Little-Known Portions of
Nova Scotia History

These are facts, historical facts.
Not schoolbook history, not Mr. Wells's history,
but history nevertheless.

— Kasper Gutman, in Dashiell Hammett's
The Maltese Falcon
The Outline of History by H.G. Wells

        Special Topics:
•  #   R.M.S. Titanic and Nova Scotia
•  #   1929 Earthquake and Tsunami
•  #   John Mitchell's Map, 1755
•  #   Oak Island Treasure
•  #   First Nations
•  #   Automobiles and Highways
•  #   Railways
•  #   Coal Mining
•  #   Royal William, 1833
•  #   Saxby Gale, 1869
•  #   True Stories from Nova Scotia's Past
•  #   Slaves in Nova Scotia
•  #   Prince Henry Sinclair
•  #   Seven Years War
•  #   Assorted Historic Documents
•  #   Continental Congress
•  #   The Eddy Rebellion, November 1776
•  #   John Allan (1746-1805)
•  #   The American Revolution, 1773-1783
•  #   The Penobscot Expedition, 1779
•  #   War of 1812
•  #   Nova Scotia's Private Navy
•  #   HMS Shannon and USS Chesapeake, June 1813
•  #   The American Civil War, 1861-1865
•  #   CSS Tallahassee, 1864
•  #   Canadian Navy
•  #   Joshua Slocum (1844-1909)
•  #   Simon Newcomb (1835-1909)
•  #   Guglielmo Marconi (1874-1937)
•  #   William Cottnam Tonge (1764-1832)
•  #   Joshua Mauger (1725-1788)
•  #   Bernard J. Hibbitts
•  #   Counties, Towns, Villages, Municipalities
•  #   Town of Lunenburg, 250 years 1753-2003
•  #   Nova Scotia Stamps
•  #   Early History of the Internet in Nova Scotia
•  #   Nova Scotia Newspapers
•  #   Broadcast Radio
•  #   Pre-Confederation Documents
•  #   Brief History of Scots Law
•  Massachusetts Boundaries, 1691 included Maine and Nova Scotia
•  The Northwest Angle of Nova Scotia Exactly where is this infamous Northwest Angle of Nova Scotia, that determined the location of today's International Boundary?

Nova Scotia: Title of 1747 map of Nova Scotia

David Rumsey's Online Collection of Old Maps Gorgeous digitized copies of many old maps, including Emanuel Bowen's 1747 A New and Accurate Map of the Islands of Newfoundland, Cape Briton, St. John and Anticosta, together with the Neighbouring Countries of Nova Scotia, Canada, etc.  Drawn from the most approved Modern Maps and Charts and Regulated by Astronomical Observations. (title above)

On 29 November 1798, the  legislature  of  St. John  Island
voted to change the colony's name to Prince Edward Island.
The name  change  went  into  effect on  1 January 1800.
The stated  reason  for the  change  was the excessive
confusion caused by having three population centers
on British North America's Atlantic coast all named
for Saint John: the island colony and two cities
(not to mention the Saint John River valley).

Nova Scotia: 1853 telegraph map title

Library of Congress Map Collections — Transportation and Communication
1853 Telegraph stations in the United States, the Canadas & Nova Scotia (title above)

Nova Scotia: Title of 1776 map of Nova Scotia

David Rumsey's Online Collection of Old Maps
Thomas Jefferys' 1776 A New Map of Nova Scotia and Cape Breton Island, with the adjacent parts of New England and Canada, Composed from a great number of actual Surveys; and other materials Regulated by many new Astronomical Observations of the Longitude as well as Latitude; by Thomas Jefferys, Geographer to the King. (title above)

1778 Map of Nova Scotia, by Antonio Zatta

Hargrett Rare Book and Manuscript Library
University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia

1733 Map of North America, by Delisle

1733 Map of the British Empire in America, by Popple

1740 Map of Great Britain's Colonies in North America

1756 Map of North America, by d'Anville

1774 Map of North America, as Divided Among the European Powers, by Dunn


John Mitchell's Map, 1755

The most important map in North American history

Nova Scotia: Title of 1755 map the British and French dominions in North America

A map of the British and French dominions in North America, with the roads, distances, limits, and extent of the settlements, humbly inscribed to the Right Honourable the Earl of Halifax, and the other Right Honourable the Lords Commissioners for Trade & Plantations, by their Lordships most obliged and very humble servant, Jno. Mitchell. Tho. Kitchin, sculp.
by John Mitchell, 1755
Mitchell dedicated his map to George Montague-Dunk, second earl of Halifax, president of the Board of Trade and Plantations (Colonies) between 1748 and 1761.
Source:   Geography and Map Division of the U.S. Library of Congress

John Mitchell's Map (the whole map)
“British and French Dominions” edition, 1755
11,686 × 8,255 pixels, JPG file size: 97 megabytes

Note the territories labelled
“Nova Scotia  or  Acadia”
and “Province of Maine”

Also see: Osher Map Library and Smith Center for Cartographic Education
University of Southern Maine, Portland, Maine

A full-screen view of the entire Mitchell map (1775 edition)
               “British Colonies” edition, 1775

A view of the title block of the “British Colonies” edition Mitchell map, 1775

(The title of the fourth edition was re-engraved to alter the line reading British and French Dominions to read just British Colonies.  The new title was thus, A Map of the British Colonies in North America... The name change is a recognition that in 1775 France no longer had a colonial presence in North America, other than St. Pierre and Miquelon, and so reflects the British defeat of the French and the annexation of Quebec.)

John Mitchell's Map – Narrative Account

John Mitchell's Map – Introduction and Overview

The Mitchell Map has been described, and rightly so, as the most important map in North American history.  The most comprehensive map of North America produced during the Colonial Era, it represented the various territorial claims made by not only the competing British and French empires but also by the various British colonies.  It has accordingly served, as recently as 1932, in legal disputes between eastern states.  More importantly, it was the map on which the boundaries of the new United States were defined by American and British negotiators in Paris in 1782-83; in that capacity, it has continued to be of importance right up to the 1980s US-Canadian dispute over the Gulf of Maine fisheries...

Nova Scotia as it appears on
the  Mitchell  Map  (1755)
(then  including  the  territory
now known as New Brunswick)

Nova Scotia (then including the territory now known as New Brunswick) as it appears on the Mitchell Map (1755)

Nova Scotia as it appears on the Mitchell Map (1755)
(Nova Scotia then included the territory now known as New Brunswick
and part of what is now eastern Maine)


High resolution: Nova Scotia – Mitchell Map (1755)
2400 × 1900 pixels, 1.94 megabytes

Nova Scotia as it appears in Google Maps (2012)

Nova Scotia as it appears in Google Maps (2012)
(Yellow labels added)

Georges Bank
Grand Banks
Bay of Fundy
Cabot Strait
Canso Strait

 Excellent map of Halifax, 1894 University of Texas at Austin, Texas

 1896 map of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and P.E.Island from Rand, McNally & Co.'s Universal Atlas of The World, 1896 edition

 Map of British Colonies in North America, 1763-1775

The Aviator: Douglas McCurdy UofT Magazine, Winter 2011
The first person to fly an airplane out of sight of land...

Historic plaque: J.A.D. McCurdy Baddeck

 Albro Lake Naval Radio Station  Set up under a veil of secrecy during the height of the North Atlantic U-boat threat, this small village near Halifax became the home of a valuable weapon during the Battle of the Atlantic.  Despite a price tag of more than $6 million, an exorbitant expense in those days, the facility more than paid for itself in Allied shipping saved.  Its signal could be heard and read from Murmansk to the Falklands and half way around the world...

S.G. Roscoe

Radio at Sea by S. G. Roscoe, Halifax
This is a first-rate history of communications at sea, written by the radio operator of the H.M.S. Bounty.  Includes a lot of information about the history of communications in and around Nova Scotia.
1. A Bit on the Beginning
2. The Duke of Kent's Signal Stations (Semaphore Telegraph, 31 stations!)
3. The First International Code of Signals...Captain Maryatt
4. Silver Leaf
5. The Titanic
6. Distress Communications
7. The Fairmiles
8. The Navy Fleet after the War
9. The Radio Shack
10. Kent Line Ltd. & Atlantic Towing Ltd.
11. A Few Operating Experiences
12. TwFeb 24, 1999elfth and Final Section

The National Post interviews Spud Roscoe 2 February 1999, on the occasion of the official end of the use of the Morse Code for communication with ships.

 George Rose's extensive collection of Nova Scotia history and genealogy links

 Photographs of War Memorials, Historic Monuments and Plaques in Nova Scotia

 Nova Scotia Forts by Pete Payette
Fort Anne, Fort St. Anne, Fort Belcher, Fort Mohawk, Fort Edward, Fort Grunt, and many more...

 History of Nova Scotia, Book One (1604-1763) by Peter Landry

      History of Nova Scotia, Book Two (1763-1826) by Peter Landry

 The Fourteenth Colony A history of Nova Scotia from a United States point of view

 Parliamentary Government, by Eugene A. Forsey Nova Scotia (which, till 1784, included what is now New Brunswick) was the first part of Canada to secure representative government. In 1758, it was given an assembly, elected by the people... Nova Scotia was also the first part of Canada to win responsible government (government by a cabinet answerable to, and removable by, a majority of the assembly) in January 1848...

 Lieutenant Governors of Nova Scotia since 1753

 Cape Breton Island became a separate colony on 26 August 1784
        and was reincorporated into Nova Scotia on 9 October 1820.
       • Governors of Cape Breton Island, 1784-1820
(Note: You can access this archived copy by using your browser's Copy and Paste feature to copy this URL whole
and then to paste the whole URL into your browser's URL window.  Then press Return or Enter.)
       • Lieutenant Governors of Nova Scotia, 1753-2002
(Note: You can access this archived copy by using your browser's Copy and Paste feature to copy this URL whole
and then to paste the whole URL into your browser's URL window.  Then press Return or Enter.)

 Premiers of Nova Scotia, 1848 - 2003 The best NS Premiers site I know of.

