Calder, K. S. Gillis, R. D. Naylor, and N. Watkins Campbell
A Brief History of Coal Mining in Nova Scotia
Introduction: History of Coal Mining in Nova Scotia by Gary Ellerbrok
Nova Scotia Department of Mines
Annual Report: 1871
Annual Report: 1872
Annual Report: 1873
Nova Scotia Department of Mines, Coal Statistics
Inspector of Mines Report, Coal, 1871
1871: Number of Persons Employed, Number of Horses, Engines, etc. at each Colliery
Coal Produced, January-June 1871 Total raised: 268,441 tons
Coal Produced, July-December 1871 Total raised: 404,901 tons
Coal Companies operating in Cape Breton, 1917
The Coal-Fields and Coal Industry of Eastern Canada
Overview of the Development of Railways on the Sydney Coal Fields, 1720-Present by Robert Chant
History of Mining in Cape Breton
Westray Coal Mine Disaster
Mining in Nova Scotia, Past and Present, by Howard V. Donohoe, Jr.
History of the Mining Society of Nova Scotia
Glossary of Coal Mining Terms by United States Department of Labor
from "Abandoned Areas" to "Yieldable"
Miners MemorialsMiners Memorial Database Gary W. Ellerbrok
Contains the names of 2,275 coal miners who were killed in or about the coal mines of Nova Scotia. The database covers 101 years, from November 1866 to November 1967...
Westray Miners Memorial Park New Glasgow
The Westray Coal Mine exploded on 9 May 1992.
Miners Memorial monument 1891 Westville
To the memory of those who lost their lives in the Drummond Colliery on 13 May 1873.
Coal miners monument Inverness Miners' Museum
Historic Site in memory of the miners who lost their lives in the Inverness Coal Field.
Inverness Miners' Museum located in the old CN railway station on Lower Railway Street
Workers Monument Trenton
Sobeys Industrial Monument Stellarton
Springhill Mining Disasters by the CBC
In the 1950s, the town of Springhill, Nova Scotia, was devastated by two of the worst mining disasters in Canadian history. An explosion in 1956 killed 39 miners, and another 74 died in the "bump" of 1958...
Cape Breton Miners Gallery Cambria Publishing, Calgary, Alberta
Coal Mines of Canada Gallery: Nova Scotia
Mining History Network
Short stories, all true,
Mary Hichen — the Lighthouse Heroine of Seal Island
(Digitally enhanced portion of above.)
Henry A. Pickering Obituary
The Salina Journal, Salina, Kansas, 20 August 1940
The Early Days of Automobiles in Nova Scotia
Guysborough County Historical Society
d'Entremont Millstone found in East Pubnico
History of the Uniacke & District Volunteer Fire Department
Prince Henry Sinclair
2 June 1398
600th AnniversaryOn 2 June 1998, the Nova Scotia Legislature unanimously adopted
RESOLUTION NO. 353
Whereas, according to legend, Prince Henry Sinclair, in 1398, set sail from the Orkney Islands with 12 ships and 300 crew; and
Whereas on June 2, 1398, Prince Henry Sinclair and crew landed in Guysborough; and
Whereas this week, Sinclair Societies and Scottish clans are celebrating the arrival of Prince Henry in the New World;
Therefore be it resolved that this House extend congratulations to the Sinclair Society and wish them every success in their quest to authenticate the arrival of Prince Henry in North America.
Complete Hansard report
This is the earliest event in the history of Nova Scotia that can be dated to a single day (according to legend). The Resolution refers to "Guysborough," located on the west side of the Strait of Canso, which separates the Nova Scotia mainland from Cape Breton Island.
From Jerusalem to Rosslyn? The Templars in Scotland BBC
Where folklore meets history, there is usually some legendary character, whose exploits have inspired stories that have been passed down and reinterpreted by each generation...
Unlocking Rosslyn's secrets Rosslyn Chapel was founded in 1446 by Sir William St. Clair, third and last Prince of Orkney.