Biographies of Premiers:
Joseph Howe 1860-1863
Charles Tupper 1864-1867
William Annand 1867-1875
Philip Carteret Hill 1875-1878
John Sparrow David Thompson May - July, 1882
William Thomas Pipes 1882-1884
William Stevens Fielding 1884-1896
George Henry Murray 1896-1923
Ernest Howard Armstrong 1923-1925
Angus Lewis Macdonald 1933-1940
Alexander Sterling MacMillan 1940-1945
Angus Lewis Macdonald 1945-1954
Harold Joseph Connolly April-September, 1954
Henry Davies Hicks 1954-1956
Gerald Augustine Regan 1970-1978
John Patrick Savage 1993-1997

   Early History of the Internet in Nova Scotia
1996 Mar: Membership List, Nova Scotia Federation of Community Networks

1996 Oct: Cape Breton Community Network (CBNET) Home Page

1997 Apr: Cape Breton Community Network (CBNET) Price List

1996 Dec: NSTN Home Page Plus Customers Nova Scotia Technology Network

1998 Feb: NSTN Home Page Plus Customers

1997 Dec: Chebucto Community Net Home Page

1996 Dec: Creating and Activating Your Own Home Page by Glooscap Online

Digitally Archived Radio Programs
Treasure Island Oldies Shows

6 August 2000 — Treasure Island Oldies makes history.
First ever Internet Simulcast (Internet to a broadcast FM station)
with CKEP-FM, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia
CKEP 97.9 MHz FM   10:00pm August 6, 2000   RealAudio [4:03:01]

In December 2012, Treasure Island Oldies
is heard on these Nova Scotia radio stations:
QCCR-FM   Liverpool, Nova Scotia
Over-the-air broadcast radio: 93.3 FM
Treasure Island Oldies: Saturday, 11am to 3pm
Cove FM   St. Margaret's Bay, Nova Scotia
Internet radio
Treasure Island Oldies: Saturday, 8pm to midnight
“CoveFM is now available on Tune In Radio.
“There are Apps available for Android, Iphone,
Blackberry and other mobile devices.”

 Teaching and Learning about Canadian History Manley Bennett's fantabulous website

1984: The first school in Nova Scotia to have a Homework Hotline

 Thomas Temple (1614-1674) Correspondence concerning Nova Scotia
Houghton Library, Harvard College Library, Cambridge, Massachusetts

Thomas Temple (1614-1674) Wikipedia
Sir Thomas Temple Dictionary of Canadian Biography
On 12 September 1657 an agreement was made between Thomas Temple and Col. William Crowne for a division of their property.  Temple's share extended from what is now Lunenburg in Nova Scotia to the River St. George in Maine, including the whole coast of the Bay of Fundy on both sides and a hundred leagues [about 500 km] inland...

 History of the Nova Scotia Courts

 An Unshackled Internet: If Joe Howe Were Designing Cyberspace by Parker Barss Donham
Delivered to The Symposium on Free Speech and Privacy in the Information Age at the University of Waterloo, 26 November 1994

The Wayback Machine has archived copies of:
An Unshackled Internet:
If Joe Howe Were Designing Cyberspace

by Parker Barss Donham

Archived: 1999 May 05

Archived: 2000 August 15

Archived: 2001 April 30

Archived: 2002 June 23

Archived: 2003 April 18

Archived: 2004 October 09

Archived: 2005 June 17

Archived: 2007 August 12

Archived: 2009 February 04

Archived: 2010 November 23


Nova Scotia Stamps

1851 Nova Scotia 3-penny blue postage stamp
1851 Nova Scotia 3-penny blue

1851 Nova Scotia 1-shilling purple postage stamp
1851 Nova Scotia 1-shilling purple

Nova Scotia 1-cent brown postage stamp, issued 1860
Nova Scotia 1-cent postage stamp, first issued 1860, 21×27mm

Nova Scotia 5-cent blue postage stamp, issued 1860
Nova Scotia 5-cent postage stamp, first issued 1860, 21×27mm
cancelled at Halifax, 3 September 1867

Nova Scotia 8½-cent green postage stamp, issued 1860
Nova Scotia 8½-cent postage stamp, first issued 1860, 21×27mm
imperfect vertical perforation

Before 1860, Nova Scotia postage stamps were denominated in pence.
The stamps shown above were part of the first issue
of Nova Scotia stamps denominated in cents.

Nova Scotia: The Bluenose fifty-cent 1929 stamp
The 1929 Bluenose stamp is the most famous
of Canadian stamps, recognized around the world.
Source: National Archives of Canada

 Nova Scotia stamps and postal history by Frederick R. Mayer Foundation

 Pre-adhesive (before 1851)

 1851-1857 stamps

 1860-1863 stamps

 Earliest known letter from Nova Scotia bearing a postmark
October 1767, Lunenburg to London

 Canadian Postal Rates 1943-2012

 Stamp collectors are licking their lips over an upside-down Canadian stamp.  About 70 of the $2 stamps were printed in error in 1994, with the Provincial Normal School in Truro, Nova Scotia shown upside down.  The lettering and dollar figures are correct... The stamps made the cover story of the current issue of Canadian Stamp News.
[The Globe and Mail 4 May 1996]
$2 Truro Provincial Normal School Inverted Inscriptions
In April of 1996, the discovery of the $2.00 Truro Provincial Normal School definitive issue with Inverted Inscriptions was announced and two of the four panes discovered were exhibited at the Capex'96 International Philatelic Exhibition in Toronto in June of that year.

1832 Nova Scotia one-penny token, obverse
1832 Nova Scotia one-penny token, obverse (above)   reverse (below)
1832 Nova Scotia one-penny token, reverse
diameter: 3.3 cm

 Bridges, Boats, Breweries & Buildings — Journal of the Voyages and Travels of John Henry Robinson Molson, 1841 (book)
On these pages you will find the world of fourteen year old John Henry Robinson Molson in 1841.  Before he inherited the Molson Brewery in Montreal he took a trip to Nova Scotia, Great Britain and the United States...

The Wayback Machine has archived copies of this document:
On His Way in the World:
The Voyages and Travels of John H.R. Molson, 1841

Edited by Karen Molson and Hilbert Buist

Before John Henry Robinson Molson inherited the Molson Brewery
in Montreal he took a trip to Nova Scotia, Great Britain
and the United States...

Hilbert Buist webpage 1: Bon Voyage
It was the spring of 1841... The four month trip would
include Nova Scotia, Massachusetts, New Hampshire and Vermont...

PAGE 1: Archived 2001 August 10

PAGE 1: Archived 2002 January 21

PAGE 1: Archived 2002 June 04

Hilbert Buist webpage 2: Delay in Halifax
The Molsons left Quebec in the Cunard Steam Ship Unicorn,
which took them to Pictou, Nova Scotia.  Here they transferred to
an open wagon and raced through the night through the pouring
rain to Dartmouth, stopping at Truro for dinner...

PAGE 2: Archived 2001 November 04

PAGE 2: Archived 2002 January 21

PAGE 2: Archived 2002 June 04

Hilbert Buist webpage 3: R.M.S. Britannia

PAGE 3: Archived 2001 August 10

PAGE 3: Archived 2002 January 21

PAGE 3: Archived 2002 June 04

Hilbert Buist webpage 4: On His Way in the World
He arrived home September 5, 1841...

PAGE 4: Archived 2001 June 16

PAGE 4: Archived 2002 January 21

PAGE 4: Archived 2002 June 4

 The Shubenacadie Canal

 The Port Morien French Mine

 Debert Palaeo-Indian Site

 The Joggins Fossil Cliffs

 The Parrsboro Fossil Site

 The Nova Scotia Government used to have, in its website, a dozen brief but valuable historical items under the heading "Industrial Heritage in Nova Scotia".  For some unfathomable reason these were deleted from the government's website in September 2000, when the Department of Housing and Municipal Affairs [/homa/] was abolished and its functions were transferred to a new Department named Service Nova Scotia and Municipal Relations [/snsmr/].  The old website had a special section named "Heritage" [/homa/muns/hert/] but the new department has no interest in this – at least there is nothing in its website comparable to the old Municipal Affairs Heritage site.  As far as I can find out, no MLA has asked the government to put this information back online. (According to the government's search engine in January 2004, the last time the phrase "industrial heritage" occurs in Hansard is dated May 1998.)

The document:
An Outline of Nova Scotia's Industrial History
(formerly at
has disappeared from the government's website
but the Wayback Machine has an archived copy:

Archived: 2000 August 29>

The document:
Shubenacadie Canal Lock #5, 1826-1855
Wellington, Halifax County Regional Municipality
(formerly at
has disappeared from the government's website
but the Wayback Machine has archived copies:

Archived: 2000 February 26

Archived: 2000 June 5

The document:
Pictou Iron Foundry, 1855
(formerly at
has disappeared from the government's website
but the Wayback Machine has archived copies:

Archived: 1999 December 22

Archived: 2000 June 15

Archived: 2000 August 17

The document:
Chignecto Marine Railway, 1888-1891
Chignecto Isthmus, Cumberland County
(formerly at
has disappeared from the government's website
but the Wayback Machine has archived copies:

Archived: 1999 December 22

Archived: 2000 March 9

Archived: 2000 August 17

The document:
Moirs Hydroelectric Power Plant, 1931
Bedford, Halifax County Regional Municipality
(formerly at
has disappeared from the government's website
but the Wayback Machine has archived copies:

Archived: 2000 June 15

Archived: 2000 August 17

The document:
LeNoir Forge, late 1700s
Arichat, Richmond County
(formerly at
has disappeared from the government's website
but the Wayback Machine has an archived copy:

Archived: 2000 March 9

 Here's another (see next above) Nova Scotia history item that the Nova Scotia Government used to have in its website: "The earliest recorded attempt at organizing agriculture in Nova Scotia came in 1789, with the first farmers' organization, the Colonial Societies, in Horton, Kings County..." This, too, was deleted from the government's website when the Department of Agriculture & Marketing [/nsdam/] was abolished.  Fortunately the Wayback Machine has archived copies:

The document:
Organizational History of the Nova Scotia
Department of Agriculture & Marketing

(formerly at
has disappeared from the government's website
but the Wayback Machine has archived copies:

Archived: 1998 February 07

Archived: 1999 May 6

Archived: 2000 May 26

 World Wide Web Statistics: NSDAM and NSAC Sept. 1995 to Sept. 1996
NSDAM: Nova Scotia Department of Agriculture & Marketing
NSAC: Nova Scotia Agricultural College

These countries each "have accessed our website more than 250 times"
during September 1995 to September 1996:
•  United Kingdom
•  Australia
•  Sweden
•  Netherlands
•  Japan
•  Germany
•  France
•  Finland
•  Norway
•  Brazil
•  Mexico
•  New Zealand
•  Italy
•  Singapore
•  South Korea
•  Iceland
•  Denmark
•  Israel
•  South Africa