Prince Henry Sinclair In 1398 he followed Zeno's map to Newfoundland and Nova Scotia to explore, colonize and claim territory for Queen Margaret of Norway... Nova Scotia was the only place on North America's coast with open pitch deposits described in the Narrative, at Pictou and Stellarton, where Micmacs lived in caves. Sinclair's year of exploration was determined by traditional naming discoveries from religious calendars and Trin Harbor anchorage. They arrived in early June. The only year between 1395 and 1402, the time frame of Sinclair's voyage, when Trinity Sunday fell in early June was 1398...
Cruising Nova Scotia — 600 Years Ago
The first European to reach these shores... may well have been Henry Sinclair, Earl of Orkney. There is reason to speculate that Sinclair visited Nova Scotia in 1398 — 94 years before Columbus' "voyage of discovery"... The late Frederick J. Pohl, who spent 40 years investigating the Sinclair voyage, asserted that sixty days out from Orkney, Earl Henry's vessels dropped anchor in Nova Scotia's Chedabucto Bay outside Guysborough Harbour on June 1, 1398...
Prince Henry Sinclair, The Voyage to the New Jerusalem
What became of the Templar fleet, and those Brothers of the Order that avoided arrest?... Sinclair's base may have included a castle built in Nova Scotia between the headwaters of the Gold and Gaspereaux Rivers. At the mouth of both of these rivers are islands — both named Oak Island and both being the only islands in Nova Scotia with oak trees growing on them...
Henry Sinclair: The Legendary Atlantic Journey
Seeing smoke above a distant hill and thinking it to be a sign of civilisation, Zichmni despatched 100 of his soldiers to investigate. Upon their return, the reconnaissance party informed Zichmni that the smoke was a natural phenomenon, billowing from a fire at the base of a nearby hill. Beneath this hill was a spring from which there flowed a black substance like pitch that ran into the sea... It has been speculated that the location of this smoking hill was at a place now known as Stellarton, approximately 50 miles from Guysborough Harbour...
The Templars, based in southern France, were an order of fighting monk-knights prominent in the Crusades, who amassed great wealth. "To them, the Crusades were largely a matter of loot." Powerful and loyal only to the Pope, the Templars became a threat to European kings. In 1307, the King of France arrested almost all the Templars. A few escaped and have never been heard of since. Some say they went to a far away land now known as Nova Scotia. Oak Island might hold the lost treasure of the Knights Templar, a trove touted as being so fabulous it could contain the Holy Grail. Born in Scotland in about 1345. Henry Sinclair became Earl of Rosslyn and the surrounding lands as well as Prince of Orkney, Duke of Oldenburg (Denmark), and Premier Earl of Norway. In 1398 he led an expedition to explore Nova Scotia and Massachusetts. This was 90 years before Columbus 'discovered America'! Prince Henry Sinclair was the subject of historian Frederick J. Pohl's Atlantic Crossings Before Columbus, which was published in 1961. Not all historians agreed with Pohl, but he made a highly convincing case that this blond, sea-going Scot, born at Rosslyn Castle near Edinburgh in 1345, not only wandered about mainland Nova Scotia in 1398, but also lived among the Micmacs long enough to be remembered through centuries as the man-god 'Glooscap'...
600th Celebration News, published by the Prince Henry Project Committee. The Prince Henry Project is a non-profit organization in the USA, committed to exploration, research, education, and sharing of information of the 14th century transatlantic journeys of Henry Sinclair...