Continental Congress
Nova Scotia's connection

First Continental Congress 1774
Declaration and Resolves of the First Continental Congress

Second Continental Congress 1775-76


 The Royal Proclamation, 1763 October 7   WHEREAS We have taken into Our Royal Consideration the extensive and valuable Acquisitions in America, secured to our Crown by the late Definitive Treaty of Peace, concluded at Paris, the 10th Day of February last... that we have, with the Advice of our Said Privy Council, granted our Letters Patent, under our Great Seal of Great Britain, to erect, within the Countries and Islands ceded and confirmed to Us by the said Treaty, Four distinct and separate Governments, styled and called by the names of Quebec, East Florida, West Florida and Grenada, and limited and bounded as follows...
•  FIRST — The Government of Quebec bounded on the Labrador Coast by the River St. John, and from thence by a Line drawn from the Head of that River through the Lake St. John, to the South end of the Lake Nipissim; from whence the said Line, crossing the River St. Lawrence, and the Lake Champlain, in 45. Degrees of North Latitude, passes along the High Lands which divide the Rivers that empty themselves into the said River St. Lawrence from those which fall into the Sea; (italic emphasis added)
•  FOURTHLY — The Government of Grenada, comprehending the Island of that name, together with the Grenadines, and the Islands of Dominico, St. Vincent's and Tobago.  And to the end that the open and free Fishery of our Subjects may be extended to and carried on upon the Coast of Labrador, and the adjacent Islands.  We have thought fit, with the advice of our said Privy Council to put all that Coast, from the River St. John's to Hudson's Streights, together with the Islands of Anticosti and Madelaine, and all other smaller Islands Lying upon the said Coast, under the care and Inspection of our Governor of Newfoundland.  We have also, with the advice of our Privy Council, thought fit to annex the Islands of St. John's and Cape Breton or Isle Royale, with the lesser Islands adjacent thereto, to our Government of Nova Scotia... (boldface emphasis added)

 The Currency Act; 1764 April 19   WHEREAS great quantities of paper bills of credit have been created and issued in his Majesty's colonies or plantations in America, by virtue of acts, orders, resolutions, or votes of assembly, making and declaring such bills of credit to be legal tender in payment of money: and whereas such bills of credit have greatly depreciated in their value, by means whereof debts have been discharged with a much less value than was contracted for, to the great discouragement and prejudice of the trade and commerce of his Majesty's subjects, by occasioning confusion in dealings, and lessening credit in the said colonies or plantations: for remedy whereof, may it please your most excellent Majesty, that it may be enacted; and be it enacted by the King's most excellent majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the lords spiritual and temporal, and commons, in this present parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, That from and after the first day of September, one thousand seven hundred and sixty four, no act, order, resolution, or vote of assembly, in any of his Majesty's colonies or plantations in America, shall be made, for creating or issuing any paper bills, or bills of credit of any kind or denomination whatsoever, declaring such paper bills, or bills of credit, to be legal tender in payment of any bargains, contracts, debts, dues, or demands whatsoever; and every clause or provision which shall hereafter be inserted in any act, order, resolution, or vote of assembly, contrary to this act, shall be null and void...

 The Stamp Act, 1765 March 22   WHEREAS by an act made in the last session of parliament, several duties were granted, continued, and appropriated, towards defraying the expences of defending, protecting, and securing, the British colonies and plantations in America: and whereas it is just and necessary, that provision be made for raising a further revenue within your Majesty’s dominions in America, towards defraying the said expences: we, your Majesty’s most dutiful and loyal subjects, the commons of Great Britain in parliament assembled, have therefore resolved to give and grant unto your Majesty the several rates and duties herein after mentioned; and do most humbly beseech your Majesty that it may be enacted, and be it enacted by the King’s most excellent majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the lords spiritual and temporal, and commons, in this present parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, That from and after the first day of November, one thousand seven hundred and sixty five, there shall be raised, levied, collected, and paid unto his Majesty, his heirs, and successors, throughout the colonies and plantations in America which now are, or hereafter may be, under the dominion of his Majesty, his heirs and successors...

 An Exhibition by the Parliamentary Archives: Britain, America and the 1765 Stamp Act   The atmosphere of relative prosperity during the Seven Years War (1756-1763) gave way to a post-war period of increased economic depression, the mood in the American colonies towards Britain quickly began to change and a greater political consciousness became more evident amongst the colonists. The North American colonies had long been a vital source of trade for Britain, but during the 1760s relations between them and the mother country became strained.  Britain's victory in the Seven Years War was soon muted by the realisation of an immense increase in the national debt of the United Kingdom, leading to strong anxieties about bankruptcy...


British colonies and plantations in America

The phrase “His Majesty's colonies or plantations in America” or the phrase “the British colonies and plantations in America” or similar phrases, included the following:
•  Newfoundland Colony (1610-1949)
•  Province of Nova Scotia (after 1710)
•  Colony of Cape Breton (1784-1820)
•  Prince Edward Island (after 1784) (originally named St. John's Island, 1784-1800)
•  Province of New Brunswick (after 1784)
•  Province of Quebec (after 1763)
•  Rupert's Land (after 1670)
•  Colony of New Ireland (1779-1783)
•  Province of New Hampshire
•  Province of Massachusetts Bay
•  Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations
•  Connecticut Colony
•  Province of New York
•  Province of New Jersey
•  Province of Pennsylvania
•  Delaware Colony
•  Province of Maryland
•  Colony of Virginia
•  Province of North Carolina
•  Province of South Carolina
•  Province of Georgia
•  Colony of East Florida (1763-1783)
•  Colony of West Florida (1763-1783)

and may also have included some or all of these West Indian colonies:
•  The Bahamas (after 1718)
•  Jamaica (after 1655)
•  British Guiana (after 1796)
•  British Honduras (after 1862)
•  Trinidad and Tobago (after 1797)
•  Barbados (after 1625)
•  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (1763-1779, and after 1783)
•  Grenada (after 1763)
•  Leeward Islands (after 1671)
•  British Virgin Islands (after 1672)

 Journals of the Continental Congress: Franklin's Articles of Confederation, 1775 July 21   Articles of Confederation and perpetual Union, enterd into agre proposed, by the Delegates of the several Colonies of New Hampshire, &c, in general Congress met at Philadelphia, May 10, 1775.
ART. I. The Name of this Confederacy shall henceforth be the United Colonies of North America...
ART. XIII. Any other and every Colony from Great Britain upon the Continent of North America and not at present engag'd in our Association shall may upon Application and joining the said Association be receiv'd into this Confederation, viz. [Ireland] the West India Islands, Quebec, St. Johns, Nova Scotia, Bermudas, and the East and West Floridas; and shall thereupon be entitled to all the Advantages of our Union, mutual Assistance and Commerce.  These Articles shall be propos'd to the several Provincial Conventions or Assemblies, to be by them consider'd... (boldface emphasis added)

Note about “New Ireland” (1814):

In the last months of the War of 1812, English troops held all the land in Maine east of the Penobscot River and administered the civil government from Bangor.  England proposed to make of this conquest a separate province of the Canadian government, and to call it New Ireland.  When the Treaty of Ghent was signed (in December 1814), however, Hinckley and the rest of eastern Maine were returned to the United States.
Source: "Hinckley Township or Grand Lake Stream Plantation" by Minnie Atkinson, 1920

 Constitution of South Carolina, 1776 March 26   WHEREAS the British Parliament, claiming of late years a right to bind the North American colonies by law in all cases whatsoever, have enacted statutes for raising a revenue in those colonies and disposing of such revenue as they thought proper, without the consent and against the will of the colonists. And whereas it appearing to them that (they not being represented in Parliament) such claim was altogether unconstitutional, and, if admitted, would at once reduce them from the rank of freemen to a state of the most abject slavery; the said colonies, therefore, severally remonstrated against the passing, and petitioned for the repeal, of those acts, but in vain, and whereas the said claim being persisted in, other unconstitutional and oppressive statutes have been since enacted by which the powers of admiralty courts in the colonies are extended beyond their ancient limits, and jurisdiction is given to such courts in cases similar to those which in Great Britain are triable by jury; persons are liable to be sent to and tried in Great Britain for an offence created and made capital by one of those statutes, though committed in the colonies; the harbor of Boston was blocked up; people indicted for murder in the Massachusetts Bay may, at the will of a governor, be sent for trial to any other colony, or even to Great Britain... And whereas the delegates of all the colonies on this continent, from Nova Scotia to Georgia, assembled in a general Congress at Philadelphia, in the most dutiful manner laid their complaints at the foot of the throne, and humbly implored their sovereign that his royal authority and interposition might be used for their relief from the grievances occasioned by those statutes, and assured His Majesty that harmony between Great Britain and America, ardently desired by the latter, would be thereby immediately restored, and that the colonists confided in the magnanimity and justice of the King and Parliament for redress of the many other grievances under which they labored. And whereas these complaints being Only disregarded, statutes still more cruel than those above mentioned have been enacted, prohibiting the intercourse of the colonies with each other, restricting their trade, and depriving many thousands of people of the means of subsistence, by restraining them from fishing on the American coast... (boldface emphasis added)

This document is included here because it is a rare – very rare – example of an explicit mention in the historical record of the existence of delegates from Nova Scotia at the First and Second Continental Congresses.  The list of delegates to these Continental Congresses fails to mention the existence of any delegates from colonies other than the Thirteen Colonies that ultimately declared idependence, even though written invitations were sent to several other British colonies.  What could be the reason for this apparent sanitizing of the historical record?

 Question:  Why was the first continental congress held?
Answer:  The First Continental Congress was called and convenied in 1774 to redress the grievances of the American colonists against both the alarming reduction in colonists' rights as well as the drastic increases in taxes being imposed on the colonists by the British government.  Their grievances were with not only the King of England, King George III, but with the British Parliament as well, as both of these divisions of the English government refused to listen to or redress the concerns of the American colonists.

The members of the First Continental Congress were official delegates of each of the American colonies, chosen and sent by the elected legislatures of each American colony; each delegate present acted in an official capacity on behalf of their respective colony with power and authority granted to them of their respective colony to act and cast votes on behalf of the colony they represented.

The delegates of the First Continental Congress did not plan to nor did they propose independence from England at this time in 1774; they simply needed to collectively define their grievances against England and collectively ask for redress from the English government.  Although the Congress patiently waited for a response, their official petition to England went ignored, even though more than a full year was given for rebuttal.  This lack of response led to the calling of another session of the Congress, named the Second Continental Congress.  The idea of and the call for independence from England did not come until the convening of this Second Continental Congress, held in 1776 (and culminating in the Declaration of Independence on July 4).

It is interesting to note that invitations to send delegates to the Continental Congresses were sent by the colonies of Virginia and Massachussetts to all of the original American colonies, including not only the 13 colonies who responded with delegates, but to Georgia, East Florida, West Florida, Quebec, and Nova Scotia as well. (boldface emphasis added)

Georgia did not participate in
the first Continental Congress,
but did in a second congress
convened in 1775.
From Compton's Encyclopedia On Line

 John Dickinson's Draft Letter to Quebec, 1774 October 24-26

To the Inhabitants of the Province of Quebec
Friends & Fellow Subjects

We the Delegates of the Colonies of New Hampshire &c (mentioning them in order) deputed by the Inhabitants of the said Colonies to represent them in a General Congress at Philadelphia in the Province of Pennsylvania, to consult together concerning the best Methods to obtain Redress of our afflicting Grievances, having accordingly assembled, and taken into our most serious Consideration the State of public Affairs on this Continent, have thought proper to address Your Province as a Member therein deeply interested.

When the Fortune of War after a gallant and glorious Resistance

Page 237    October 24, 1774

against superior Numbers had incorporated You with the Body of British Subjects, We rejoiced in the truly valuable Addition both on our own and your Account, expecting, as Courage & Generosity are naturally united, our brave Enemies would become our (best) hearty Friends, and that the Divine Being would bless the Dispensations of his overruling Providence to You, by securing to You & your latest posterity, the inestimable advantages of a free British Consitution of Government, which it is the Priviledge of all British Subjects [to] enjoy.

These Hopes were confirmed by the Proclamation issued in the Year 1763, plighting the public Faith for your full Enjoyment of those advantages therein solemnly promised.

Little did We imagine, that any succeeding Ministers would so audaciously and cruelly abuse the royal Authority, as not only to with hold from You the irrevocable Rights to which You were thus justly entitled, Rights purchased from arbitrary Monarchs by our Ancestors, at the Expence of their Blood, but, with a detestable Cunning even to direct the Exercise of those Rights in such an incidious Manner, as might most effectually tend to prejudice You against the proffored Blessings, and incline You to think, that You only rejected a rough Casket belonging to others, while You should throw away inclosed Jewells above all Price, your own legal property, that your base Deceivers might profit by your innocent Error.

But since We have liv'd to see the unexpected Time, when Ministers of this flagitious Temper have dared to violate the most sacred Compacts & obligations, and as You, educated under another Form of Government, have artfully been kept from discovering the unspeakable Worth of that Form You are now undoubtedly entitled to, We esteem it our Duty, for the weighty Reasons herein after mentioned, to explain to You, as well We can, the Nature of some of its most important Branches. "In every human Society," says the celebrated Marquis Beccaria, following the steps of the immortal Montesquieu in impressing sentiments of Humanity, "there is an Effort continually tending to confer on one Part the height of Power and Happiness, and to reduce the other to the extreme of Weakness & Misery. The intent of good Laws, is to oppose this Effort, and to diffuse their Influence, universally, & equally."

These few Lines have intensely collected into a small Compass, the (Principles) Causes of almost all Civil Discords. Rulers stimulated by the pernicious "Effort," and Subjects, animated by the just "Intent of opposing good Laws against it," have that vast Variety of Dissensions, that fill the Histories of so many Nations. All these Histories demonstrate the Truths of this simple Position, that to live by the Will of one Man or sett of Men, is the production of Misery to

Page 238    October 24, 1774

all Men. On the solid Foundation of this Principle, has been rear'd up the Fabrick of the British Constitution, with such a Strength, as for Ages to defy Time, Tyranny, Treachery, internal and foreign Wars: And upon this Model, tho on a smaller Scale, has been form'd the Constitution of each British Colony, and that also, (by an indissoluble Right vested in you are) with which by an unalienable Title You have been invested.

The first grand Right under all these, is that, of the People having a Share in (the Government of themselves, By this, is secured to them) their own Government by their Representatives chosen by themselves and in Consequence thereof, being ruled by Laws which they themselves approve, not by Edicts of Men over whom they have no Controul. This is a Bulwark surrounding and (wholly) defending their property, which by their honest Cares and Labours they have acquired, so that no portions of it can legally be taken from them, but with their full & free Consent, when they in their Judgment deem it just & necessary to give them for public Services, and precisely direct the easiest, cheapest, and most equal Method, in which it shall be collected.

The Influence of this Right extends still farther. If Money is wanted by Governors who have in any Manner oppressed the People, they may retain it, until their Greivances are redrest, & thus peaceably procure Relief, without trusting to despised Petitions, or disturbing their domestic Tranquility.

The next great Right, is that of Trial by Jury.  This provides, that neither Life, Liberty, or property can be taken from the Possessor, until twelve of his Countrymen and Peers, clear of Objections, of his Vicinage, who from that Neighbourhood may reasonably be suppos'd to be acquainted with his Character and the Characters of the Witnesses, upon a fair Trial and full Enquiry, face to face, in open Court, before (the assembled Country such of) as many of the People as chuse to attend, shall pass their impartial Sentence upon Oath, against him; a Sentence, that cannot injure him, without injuring their own Reputation, & probably their Interest also, as the Question may turn on Points, that in some Degree concern the general Welfare; and if it does not, their Verdict may form a Precedent, that on a similar Trial of their own, may militate against them.

(The last Right We shall mention, relates to personal) Another Right relates merely to the Liberty of the person.  If a Subject is seiz'd & imprisoned, tho by Government, he may by Virtue of this Right immediately obtain a writ term'd a Habeas Corpus from a Judge whose sworn Duty it is to grant it, and thereupon (be brought before him; and it is the Duty of the Judge instantly to discharge him, unless the Commitment is founded on Law.)  procure any illegal Restraint to be inquired into & redress'd.

Page 239    October 24, 1774

(The last Right We shall mention) A fourth Right is that of holding Lands by the Tenure of easy Rents, and not by the Tenure of rigorous and oppressive services frequently forcing the possessors from their Families & their Business to perform what ought to be done in all well regulated States, by Men hired for the Purpose.

The last Right We shall mention, regards the Freedom of the Press.  The Importance of this consists, besides the advancement of Truth, Science, Morality & art, in general, in its Diffusion of liberal Sentiments on the administration of Government, its ready Communication of Thoughts between Subjects, & its consequential promotion of Union among them, whereby Oppressive Officers are sham'd or intimidated into a more honourable & just Mode of Conducting Affairs.

These are the invaluable Rights that form a considerable Part of that mild (and equitable) System of Government...

Page 242    October 24, 1774

...Great Britain is at a very [great] Distance.  Her Fleets and Armies.  The Happiness of a People inevitably depend on their ability & their Spirit to assert it wanted to complete striving of) You may make them your unalterable Friends.  For their own Sakes, they never will desert or betray you.  The Injuries of Boston, have rous'd every Colony to an Association, from Nova Scotia to Georgia. (boldface emphasis added)  You are the only Link wanting to complete the bright & strong Chain of Union.  Nature (intended you for the[. . .]) has join'd your Country to theirs.  Do You join Your politicial Interests.  Be assured, that the Happiness of a People inevitably depends on their Liberty, & their Spirit to assert it.  The value & Extent of the (Blessin[gs]) advantages tendered to You are immense.  Heaven grant, You may not discover them to be Blessings, as the unwise generally do, after they have bid an eternal Adieu."  (Be not alarm'd with false Fears of Differences in religious Sentiments.  The united Body of Swiss Cantons is happily composed of Roman Catholic & Protestant States, & defy the World to hurt them.)

We are too well acquainted with the Liberality of Sentiment distinguishing your Nation, to imagine, that Difference of Religon will prejudice You against a hearty Amity with Us.  You know that the transcendent Nature of Freedom elevates those who unite in her Cause, above all such low-minded Infirmities. The Swiss Cantons furnish a memorable proof of this Truth.  Their union is compos'd of Roman catholic & protestant States, living in the utmost Concord & Peace with one another and thereby enabled ever since they bravely vindicated their Freedoms, to defy and defeat every Tyrant that has invaded them.

We know, there are among You, & among all Societies, Men who prefer their own Interest to the Welfare of their Country.  The Temper of such selfish persons renders them incredibly active in opposing all public spirited Measures, from an Expectation of being well rewarded for their sordid Industry, by their Superiors to whom those Measures are displeasing.  We doubt not, but these Men will throw in your Way every Objection & Difficulty, their partial Aims can forge or form.  But We address the Body of the Canadian People, on a subject of the last Importance, not to one or another Class or Rank among them, but to the whole...

This Our Invitation asks You not to commence Acts of Hostility against the Government of our Common Sovereign.  It is only that You will consult your own Glory & Welfare, and not suffer Your selves to be enveigled or intimidated by infamous Ministers so far as to become their Instruments, and plunge your Swords into our innocent Bosoms, that ardently wish You every kind of Liberty & Felicity, and will rejoice to embrace You a loving Brethren in one social Band, founded on the generous Principles of equal Liberty, & cemented by such an Exchange of endearing Offices as to render it perpetual.

In Order to complete this highly desireable Union, We submit to your Consideration, whether it may not be expedient for You to meet together in your several Towns & Districts & (chuse Representatives) elect Deputies, who afterwards meeting in a provincial Congress, may chuse Delegates to represent your Province in the Continental Congress to be held at Philadelphia (in the Province of Pennsylvania) on the Day of 1775.

In the present Congress beginning on the fifth Day of the last Month, and continued by adjournments to this Day, it has been with universal Pleasure and an unanimous Vote resolved, that You should be invited to accede to our Confederation, which has no other Objects, than the perfect Security of the natural & civil Rights of all the constituent Members according to their respective Circumstances, and the Preservation of a happy & lasting Connection with Great Britain on the great, & salutary & constitutional Principles herein before mentioned.  For effecting these Purposes, We have addrest an humble & loyal Petition to his Majesty, praying Relief of our Grievances; and have associated to stop all Importations from Great Britain & Ireland after the first Day of next December, & all Exportations to those Kingdoms & the West Indies, after the tenth Day of next September, unless the said Grievances are redrest.