Newsletter: Preparations for the Prince Henry Sinclair Anniversary in 1998
Issue I of the 600th Celebration Newsletter July 1996 (issue 1)
Issue II of the 600th Celebration Newsletter August 1996 (issue 2)
Issue III of the 600th Celebration Newsletter 15 September 1996 (issue 3)
Issue IV of the 600th Celebration Newsletter 15 October 1996 (issue 4)
Issue V of the 600th Celebration Newsletter 15 November 1996 (issue 5)
Issue VI of the 600th Celebration Newsletter 20 December 1996 (issue 6)
Issue VII of the 600th Celebration Newsletter 5 February 1997 (issue 7)
Issue VIII of the 600th Celebration Newsletter 30 March 1997 (issue 8)
Issue IX of the 600th Celebration Newsletter 1 May 1997 (issue 9)
Issue X of the 600th Celebration Newsletter 25 June 1997 (issue 10)
Issue XI of the 600th Celebration Newsletter 12 August 1997 (issue 11)
Issue XII of the 600th Celebration Newsletter 23 August 1997 (issue 12)
Issue XIII of the 600th Celebration Newsletter 25 September 1997 (issue 13
Issue XIV of the 600th Celebration Newsletter 21 October 1997 (issue 14)
Issue XV of the 600th Celebration Newsletter 3 December 1997 (issue 15)
Issue XVI of the 600th Celebration Newsletter January-February 1998 (issue 16)
Issue XVII of the 600th Celebration Newsletter March 1998 (issue 17)
Issue XVIII of the 600th Celebration Newsletter March 1998 (issue 18)
Issue XIX of the 600th Celebration Newsletter May 1998 (issue 19)
Issue XX of the 600th Celebration Newsletter July 1998 (issue 20)
Issue XXI of the 600th Celebration Newsletter August 1998 (issue 21)
Oak Island Treasure
"one of the most bungled treasure hunts in history"
The Oak Island Enigma: A History and Inquiry Into The Origin of The Money Pit A story of treasure on a deserted island. The historical account of Oak Island, Nova Scotia, given here is true — that is, as true as any history of events covering more than 150 years...
Oak Island, Nova Scotia is the site of one of the world's greatest archeological enigmas. For the past 200 years, its deadly secret has lured adventurers and explorers, among them Franklin D. Roosevelt, John Wayne, and even Errol Flynn. Long ago, someone came to this island and buried something. Exactly who they were and what they buried remain unknown to this day. Yet over two million dollars have been spent and six lives lost in the search for an answer...
Treasure Hunters Sniffing Holy Grail There's a sudden revival of interest in the Oak Island mystery and new theories about the fabled money pit that has baffled treasure hunters for more than two centuries. Two new books explore the latest speculation and one is a shocker. It suggests Oak Island might hold the lost treasure of the Knights Templar, a trove touted as so fabulous it could contain the Holy Grail...
The Mystery Pit of Oak Island...At the ten foot level they hit wood. At first they figured they'd hit a treasure chest, but quickly realized that they had found a platform of oaken logs sunk into the sides of the shaft. Pulling up the logs they discovered a half-metre depression and more of the shaft. Continuing to dig, they finally reached a depth of about eight metres. At that depth they decided they could not continue without more help...
What lies at the bottom of the Money Pit? Imagine yourself walking through the trees of a wooded island rumored to hide buried pirate treasure. Suddenly you come across a depression in the ground...
The Inscribed Stones Drawings of the stones with mysterious inscriptions that have been found on Oak Island...
New Light on the Oak Island Mystery — The Lost Treasure of the Knights Templar by Steven Sora. A small island off the fog-shrouded coast of Nova Scotia may conceal the world's greatest treasure, that of the order of the Knights Templar. Missing since the fourteenth century, the treasure of the Templars is reputed to contain massive amounts of gold and silver bullion, the crown jewels of royal European families, religious artifacts sacred to both Judaism and Christianity and documents that may be as explosive now as when they were buried...
Aspects of the Oak Island Mystery by Geoffrey Bath. The dimensions of the Cross were determined by Frederick Nolan and confirmed by William Crooker. It is described as comprising five boulders referred to as Cones (A through E) and a rock at the point of intersection designated the Head Stone...
A Critical Analysis of the Oak Island Legend Oak Island is a small island off the coast of Lunenburg County, Nova Scotia. It is the site of the mysterious "money pit"...
Skeptical Inquirer: The Secrets of Oak Island It has been the focus of "the world's longest and most expensive treasure hunt" and "one of the world's deepest and most costly archaeological digs", as well as being "Canada's best-known mystery"...