That Almighty God may incline your Minds to approve our (just) equitable & necessary Measures, to add yourselves to Us, to put your Fate whenever You suffer Injuries you are determined to oppose not on the small Force of your single province, but on the consolidated Powers of North America, and may grarit to our joint Exertions an Event happy as our Cause is just, is the (sincere &) fervent Prayer of Us your sincere & affectionate Friends & Fellow Subjects.

MS. In the hand of John Dickinson.

1  Congress resolved to prepare an address to the people of Quebec on October 21 and for that purpose appointed a committee consisting of Thomas Cushing, Richard Henry Lee, and John Dickinson.  On October 24 the committee reported a draft, which was debated and recommitted, and on the 26th reported a second

Page 244    October 24, 1774

draft, which was "debated by paragraphs and amended, 8 & approved."  JCC, 1:101, 103, 105.  Little is known about the evolution of this document, but since few significant changes are to be found between the draft printed here and the final version, it is probable that this document is essentially the committee's second draft and was written October 24-26 (1774)...

 Preliminary Articles of Peace – 1782 November 30   Articles agreed upon, by... the Commissioner of his Britannic Majesty... on the one part; and... the Commissioners of the United States of America... on the other part...
•   ARTICLE 1: His Britannic Majesty acknowledges the said United States, Viz New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia, to be free Sovereign and independent States; That he treats with them as such; And for himself, his Heirs and Successors, relinquishes all Claims to the Government, Propriety, and territorial Rights of the same, and every part thereof; and that all Disputes which might arise in future, on the Subject of the Boundaries of the said United States, may be prevented, It is hereby agreed and declared that the following are, and shall be their Boundaries Viz:
•   ARTICLE 2: From the north west Angle of Nova Scotia, Viz that Angle which is form'd by a Line drawn due north, from the Source of St. Croix River to the Highlands, along the said Highlands which divide those Rivers that empty themselves into the River St Laurence, from those which fall into the Atlantic Ocean, to the northwesternmost Head of Connecticut River; thence down along the middle of that River... thence down along the middle of St. Mary's River to the Atlantic Ocean.  East, by a Line to be drawn along the middle of the River St Croix, from its Mouth in the Bay of Fundy to its Source; and from its Source directly North, to the aforesaid Highlands which divide the Rivers that fall into the Atlantic Ocean, from those which fall into the River Se Laurence; comprehending all Islands within twenty Leagues [about 100 km] of any part of the Shores of the united States, and lying between Lines to be drawn due East from the points where the aforesaid Boundaries between Nova Scotia on the one part and East Florida on the other shall respectively touch the Bay of Fundy, and the Atlantic Ocean; excepting such Islands as now are, or heretofore have been within the Limits of the said Province of Nova Scotia... (boldface emphasis added)

 The complete text of the Peace Treaty signed 30 September 1783, also known as The Paris Peace Treaty, which ended the United States War for Independence.  Includes a surveyor's description (Article Two) of the westernmost boundaries of Nova Scotia in 1783 (very different from the modern boundary).

 Electric Companies
This is a history of all electric power companies in Nova Scotia.  How many separate public utility companies have operated electricity generating and/or distribution systems in Nova Scotia? 10? 20? 30? Here's a list, from the Acadia Electric Light Co. Ltd. to the Zwicker Electric Power Co. Ltd.

 Telephone Companies
This is a history of all telegraph and telephone companies in Nova Scotia. According to the 1919 Annual Report of the Nova Scotia Board of Commissioners of Public Utilities, in December 1919 there were 223 telephone utility companies operating telephone systems in various parts of Nova Scotia. All are named here.

 Railway Companies
This is a history of all railway companies in Nova Scotia.  How many have there been? Twenty? Thirty? Forty? Here's a list, from the Annapolis & Atlantic Railway to the Weymouth & New France Railroad.

 History of Automobiles in Nova Scotia
A history, mostly excerpts from contemporary sources, of the early days of automobiles in Nova Scotia: The first few autos, speed limits, laws relating to autos, highway conditions, the ways people reacted to the new machines, etc.

 Halifax: Nova Scotia Orders in Council 1991 onward

 Ottawa: Federal Government Orders in Council 1867-1882

OIC 1871-1453, page 1
Subject: Minister of Public Works recommends changing the name of the Nova Scotia Railway station "now known as Coal Mines" to Stellarton, the local authorities and the Post Office and the Telegraph Company having already adopted that name...
Approved:   27 October 1871

OIC 1870-1172, page 1
OIC 1870-1172, page 2
OIC 1870-1172, page 3
Subject: Minister of Public Works recommending appointments on Nova Scotia Railway, viz. as station master and telegraph operators - William McCallum (first at Bedford, then at Elmsdale), Thomas M. Boggs (at Brookfield), M. Munford Jr. (at Ellershouse), Walter Sweet (at Newport), George F. Boggs (at Bedford) and Andrew M. Davidson (at West River)...
Approved:   18 February 1870

OIC 1877-0997, page 1
OIC 1877-0997, page 2
Subject: Appointment of Captain Nelson Card as lighthouse keeper at Isle Haute, Bay of Fundy, at $500.00 per annum...
Approved:   12 November 1877

OIC 1868-0961, page 1
OIC 1868-0961, page 2
OIC 1868-0961, page 3
Subject: Approval of payment of $2,700 to pay the steamship Linda for "maintaining communication between St. John, New Brunswick and Yarmouth, Nova Scotia," for the Post Office, having performed twenty-seven weekly trips at $100 per trip...
Approved:   19 November 1868

OIC 1874-1308, page 1
Subject: Approval of $6000 for the purchase of Bunkers Island near Yarmouth, Nova Scotia, for the purpose of constructing a Quarantine Station and Marine Hospital...
Approved:   5 November 1874

OIC 1879-0951, page 1
OIC 1879-0951, page 2
OIC 1879-0951, page 3
OIC 1879-0951, page 4
OIC 1879-0951, page 5
OIC 1879-0951, page 6
OIC 1879-0951, page 7
Subject: Telegraph line between Halifax and Canso – acceptance of the tender of the Dominion Telegraph Company to build and maintain "in perpetuity" a one-wire electric telegraph line between Halifax and Canso along the Eastern Shore Road...
Approved:   28 June 1879

OIC 1883-1311, page 1
OIC 1883-1311, page 2
OIC 1883-1311, page 3
OIC 1883-1311, page 4
OIC 1883-1311, page 5
OIC 1883-1311, page 6
Subject: Incorporation of The Yarmouth Power Knitting Company Limited, Yarmouth, Nova Scotia, for the purpose of manufacture and sale of all kinds of knitted hosiery and underwear... The capital stock of the Company to be $12,000... Abel C. Robbins, Hugh Currie, William A. Chase, James B. Kinney and Alexander L. Kerr to be the first directors of the Company...
Approved:   5 June 1883

OIC 1883-1789, page 1
OIC 1883-1789, page 2
OIC 1883-1789, page 3
OIC 1883-1789, page 4
Subject: Incorporation of The Yarmouth Duck and Yarn Company Limited, Yarmouth, Nova Scotia, for the purpose of manufacturing, spinning, weaving, dyeing, bleaching, printing, buying and selling of cotton, cotton duck, twine... The capital stock of the Company to be $150,000... William D. Lovitt, Samuel Killam, Abel C. Robbins, Frank Killam, Bowman Corning, Thomas E. Kelley and John Oldfield to be the first directors of the Company...
Approved:   18 August 1883

OIC 1881-1248, page 1
OIC 1881-1248, page 2
OIC 1881-1248, page 3
OIC 1881-1248, page 4
Subject: Incorporation of The Nova Scotia Glass Company Limited, New Glasgow, Nova Scotia, for the purpose of manufacturing, selling and dealing in all kinds of glass ware... The capital stock of the Company to be $50,000... Andrew Walker, Adam Carr Bell, James Eastwood, Graham Fraser and Peter A. McGregor to be the first directors of the Company...
Approved:   7 September 1881

OIC 1882-1422, page 1
OIC 1882-1422, page 2
OIC 1882-1422, page 3
OIC 1882-1422, page 4
OIC 1882-1422, page 5
Subject: Incorporation of The Nova Scotia Steel Company Limited, New Glasgow, Nova Scotia, for the purpose of making steel from scrap steel, scrap iron and pig iron... The capital stock of the Company to be $160,000... James D. McGregor, Graham Fraser, James M. Carmichael, John F. Stairs, and Henry S. Poole to be the first directors of the Company...
Approved:   12 July 1882

 Lost At Sea Sheevaun Nelson's website

This page is dedicated to Atlantic Canada fishermen and mariners lost at sea, their families and survivors. And to all those from the US East Coast and other countries who were also lost at sea.  The Way It Was — stories containing facts of how the fisheries was; Maps; Newspaper and book articles or extracts — tragedies, mysteries, happy endings and light reading; Personal recollections, letters, diaries, accounts of the sea; Photographs — old and new...
The Wayback Machine has archived copies of:
Lost At Sea
Sheevaun Nelson's website

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 Dorothea Dix and Sable Island by Thomas E. Appleton
Dorothea Lynde Dix was born at Hampden, Maine, in 1802, and was brought up in Boston.  This remarkable true tale of her involvement with Sable Island, Nova Scotia, and a series of shipwrecks, would be rejected as a movie script for being unbelievable.

 Ship Information Database contains information about hundreds of ships that were registered in Canadian ports or sailed in Canadian waters

 Sailing Ship riggings by Maritime Museum of the Atlantic, Halifax


The Eddy Rebellion
in Northern Nova Scotia
November 1776

 The Eddy Rebellion in Nova Scotia, November 1776

 Battle of Fort Cumberland (Eddy Rebellion) Wikipedia

Jonathan Eddy

Eddy, Jonathan, farmer, soldier; born 1726/27 at Norton, Massachusetts, son of Eleazer E. and Elizabeth (Cobb) Eddy; married 4 May 1749 to Mary, daughter of Dr. William Ware; came to Cumberland, Nova Scotia, in 1763, after serving as captain in the Seven Years' War; deputy provost marshal of Cumberland County; first magistrate on the Penobscot River; Member of the Nova Scotia Legislative Assembly for Cumberland Township, 1770-1775; leader in the rebellion in Cumberland in 1776; served as colonel in the American Revolutionary forces, living at Sharon, Massachusetts; in 1781 granted land at Eddington, Maine, where he died in August, 1804.
The Legislative Assembly of Nova Scotia 1758-1983: A Biographical Directory, edited and revised by Shirley B. Elliott, 1984, ISBN 088871050X.   This volume was prepared as a contribution of the Public Archives of Nova Scotia to the celebration of the bicentenary of the establishment of representative government in Canada.