Revealed: The Secret of Oak Island
Myths and Stories of the Knights Templar...What became of the Treasure? Let's assume that after escaping from France with the treasure, buying lands in Scotland, supporting Robert the Bruce's successful bid for the kingdom, building and sustaining the St. Clair's and funding a less than successful expedition to the new world, there was actually still treasure remaining. Then, as the unsuccessful colony dies out, instead of sailing back east with the treasure, the American Templars decide to hide it. They build an incredibly complex "Money Pit" on Oak Island in Nova Scotia. They mark the spot using arcane symbolism involving rocks laid out in the form of a cross...
DNR Geologist Interviewed for Documentary on the Oak Island Mystery
Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources (DNR) Minerals and Energy Branch, Minerals Update volume 12, Spring 1997
Oak Island, which lies just off the coast of Nova Scotia near Western Shore, Lunenburg County, has been a target for treasure-hunters since 1795. Excavations at the site have encountered wood, interpreted as barriers of oak logs, as deep as 30m below surface. When local film producer Andrew Cochran needed an authoritative source for his upcoming documentary on the Oak Island mystery, he came to the Department's office at Founders Square in Halifax, complete with film crew, to interview Ralph about the morphology and origin of glacial deposits... Ralph Stea has studied the Quaternary geology of Nova Scotia for twenty years. His maps and reports have been a mainstay of the department's publications list since 1978, and his contributions to scientific journals have included publications in Nature, Quaternary Research, Marine Geology, Sedimentary Geology, Journal of Geochemical Exploration, and many more...
Captain William Kidd: Privateer and Pirate
Catholic Encyclopedia: The Knights Templars A detailed article describing their humble beginning, marvellous growth, and tragic end — including the events on and after 13 October 1307...
Searching for Buried Treasure (on Oak Island) by Bill Milstead
Oak Island Friends
Death Trap Defies Treasure Seekers for Two Centuries by Douglas Preston. This article originally appeared in Smithsonian Magazine, June 1988. On Oak Island, everybody gets up early. By dawn, with the fog turning into a drizzle, the crew is hard at work... Here in Mahone Bay, about 40 miles southwest of Halifax, Nova Scotia, I am at the site of the most intensive treasure hunt in history, a hunt that has lasted 193 years... Seventy-nine years ago, a young law clerk named Franklin Delano Roosevelt trod this very ground with pick, shovel and high hopes. Admiral Richard Byrd, Errol Flynn and Vincent Astor all at one time or another took an interest...
George Young (1924-2002) of Queensland, Halifax County Two of George's books were made into film documentaries, one in Plymouth, England, called Who Killed Surcouf, and one in the United States titled Oak Island Treasure. Some of his other books are Bluenose Capers, Over Mulled Rum, Ghosts in Nova Scotia, Bottoms Up, The Short Triangle, and Ancient Peoples and Modern Ghosts. In recent years George had become internationally known for his research and investigations in the study of the ancient Celtic writing known as OGHAM. Many stones bearing this writing have been found in Ireland, Scotland, England, Spain, France, the Middle East, Canada and the United States...
On Friday morning October 13th, 1307 — the reason for which Friday the 13th has become known as an unlucky day — King Phillip IV together with Avignonese Pope Clement V, ruthlessly suppressed the Order of the Knights Templar throughout Europe, with false accusations, arrests, torture and executions... A large number of Templars escaped that day to an uncertain future, and found refuge abroad. On the eve of the arrests, the entire Templar fleet mysteriously vanished from the port of La Rochelle carrying with it a vast fortune, the fate of which remains a mystery down to this day...
What's the scoop on the mysterious buried treasure at Oak Island? Despite the loss of at least six lives and the expenditure of millions of dollars, virtually nothing of value has ever been recovered from Oak Island, the setting for one of the most famous and certainly one of the most bungled treasure hunts in history...
Terra X: (The Curse of Oak Island)
Video documentary by Cochran Entertainment...surprising new evidence...
Captain Joshua Mauger
by Brian Kinsman
Highlights of the Gilder Lehrman Collection
The Joshua Mauger Papers
Town of Lunenburg
Lunenburg's 250th Nova Scotia
The Montbeliard Settlers
Jess Coffill: Shark Infested Waters
Journeys of Exploration 1497-1650
Council of Nova Scotia Archives
On 29 June 1998, the following notice appeared at
Cunard webpages are temporarily unavailable
Records of the Cunard Steamship Company, c1840-1976
We [the University of Liverpool] regret we are unable to provide
an enquiry service at the present time.