 Jonathan Eddy Wikipedia


...a certain John Eddy was indicted by the grand jury for treason, but escaped before he could be brought to trial. The principal offense was that of enlisting men for the British service.
Footnote 90 in Volume 7 of The Writings of George Washington from the Original Manuscript Sources, 1745-1799, 39 volumes, John C. Fitzpatrick, Editor, Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1931-1944; reprint, New York: Greenwood Press, 1970
This John Eddy is not to be confused with Jonathan Eddy, a resident of Cumberland County, Nova Scotia, in the 1760s and 1770s, and a Member of the Nova Scotia Legislative Assembly for Cumberland Township, 1770-1775. From the beginning, Jonathan Eddy supported the revolutionary side in the war, and certainly did not enlist men for the British service.

If Eddy had succeeded...

(In 1776) we had civil unrest at Fort Cumberland when Colonel Jonathan Eddy of the Continental Army tried to foment an uprising on behalf of the American revolution among the New England settlers who replaced the French Acadians. If Eddy had succeeded, and he might very well have, Canada today would not have an Atlantic coast...
— Mrs. Dianne Brushett (MP for Cumberland-Colchester):
House of Commons, Ottawa — Hansard, 27 January 1994

 Planter Studies Centre Planters: the old English term for colonists

Migration from New England, 1759-1774 The Colony of Nova Scotia stood on New England's frontier during the tumultuous time of the Seven Years' War (1756-1763) between England and France over their North American Empires.  Between 1760 and 1774, approximately 8000 Planters (colonists) from Connecticut, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and New Hampshire came to Nova Scotia, bringing with them their own culture, a mixture of Old World traditions and New World adjustments...

 Tantramar Heritage British forces captured Fort Beausejour in June of 1755, and renamed it Fort Cumberland... In 1776, many of the Yorkshire families found themselves caught up in the Eddy Rebellion when a group of New Englanders and sympathizers laid siege to Fort Cumberland...

 Fort Beausejour - Fort Cumberland, by Parks Canada
Fort Beausejour is a star-shaped fort built in 1750-51 by by order of Marquis de la Jonquière, Governor of Canada, in the course of the French struggle with the British for possession of Acadia (Nova Scotia).  Fort Beausejour was taken by Lt. Col. Robert Monckton with volunteers from New England, known as Shirley's Regiment, raised by Lt. Col. John Winslow, aided by men of the Royal Artillery, and other British troops, after a two-week siege, June 3-16, 1755.  Renamed Fort Cumberland.  Besieged by rebels under Jonathan Eddy, November 4-24, 1776.  Defended by the Royal American Fencible Regiment under Lt. Col. Joseph Gorham and relieved by Major Thomas Batt with a body of Royal Marines and Royal Highland Emigrants, who routed the besiegers.

 24 August 1763: List of names of 374 Acadian Prisoners at Fort Cumberland (formerly Fort Beausejour)

 "Tantramar Flashbacks" in The Sackville Tribune-Post, 9 May 2001
For a time, in 1775-76, it appeared that Nova Scotia (which then included present day New Brunswick) might be the fourteenth colony to rebel... In Cumberland Township (now Cumberland County, Nova Scotia) local leadership for the revolutionary cause was provided by its two MLAs, John Allan (1746-1805) and Jonathan Eddy (1726-1804). The uprising known as Eddy's Rebellion reached its peak in November of 1776...

The Wayback Machine has archived copies of:
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 "Tantramar Flashbacks" in The Sackville Tribune-Post, 19 December 2001
The Christmas season was anything but merry on the Tantramar in 1776. During the previous autumn this region had been directly involved in the American Revolution. Although the Eddy Rebellion was over, its impact was still in evidence. The remains of torched homes and farm buildings could be found throughout the countryside. Desperation and starvation lined the faces of many homeless refugees (from both sides) who were huddled in Fort Beausejour, now renamed Fort Cumberland...


The Wayback Machine has archived copies of this document:
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 They Intended to Make of Nova Scotis the 14th State of the Union
a column from the Yarmouth Vanguard

 Fort Lawrence / Beaubassin Heritage Association The area, presently known as Fort Lawrence, located on the East side of the Missaquash River, in the region known as Chignecto which consisted of the area surrounding the border between present day New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, was originally called Beaubassin, meaning "beautiful bay". Beaubassin was founded in 1671 and was the first major French settlement, outside of Port Royal, in Acadia. The first Frenchman to visit the area was Champlain in 1605...

 The Yorkshire Emigration Yorkshire's Ayup Online Magazine
The Townships of Sackville, Cumberland and Amherst were laid out in 1763 each containing 100,000 acres (Cumberland Township disappeared and was replaced by Amherst Township in 1783)... The first shipload of Yorkshire immigrants to arrive was in 1772... The Chignecto Isthmus felt the greatest impact of the immigration. Settling at Amherst were: Black, Freeze, Robinson, Lusby, Oxley, Foster and others; at Nappan, Maccan, River Philip: Brown, Ripley, Shepley, Pipes, Coates, Harrison, Fenwick and others: Westmorland Point, Point de Bute and Fort Lawrence: Keilor, Siddall, Wells, Smith Lowerson, Truemen, Chapman, Donkin (actually from Northumberland), Read, Carter, King, Trenholm, Dobson and others; and at Sackville: Dixon, Bowser, Atkinson, Anderson, Bulmer, Harper, Patterson, Fawcett, Richardson, Humphrey, Wry, and others. Aside from the Chignecto region up to 15% of the families settled in Annapolis County and included the names: Clark, Wilson, Oliver, Milner, Mills, Halliday, Jefferson and others. The settlement generally known as "the Yorkshire Immigration" has had a profound effect on settlement patterns in eastern Canada, and may have significantly contributed to the political landscape of the Maritimes. Loyal Yorkshiremen helped British forces at Fort Cumberland (now Fort Beausejour National Historic Park) quell the Eddy Rebellion of 1776...
The Wayback Machine has an archived copy of this document:
The Yorkshire Emigration
Yorkshire's Ayup Online Magazine

Archived: 2002 February 09

 Assembly 5 (April 1770-October 1785)
There were nine members during this time for Cumberland County and Cumberland Township. Their chief claim to fame seemed to be non-attendance and one of them, Jonathon Eddy, was dismissed from the House for becoming "a rebble". This was true... It was claimed that one of the causes of poor attendance was the almost impossible task of getting to Halifax. The Halifax authorities claimed the main reason was the "rebellious nature" of the Cumberland inhabitants. There was, however, a small rebellion commonly called the "Eddy Rebellion" in 1776...

 Petition of Nova Scotia Inhabitants To "His Excellency George Washington Esquire Generalissmo of the Army of the Twelve United Colonies of America" February 8, 1776

 Lieut. Lewis Frederick Delesdernier a Cumberland County, Nova Scotia, refugee, came to Machias in 1776. In May, 1777, he was commissioned first lieutenant in the Continental Army by Col. John Allan, and acted as his secretary while Col. Allan commanded the Eastern Indians. Soon after the close of the Revolution he removed to Passamaquoddy and was the first collector of customs and the first postmaster of Eastport.

 Dyer Family History In November 1777, Jones Dyer accompanied Colonel John Allan, Superintendent of the Eastern Indians, and a party of American "Patriots", to St. Andrews, where they held a council with the Indians. The following day an attempt was made to capture Allan by inviting him aboard a sloop. Allan suspected the scheme, and instead of going himself sent Jones Dyer of Machias, Louis F. Delesdernier, and four others. All of them were seized as they boarded the craft, which was a Loyalist vessel, the Howe, from Halifax.

 Jonathan Eddy (1726-1804) The hamlet of Eddington, in Penobscot County, Maine, (on Highway Nine "The Airline", well-known to many motorists from Nova Scotia) is named in honour of Jonathan Eddy.

Howard Trueman's book

Complete text now available online
(the links below point to Chapter Four)

 CHAPTER IV: The Eddy Rebellion The Chignecto Isthmus and Its First Settlers, by Howard Trueman
The Eddy Rebellion does not occupy much space in history, but it was an important event in the district where it occurred, and in the lives of those who were responsible for it. The leaders were Colonel Jonathan Eddy, Sheriff John Allan, or "Rebel John," as he was afterwards called, William Howe, and Samuel Rogers. Eddy, Rogers and Allan had been, or were at that time members of the Nova Scotia Legislative Assembly at Halifax. Allan was a Scotsman by birth, the others were from New England... The question has been asked, would it not have been better for the northern half of this continent if the Eddy rebellion had succeeded and what is now Canada had become one country with the United States?...

 CHAPTER IV: The Eddy Rebellion The Chignecto Isthmus and Its First Settlers, by Howard Trueman

 CHAPTER IV: The Eddy Rebellion The Chignecto Isthmus and Its First Settlers, by Howard Trueman

 Nova Scotia during the American Revolution
by Bill J. Wilms, University of Groningen, the Netherlands

Continental Congress Considers the Plight
of Refugees from Nova Scotia

Monday, March 28, 1785

Congress assembled. Present, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina and South Carolina; and from the State of Massachusetts, Mr. [Rufus] King, and from Georgia, Mr. [William] Houstoun...

The Committee consisting of Messrs. [William] Ellery, [James] Monroe, [Jacob] Read, [Hugh] Williamson and [Richard Dobbs] Speight to whom was referred the petition of Jonathan Eddy and others, refugees from Nova Scotia, setting [forth] that on accounts of their opposition to British measures they were exiled from their habitation and proscribed by their enemies, their houses were burned and their stock and other personal property wasted and destroyed and considerable rewards offered for the heads of the most active among them, that ever since their misfortune they have been inhabitants of the United States and have served the cause of America in the field or in such other way as their abilities permitted — That they now find themselves destitute of a home for their retirement, of property for their support and of all hope of assistance but from the justice and humanity of Congress; and pray that the may receive some compensation for their losses. Whereupon your Committee submit the following resolution —

That Jonathan Eddy and other refugees from Nova Scotia on account of their attachment to the interest of the United States be recommended to the humanity & particular attention of the several states in which they respectively reside and that they be [informed that whenever Congress can consistently make grants of land they will reward in this way as far as may be consistent such refugees from Nova Scotia, as may be disposed to live in the Western Country.]

[Note: This report, in the writing of William Ellery, except the part in brackets which is in the writing of Hugh Williamson, is in the Papers of the Continental Congress, No. 19, II, folio 197. It was read this day (March 28) and the resolve passed April 13.]