The following links, which previously led to a lot of Cunard history,
are no longer valid. They are kept on record here, in the hope
that this Cunard archive will become available again.
Cunard Archives, University of Liverpool
List of All Cunard Ships
The Cunard Line: A Brief Chronology
Decorated WWII Airmen of Pictou County
by East Pictou Rural High School
(1) The Pubnicos: Oldest Region Still Acadian
(2) The Hills at Argyle Head
(3) His Father Was His Uncle
(4) Port Lomeron or Chebogue
(5) Hanging of Two Acadians and Three Indians in Boston
(6) Hush-Hush Money
(7) Widow at 13, Millionaire at 34
(8) He Sawed Off a Leg of One of His Men But They Pickled His Head
(9) Wedgeport A Hundred Years Ago and Beyond
(10) Baptiste, the Rascal
(11) Baptiste Was Said to Have a Wife in Every Port
(12) She Presided Over Councils of War Against Her Kindred
(13) Napoleon Bucksaw
(14) The "Casket" Woman
(15) He Jumped Bail
(16) They Cut Off the Finger That Tipped the Scale and Some More
(17) They Tied Themselves to the Mast and Steering Wheel So Not to Be Washed Overboard
(18) Wilson Island
(19) Witchcraft, Sorcerers and Spells
(20) Were the Vikings Here?
(21) The First "Canadian" Child With "European" Blood Outside Newfoundland Was Born At Our Doorstep
(22) First Nun in North America Was Born at Our Doorstep
(23) The WRAYTON-MacDonnell Family: Its Tragedies and Wealth
(24) She Was Forced to Watch Him Hang 40 of Her Men With a Lasso Around Her Neck
(25) A Confession By Proxy
(26) He Prayed and His Life Was Spared
(27) The Acadian Participation in the War of Independence of the U.S.
(28) They Intended to Make Nova Scotia the 14th State of the Union
(29) "It's the Best Gang of Greenies I've Ever Seen"
(30) The Bridge Spanning Indian Sluice
(31) The First Expulsion of the Acadians
(32) The Second Expulsion of the Acadians
(33) The Third Expulsion of the Acadians
(34) The Return From Exile in 1766 of Some of the Acadians of Yarmouth County
(35) The Log Cabins of West Pubnico
(36) Two Acadian Martyrs
(37) French People Who Settled in Yarmouth County During the French Revolution  and the Napoleon Wars
(38) French People Who Settled in Digby County During the French Revolution and Napoleon Wars
(39) The First Canadian to Become an American Citizen
(40) The Golden Age of the Old Time Acadians
(41) The 25th Anniversary of the Acadian Flag
(42) The Old Shelburne Road
(43) Fort Saint Louis
(44) 465th Anniversary of the Name "Acadie"
(45) Sentenced to Be Hanged as a Pirate, He Died a Gentleman, Respected by Friends and Neighbours
(46) The Rise and Fall of Louis A. Surette
(47) The "French Cross" at Morden, N.S.
(48) Sentenced To Be Whipped With the Cat-o-Nine-Tails
(49) Capt. Pierre Doucet, Esq. (1750-1792)
(50) Amable Doucet, Esq. (1737-1806)
(51) The First Christmas in North America
(52) Ducking and Keel-Hauling
(53) The Vow of the Mariners
(54) The Escape of Francois L. Bourneuf
(55) Pubnico is Something to Brag About
(56) The Seizure of "The Pembrook" By the Acadians
(57) Marie Babin of Surette's Island Was Not the Last of the Deported
(58) The Story of the Acadian Bells: Those of Port Royal
(59) The Story of the Acadian Bells: Those of Fortress Louisbourg
(60) The Story of the Acadian Bells: The Others of Cape Breton
(61) The Story of the Acadian Bells: Those of Minas and the Isthmus of Chignecto
(62) The Story of the Acadian Bells: Those of Prince Edward Island
(63) The Story of the Acadian Bells: Those on the Saint John River, N.B.