Source: Journal of the Continental Congress, 1774-1789
Historical Collections for the U.S. National Digital Library

March 28, 1785: Jonathan Eddy and other refugees from Nova Scotia
Source: Journal of the Continental Congress, March 28, 1785
Historical Collections for the U.S. National Digital Library

Continental Congress
April 13th, 1785

Congress assembled. Present, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pensylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina and South Carolina; and from the state of Georgia, Mr. [William] Houstoun.

On the report of a committee, consisting of Mr. [William] Ellery, Mr. [James] Monroe, Mr. [Jacob] Read, Mr. [Hugh] Williamson and Mr. [Richard Dobbs] Spaight, to whom was referred a petition of Jonathan Eddy, and other refugees of Nova Scotia,

Resolved, That Jonathan Eddy, and other refugees from Nova Scotia, on account of their attachment to the interest of the United States, be recommended to the humanity and particular attention of the several states in which they respectively reside; and that they be informed, that whenever Congress can consistently make grants of land, they will reward, in this way, as far as may be consistent, such refugees from Nova Scotia, as may be disposed to live in the Western country.

Source: Journal of the Continental Congress, 1774-1789
Historical Collections for the U.S. National Digital Library

The Eddy Rebellion: Ink-on-Paper References

Papers relating to Trials for Treason in 1776-7, The Nova Scotia Historical Society, #1 (1878) — The Eddy Rebellion; eight pages

The Siege of Fort Cumberland, 1776: An Episode in the American Revolution, by Ernest Clarke, 304 pages, published 1995 by McGill-Queen's University Press, Montreal & Kingston, ISBN 0773518673, ISBN 077351323X; — A detailed account of the 1776 siege and the events leading up to it

Footprints in the Marsh Mud: Politics and Land Settlement in the Township of Sackville 1760-1800, by James D. Snowdon, M.A. thesis, University of New Brunswick, 1974; reprinted, Tantramar Heritage Trust, 2000 — pages 74-80: the Eddy rebellion

A Century at Chignecto: The Key to Old Acadia, by William Richard Bird, Ryerson Press, Toronto, 1928 — Chapters VI-XVI: the events of 1750-1755, and the Eddy Rebellion of 1776

Dictionary of Canadian Biography, Vol.IV, pages 540-542 — Lt. Col. Robert Monckton (1726-1782)

Dictionary of Canadian Biography, Vol.V, pages 295,296 — Jonathan Eddy (1726-1804)

Memoir of Colonel Jonathan Eddy, of Eddington, Maine: With Some Account of the Eddy Family, and of the Early Settlers on Penobscot River by Joseph W. Porter, published 1877 by Sprague, Owen & Nash, Augusta, Maine, 73 pages

History of Penobscot County, Maine, with Illustrations and Biographical Sketches (1617-1882) (edited by Henry A. Ford?) published 1882 by Williams, Chase & Co., Cleveland, Ohio, 922 pages

Military Operations in Eastern Maine and Nova Scotia During the Revolution, chiefly compiled from the journals and letters of Colonel John Allan, with notes and a memoir of Col. John Allan by Frederic Kidder, 336 pages,
published 1867 by Joel Munsell, Albany, New York;
reprinted 1971 by Kraus Reprint Co., Millwood, New York;
reprinted 1997 ISBN 0832854581, 336 pages, by Higginson Book Company

Sketch of Col. John Allan of Maine, by George H. Allan, New England Historical and Genealogical Register, July 1876, pages 353-359

Narrative of Col. John Allan, edited by Peter E. Vose, New England Historical and Genealogical Register, July 1858, pages 254-257

The Neutral Yankees of Nova Scotia, A Marginal Colony During The Revolutionary Years by John Bartlet Brebner, 387 pages with fold-out map, published 1937 by Columbia University Press, New York (reprinted 1970 by McClelland and Stewart, Toronto ?)

Machias And the Invasion of Nova Scotia, by Daniel Cobb Harvey (1886-1966), 14-page phamphlet; reprinted from the Annual Report of the Canadian Historical Association, 1932, pages 17-28

Nova Scotia in the Critical Years, 1775-76 by Wilfred Brenton Kerr, The Dalhousie Review, Vol. 12, 1932

The Maritime Provinces of British North America and the American Revolution by Wilfred Brenton Kerr, published 1941 by Busy East Press, Sackville, N.B.; reprinted 1970 by Russell & Russell Inc., New York (a division of Atheneum House Inc.) 172 pages

The American Invasion of Nova Scotia, 1776-77 by Wilfred Brenton Kerr, Canadian Defense Quarterly, July 1936, pages 433-445

Bermuda and the American Revolution: 1760-1783 by Wilfred Brenton Kerr, published 1936 by Princeton University Press, New Jersey, 142 pages; reprinted 1969 by Archon Books

The American Revolution and Nova Scotia Reconsidered by George A. Rawlyk, Dalhousie Review, Autumn 1963, pages 379-394

Revolution Rejected, 1775-1776 George A. Rawlyk editor, published 1968 by Prentice-Hall of Canada, Scarborough, Ontario

Nova Scotia's Massachusetts: a study of Massachusetts - Nova Scotia relations, 1630 to 1784 by George A. Rawlyk, 298 pages, ISBN 0773501428, published 1973 by McGill University Press, Montreal, and Queen's University Press, London, Ontario

A People Highly Favoured of God: the Nova Scotia Yankees and the American Revolution by Gordon Stewart and George Rawlyk, 219 pages, ISBN 770508669, published 1972 by Macmillan, Toronto

New Ireland: Loyalists in Eastern Maine During the American Revolution, by Robert Wesley Sloan, Ph.D. Dissertation, Michigan State University, 1971

New England Rubicon: A Study of Eastern Maine During the American Revolution, by John Howard Ahlin, Ph.D. Dissertation, Boston University, 1962

The Forts of Chignecto: A Study of the Eighteenth Century Conflict Between France and Great Britain in Acadia by John Clarence Webster, 196 pages, 400 copies published 1930 by the author, Shediac, N.B.; now (2002) available as a print-to-order reprint

History in a Government House: a Study of Those Who Administered the Government of Acadia and That of Nova Scotia Until 1784 — Read Before the Nova Scotia Historical Society 1 April 1926 by John Clarence Webster, 16 pages, published 1926 by the author, Shediac, N.B.

Canada and the American Revolution: The Disruption of the First British Empire by George M. Wrong, 511 pages, published 1935 by Macmillan, New York; reprinted 1968 ISBN 0815402619 by Cooper Square Publishers; reprinted ISBN 0781248752 by Reprint Services Corporation

Privateering and Piracy: The Effects of New England Raiding Upon Nova Scotia During the American Revolution, 1775-1783, by John Dewar Faibisy, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Massachusetts, 1972

Acadia in the Revolution, by George J. Varney, Magazine of American History, July 1882, pages 486-495

Nova Scotia and New England During the Revolution, by Emily P. Weaver, American Historical Review, October 1904, pages 52-71

A history of Tatamagouche, Nova Scotia by Frank H. Patterson, 143 pages, published 1917 by Royal Print & Litho, Halifax; reprinted 1973 by Mika Publishing Co., Belleville, Ontario

Acadia: The Geography of Early Nova Scotia to 1760 by Andrew Hill Clark, 470 pages with maps, published 1968 by University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, Wisconsin; reprints available in 2002 ISBN 0835760006 from Books On Demand

Journal of Abijah Willard by Abijah Willard, edited by John Clarence Webster, 75 pages, New Brunswick Historical Society, [1930?], Saint John, N.B. [Abijah Willard was an officer in the expedition which captured Fort Beausejour in 1755. Abijah Willard, Esq., was named in the Banishment Act of the State of Massachusetts, September 1778.]

 Unpublished Manuscripts... a rich lode of historical material...
Western Counties Regional Library, Yarmouth, Nova Scotia

   •  The American Invasion of Nova Scotia, 1776-77, W.B. Kerr. From: Canadian Defence Quarterly, n.d. pp 433-445. Photocopy.
   •  History of New-Scotland From its Discovery to the Present Times, [John Oldmixon]. From: The British Empire in America, Containing the History of the Discovery, Settlement, Progress and Present State of all the British Colonies... 1708?
   •  Account of the Capture of Port Royal by the inhabitants of Boston and Salem under the command of William Phipps, 21st May, 1690. Extract from the Narrative by M. de Goutin of the taking of the fort at Pimiquid, 22 August, 1696. From: Public Archives of Canada, 1912. Appendix F, pp [67 - 74] Sessional paper 29b. Bound with other items under title: N.S. State Papers in Canadian Archives Reports, 1911, 1922. 23 cm. Photocopy...
   •  Chased by Pirates: A Leaf From an Old Sailor's Log / Levi Nickerson. "An Experience on Schooner John Ryder - 1841". 9 p. Handwritten. Bound with: How Spanish Pirates Disposed of a Nova Scotian Crew. Cover title: Capt. James Cunningham's Ill-Fate on the "Vernon". 29 cm. Photocopy.


John Allan

Allan, John, farmer, merchant; born 3 January 1746 at Edinburgh Castle, Scotland; son of William and Isabelle (Maxwell) Allan; married 10 October 1767 to Mary, daughter of Mark Patton; elected Member of the Nova Scotia Legislative Assembly for Cumberland Township in by-election, took seat 30 October 1775; seat declared vacant 28 June 1776 for non-attendance; served as clerk of the Sessions; Justice of the Peace, sheriff, clerk of the Supreme Court; later became a soldier in the American Revolutionary Army. As a participant in the Eddy Rebellion he fled from Cumberland County in August 1776 for political reasons; died 7 February 1805, in Maine.
The Legislative Assembly of Nova Scotia 1758-1983: A Biographical Directory, edited and revised by Shirley B. Elliott, 1984, ISBN 088871050X

(1775) Col. John Allan, commanding officer at Machias, Maine, and Superintendent of Eastern Indian department...
(1777) company raised (at Machias) for expedition against St. John, Nova Scotia...