(64) The Story of the Acadian Bells: Maine, St.Pierre et Miquelon, and California
(65) The Story of the Acadian Bells: in Pubnico
(66) The Sinking of the DUKE WILLIAM and of the VIOLET Taking the Acadians into Exile
(67) Holy Week A Couple Of Generations Ago
(68)The Conflagration of 1820 in Clare
(69) Vengeance of the Micmacs Mocked in Their Religious Beliefs
(70) Came to Canada to Find its Longitude; Went to South America and Discovered that the World is Flat
(71) The Escape of the Acadians From Fort Lawrence at the Time of the Expulsion
(72) The Escape of the Acadians From Fort Beausejour at the Time of the Expulsion
(73) The First Mass in Canada Celebrated on the South Shore of Nova Scotia
(74) Jean Campagna, the Sorcerer
(75) Variations in French Family Names in South West Nova Scotia
(76) The Big Storms of the Centuries in South-Western Nova Scotia
(77) The Adventure of Benoni d'Entremont With the "Bonaventure"
(78) Simon "Squire" d'Entremont
(79) An Account of the Flight of the Acadians at the Time of the Expulsion
(80) The Wreck of the TIBEL
(81) Pubnico Natal Day - July 17
(82) Cape Sable Might Have Been the See of the First Canadian Bishop
(83) The "Klondike"
(84) The Railroad Era
(85) The Acadian Symbols
(86) A Voyage to Nova Scotia Made in 1731 By Robert Hale of Beverley
(87) Restrictions and Penalties in Days of Yore
(88) My First Entrance to College
(89) Hidden Treasures in Tusket Islands
(90) A Father Assails His Son in Combat
(91) Was to Be Sent Back to Nova Scotia From Exile
(92) Dropping the King's Name for Shame
(93) An Encounter With a German U-Boat off Our Shores
(94) Betrayed in His Love, He Died of a Broken Heart
(95) The Acadians at Horse-Shoe Cove Prior to the Expulsion
(96) The Ghost Ship "Yarmouth"
(97) Lobster Bay: Its Place Names of Yesteryear
(98) Place Names in West Pubnico Region
(99) The Place Names of Quinan
(100) 100th Anniversary of St. Peter's Church in West Pubnico
FINAL LETTER to Father Clarence
The Saxby Gale
4-5 October 1869A Scientific Study of The Saxby Gale:
an October 4-5, 1869 hybrid hurricane and record storm surge
...How do we know that there was a tropical cyclone perhaps as serious as a Category 2 hurricane, on the Saffir-Simpson Scale, on the evening of October 4-5, 1869? Well, in fact there were any number of observers on the ground, and out at sea, in the path of the storm and along its edges. And there were at least 50 daily and weekly newspapers reporting along the track of the storm in the eastern United States, in New England, Maine, and in the Maritime Provinces of Canada...
In Silent Amazement: The 130th Anniversary Of The Saxby Gale by Bill Hamilton
...One of the worst storms to affect the Tantramar was the Saxby Gale of Oct. 4-5, 1869. Although formal weather forecasts weren't available 130 years ago, the infamous Saxby Gale was predicted well in advance. Almost a year earlier, in December 1868, an amateur astronomer serving in the Royal Navy, Lieutenant S. M. Saxby, wrote a letter to all major London newspapers. He suggested that there would be "a storm of immense and devastating force" on Oct. 4-5 1869. At the time, Saxby's prediction was widely publicized. However, most people dismissed his warning. It was widely believed that no one could predict such an event nearly a year in advance......
Tantramar Flashback column, Sackville Tribune-Post, 6 October 1999
The Saxby Gale of 1869 in the Canadian Maritimes – a Case Study of flooding potential in the Bay of Fundy
...The “Saxby Gale” of October 4-5, 1869 is a definitive storm in the Canadian Maritimes. The storm was a hurricane that transformed into a deep extratropical depression that caused dozens of fatalities, set rainfall records in New England that still stand today, and was responsible for the world's largest known "tidal" excursion at the head of the Bay of Fundy... Maximum water levels in the Bay of Fundy are achieved when large storm surges are coincident with perigean spring tides; but these circumstances are rare. The Saxby Tide was such an event...
The Transition of the “Saxby Gale” into an Extratropical Storm
...The strong winds, heavy rains, storm surge and high surf are seldom as intense as when the tropical cyclone was further south. Nevertheless, there remains a risk unique to the middle latitudes — that of a rapid re-intensification as a result of the interaction with a baroclinic system. Indeed, “Hazel” was such a hybrid storm, with extremely heavy rainfalls of over 200mm in less than one day that caused severe flooding. As it turns out, our examination of the meteorological situation from a forensic study of the “Saxby Gale” suggests that it too was a hybrid re-intensification like “Hazel”....
From telegraph to Internet: Canada's weather service, since 1871
As rain began to fall on August 25, 1873, residents of the outports and farms on Cape Breton Island secured their doors and shutters against a rising wind. Few people on this rugged island expected anything more than a late summer gale. But that night, after gathering strength for a week in the mid-Atlantic, a hurricane spiralled up the coast of the United States and smashed headlong into Cape Breton's east shore. By mid-afternoon the next day, the Great Nova Scotian Cyclone had laid waste to a large swath of Cape Breton. Newspapers were filled with accounts of steamers driven aground and bridges washed away in the deluge that accompanied the high winds. The storm's final toll: almost 1,000 people dead, some 1,200 ships sunk or smashed, hundreds of homes and bridges destroyed. Tragically, meteorologists in Toronto knew a day in advance that the hurricane would make landfall in the Maritimes, but no alarm was raised because the telegraph lines to Halifax were down...
Bernard J. Hibbitts
Bernard J. Hibbitts currently Associate Dean for Communications & Information Technology and Professor of Law at the University of Pittsburgh School of Law, Hibbitts attended Queen Elizabeth High School in Halifax, and was a member of the QEHS "Reach for the Top" CBC-TV high-school quiz show team that won the Canadian national championship in 1975...
Last Writes? Re-assessing the Law Review in the Age of Cyberspace by Bernard J. Hibbitts
...new academic circumstances...and new computer-mediated communications technologies (e.g. on-line services and the Internet) are coming together in a way that may soon lead to the demise of the familiar law review...
E-Journals, Archives, and Knowledge Networks: A Commentary on Archie Zariski's Defense of Electronic Law Journals by Bernard J. Hibbitts
...In the 1660s, the first scholarly journals collected the latest letters and printed them for the convenience of a "mass" academic audience; ultimately, the journals evolved into collections of articles which retained little of their initial epistolary nature. If print facilitated the creation of the journal format, why should we presume that the Internet, now beginning to challenge print as the academic medium of choice, will not facilitate the creation of another format of scholarly publishing which is as different from the journal as the journal was from the scholarly letter?...
Yesterday Once More: Skeptics, Scribes and the Demise of Law Reviews by Bernard J. Hibbitts
...The printing press and the remarkable publishing opportunities it offered European scholars from the mid-fifteenth century onwards were not universally acclaimed. In some quarters, fear, shortsightedness and misapprehension prompted outright attacks either on the new technology or on its more adventuresome applications. More than a few academics believed there was nothing to be gained by handing scholarly publishing over to ordinary entrepreneurs like Johann Gutenberg... One late fifteenth century Dominican friar, Filippo di Strata, actually said that "the world has got along perfectly well for six thousand years without printing, and has no need to change now"...
Her Majesty's Yankees: American Authority in the Supreme Court of Nova Scotia, 1837–1901 This paper, by Bernard J. Hibbitts, examines the use of American case law and legal literature in the Supreme Court of Nova Scotia during the Victorian period, 1837-1901... (Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Society for Legal History, Richmond, VA, October 1996; previously presented to the Atlantic Canadian Legal History Conference, Halifax, Nova Scotia, March 1995.)
In his paper “Her Majesty's Yankees: American Authority in the Supreme Court of Nova Scotia, 1837-1901,” Bernard Hibbitts (University of Pittsburgh School of Law) examined the phenomenon of the relatively frequent appeal to U.S. decisions in the jurisprudence of the Nova Scotia Supreme Court up to 1875, and then its fading through the rest of the century. In a study which considers every reported case between 1837 and 1901, Hibbitts has considered the factors which in the first period made American law an attractive repository of ideas for the judges of this maritime colony and province. Some of the reasons have to do with the relative sparsity of English and Nova Scotian authority and text book writings on a range of legal matters, as well as the fact that, particularly in the realm of legislation, inspiration to legislators in Halifax had often come from south of the border, and so it was natural enough to see what courts in states with similar enactments had done. More intriguing as a reason, because less obvious, was the attachment that Nova Scotian judges from the first half of the 19th century felt to New England culture, including its law. It is easy, suggested the author, to forget that the foundation of this colony preceded the American Revolution, was partially settled by New Englanders and that its people, including those in the elite, had family and commercial contacts with the northeastern states...
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Brief History of Scots Law
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Patent Granted by King Henry VII to John Cabot and his Sons, March 1496 The King, to all to whom, etc. Greeting: Be it known and made manifest that we have given and granted as by these presents we give and grant, for us and our heirs, to our well beloved John Cabot, citizen of Venice, and to Lewis, Sebastian and Sancio, sons of the said John, and to the heirs and deputies of them, and of any one of them, full and free authority, faculty and power to sail to all parts, regions and coasts of the eastern, western and northern sea, under our banners, flags and ensigns, with five ships or vessels of whatsoever burden and quality they may be... Witness ourself at Westminster on the fifth day of March [5 March 1496 (old style) — 16 March 1497 in our modern calendar]. By the King himself, etc.
Nova Scotia Monument|
“a Venetian citizen
bearing letters patent
from Henry VII”
Next Below: Contemporary English translationLetters Patents of King Henry the Seventh Granted unto Iohn Cabot and his Three Sonnes, Lewis, Sebastian and Sancius for the the Discouerie of New and Unknowen Lands – 1496/97 ...Henry, by the grace of God, king of England and France, and lord of Ireland, to all to whom these presents shall come, Greeting. Be it knowen that we haue giuen and granted, and by these presents do giue and grant for vs and our heiress to our welbeloued Iohn Cabot citizen of Venice, to Lewis, Sebastian, and Santius, sonnes of the sayd Iohn, and to the heires of them, and euery of them, and their deputies, full and free authority, leaue, and power to saile to all parts, countreys, and seas of the East, of the West, and of the North, vnder our banners and ensignes, with fine ships of what burthen or quantity soeuer they be, and as many mariners or men as they will haue with them in the sayd ships, vpon their owne proper costs and charges, to seeke out, discouer, and finde whatsoever isles, countreys, regions or prouinces of the heathen and infidels whatsoeuer they be, and in what part of the world soeuer they be, which before this time haue bene vnknowen to all Christians: we haue granted to them, and also to euery of them, the heires of them, and euery of them, and their deputies, and haue giuen them licence to set vp our banners and ensignes in euery village, towns, castle, isle, or maine land of them newly found. And that the aforesayd Iohn and his sonnes, or their heires and assignee may subdue, occupy and possesse all such townes, cities, castles and isles of them found, which they can subdue, occupy and possesse, as our vassals, and lieutenants, getting vnto vs the rule, title, and jurisdiction of the same villages, townes, castles, & firme land so found. Yet so that the aforesayd Iohn, and his sonnes and heires, and their deputies, be holden and bounder of all the fruits, profits, gaines, and commodities growing of such navigation, for euery their voyage, as often as they shall arrine at our port of Bristoll (at the which port they shall be bound and holden onely to arrine) all maner of necessary costs and charges by them made, being deducted, to pay vnto vs in wares or money the lift part of the capitall gaine so gotten. We gluing and granting vnto them and to their heires and deputies, that they shall be free from all paying of customer of all and singular such merchandise as they shall be free from all paying of customes of all and singular they shall bring with them from those places so newlie found... Witnesse our selfe at Westminister, the fift day of March, In the eleventh yeere of our reigne [5 March 1496 (old style) — 16 March 1497 in our modern calendar]...
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Little-Known Portions of Nova Scotia History
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