Colonel John Allan

from Electric Scotland's 'Mini Bios of People of Scots Descent'

Colonel John Allan of Revolutionary fame, and who was especially prominent during that period in Eastern Maine, deserves much greater mention and consideration than historians have ever bestowed upon him. This seeming neglect of one who is entitled to much honor is easily accounted for. His position under General Washington as Superintendent of the Indians of Eastern Maine did not bring him into the limelight of those times, although his duties were arduous and required skill, executive ability, keen foresight and sagacity, which attributes he possessed to a marked degree. In executing this important mission he was not in any of the memorable battles of the Revolution and hence his name is not prominently inscribed upon the roll of the famous men of that great struggle. His services for the cause of the American Colonies again brings into prominence Passamaquoddy Bay and the historic town of Machias, that being his headquarters. John Allan was the eldest son of William Allan, one of the earliest settlers of Halifax, Nova Scotia, and was born in Edinburgh Castle, Scotland, Jan. 3, 1746. His father, William Allan, was born about the year 1720; was a Scottish gentleman of means and an officer in the British Army. He married July 9, 1744, Isabella Maxwell, the daughter of Sir Eustace Maxwell a gentleman of Scotland, and at the time of the birth of his son, in January 1746, he was temporarily residing in Edinburgh Castle where he and his family had sought refuge during the troubles of the Rebellion. From 1748 to I750 there was quite a large emigration from England to the Nova Scotia coast, and it was about this time that William Allan settled at Halifax where he remained for a short time and then moved to Fort Lawrence where he resided until about 1759. It is supposed that he was a British officer at this tune...
Source: Electric Scotland's Scottish History
Mini Bios of People of Scots Descent   Colonel John Allan

Colonel John Allan kept the area from the St. Croix River
to the Penobscot River from becoming Canadian territory

One Hundred and Twentieth Maine Legislature

First Regular Session
40th Legislative Day, Tuesday, May 1, 2001

Joint Resolution Commemorating
May First as Colonel John Allan,
American Revolutionary War Hero, Day

 Joint Resolution Commemorating May First as Colonel John Allan, American Revolutionary War Hero, Day
On motion of Representative SOCTOMAH of the Passamaquoddy Tribe, the following Joint Resolution: (H.P. 1323) (Cosponsored by Senator SHOREY of Washington and Representatives: BAGLEY of Machias, BUNKER of Kossuth Township, DUGAY of Cherryfield, DUNLAP of Old Town, GOODWIN of Pembroke, HALL of Bristol, MORRISON of Baileyville, Senator: GOLDTHWAIT of Hancock)

WHEREAS, Colonel John Allan, Scottish-born patriot of the Revolutionary War, was appointed by President George Washington in 1776 as the Military Commander of the Eastern Area; and

WHEREAS, the Continental Congress in 1778 acknowledged the work of Colonel Allan in defending the District of Maine; and

WHEREAS, Colonel Allan had headquarters in Machias, Maine and defended the country during the Revolutionary War; and

WHEREAS, Colonel Allan united the Passamaquoddy, Maliseet, Penobscot and Micmac tribes with the Maine settlers and together they defended the Maine coast against the British; and

WHEREAS, Colonel Allan worked to fulfill promises made to the Passamaquoddy Tribe by meeting with President Washington and the Continental Congress; and

WHEREAS, Colonel Allan's service to the American colonies kept the area from the St. Croix River to the Penobscot River from becoming Canadian territory; now, therefore, be it

RESOLVED: That, We, the Members of the One Hundred and Twentieth Legislature now assembled in the First Regular Session, on behalf of the people we represent, take this opportunity to recognize Colonel John Allan as a Patriot of Maine and we proclaim that May 1st, 2001 is Colonel John Allan Day; and be it further

RESOLVED: That suitable copies of this resolution, duly authenticated by the Secretary of State, be transmitted to Porter Memorial Library in Machias, Peavey Memorial Library in Eastport, the Charlotte Historical Society, the Dennysville Historical Society, the Pembroke Historical Society, the Passamaquoddy Tribe and the Daughters of the American Revolution, who maintain the historical memorials in honor of this important time in Maine history.

Source: The Maine House of Representatives, Augusta, Maine

 New Brunswick Historical Tidbits by Mitch Biggar
On May 29th, 1776, John Allan learned that the HMS Vulture had returned to Annapolis, Nova Scotia. So on May 30th Allan set out from Machias, Maine, with a party of forty-three men. Allan was joined by thirteen canoes of men at Musquash Cove... When the authorities in Halifax heard of this they sent the warship HMS Mermaid and the sloops HMS Hope and a detachment of soldiers to repel the American force...

Continental Congress

April 21st, 1785

The petition of John Allan, Supt. of Indian Affairs, Eastern Department, praying compensation for services and expences, was referred to the Board of Treasury to report. [Note: The Board reported June 7, 1785. The petition, dated April 20, 1785, is in No. 42, I, folio 79.]
Source: Journal of the Continental Congress, 1774-1789
Historical Collections for the U.S. National Digital Library

Continental Congress

June 6th, 1785

Board of Treasury, June 6th 1785.
The Board of Treasury to whom was referred the petition of John Allan Esq. late Superintendant of Indian affairs for the eastern department, Report.

That in the opinion of the Board, the Commission held by John Allan Esq. late Superintendant of Indian affairs for the eastern department, under the authority of Congress, can only be considered as a civil commission, and therefore that his claim for the emoluments granted to officers in the military line of the United States cannot be admitted.

With respect to the claims made by the Petitioner for his wages as Superintendant of Indian affairs from the 3d of June, 1783, till his dismission, and that the sum due on the certificate granted to him under the administration of the late Superintendant of finance, on the 4th June, 1783, should be discharged. The Board considering the pretensions of Mr Allan, as founded on the same basis with other civil officers of the United States submit to the consideration of Congress the following Resolve,

That the sum of eight hundred and seventy dollars 45/90 be paid to John Allan late Superintendant of Indian affairs June 13, passed for the Eastern department being the amount of his salary from the 3d June, 1783, till the 1st May, 1784, the time he received intelligence of his dismission from service.

That the Registers certificate given to John Allan Postponed 13 June; 17 June assigned the 4th. June, 1783, for three thousand four hundred and ninety four dollars being the balance due him for past services to that period be paid and cancelled out of the requisition for the year 1784.

[Note: This report is in the Papers of the Continental Congress, No. 138, 1, folio 75. Allan's petition is in No. 42, I, folio 79.]

Source: Journal of the Continental Congress, 1774-1789
Historical Collections for the U.S. National Digital Library

Continental Congress Pays John Allan
$870 45/90

June 13th, 1785

On the report of the board of treasury, to whom was referred a petition of John Allan, late superintendant of Indian Affairs for the eastern department,

Resolved, (by nine states) That the sum of eight hundred and seventy dollars, and 45/90 of a dollar, be paid to John Allan, late superintendent of Indian affairs for the eastern department, being the amount of his salary from the 3d of June, 1783, until the 1st of May, 1784, the time he received intelligence of his dismission from service.
Source: Journal of the Continental Congress, 1774-1789
Historical Collections for the U.S. National Digital Library

Continental Congress

July 7th, 1785

On this day was read a letter of John Allan, dated June 29, 1785, forwarding a speech of the Micmac and Penobscot Indians at Passamaquoddy in November 1783, and a wampum belt.  [Note: A copy of the speech had been forwarded to Congress December 25, 1783.  Allan's letter is in No. 58, folio 71.]
Source: Journal of the Continental Congress, 1774-1789
Historical Collections for the U.S. National Digital Library

Continental Congress Pays John Allan

September 29th, 1785

Congress assembled.  Present, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Virginia, South Carolina and Georgia; and from the State of Delaware, Mr. [John] Vining; from Maryland, Mr. [William] Hindman; and from North Carolina, Mr. [William] Cumming...

On a report from the board of treasury, to whom was referred a petition of John Allan, esqr. late superintendent of Indian Affairs for the eastern department,

Resolved, That three thousand four hundred and ninety four dollars be paid to Mr. John Allan, out of the requisition for the year 1784, in full of the balance due to him on the fourth day of June, 1783, for his services to that time, and that the register's certificate, given for that balance, be taken up and cancelled.

Source: Journal of the Continental Congress, 1774-1789
Historical Collections for the U.S. National Digital Library


The American Revolution

 Proclamation of Rebellion, by King George III 23 August 1775
Declaration that the colonies were in a state of rebellion...

      Proclamation of Rebellion, by King George III 23 August 1775
Declaration that the colonies were in a state of rebellion...

      Proclamation of Rebellion, by King George III 23 August 1775
Declaration that the colonies were in a state of rebellion...

 Pictou During the American Revolution

The Wayback Machine has archived copies of this document:
Pictou During the American Revolution

Archived: 1997 May 8

Archived: 1999 January 28

Archived: 1999 October 9

Archived: 2000 March 5

Archived: 2000 October 13

Archived: 2001 June 28

Archived: 2001 November 24

 The King's Orange Rangers by John Leefe
...Captain John Howard's Company of the King's Orange Rangers came to Liverpool, Nova Scotia, at the request of the local citizens. They arrived December 13, 1778 and remained until August 23, 1783.  Their purpose was to deter rebel privateers which since 1776, had been harassing the people and stealing their property...

The King's Orange Rangers, a loyalist regiment, was raised in December, 1776 by William Bayard, colonel of the militia of Orange County, New York. The corps was recruited throughout Orange County. The corps was transferred to Halifax, Nova Scotia in October of 1778. The regiment was employed in garrison duty in Halifax and smaller towns along the coast of Nova Scotia for the remainder of the war. They were disbanded on 10 October 1783.
The King's Orange Rangers, Captain John Howard's Company
Index to King's Orange Rangers History

 Banishment Act of the State of Massachusetts passed: September 1778

An Act to prevent the return to this state of certain persons therein named and others who have left this state or either of the United States, and joined the enemies thereof...
Sect. 2.  And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, that if any person or persons, who shall be transported as aforesaid, shall voluntarily return to this state, without liberty first had and obtained from the general court, he shall, on conviction thereof before the superior court of judicature, court of assize and general gaol delivery, suffer the pain of death without benefit of clergy...

 Full text of The New York Act of Attainder, or Confiscation Act passed: 22d October 1779

An Act for the Forfeiture and Sale of the Estates of Persons who have adhered to the Enemies of this State, and for declaring the Sovereignty of the People of this State, in respect to all Property within the same...

Whereas, during the present unjust and cruel war, waged by the King of Great Britain, against this State and the other United States of America, divers persons holding or claiming property within this state, have voluntarily been adherent to the said King, his fleets and armies, enemies to this State and the said other United States, with intent to subvert the government and liberties of this state and the said other United States, and to bring the same into subjection to the crown of Great Britain; by reason whereof, the said persons have severally justly forfeited all rights to the protection of this state...

 Articles of Capitulation: Surrender of Lord Cornwallis 18 October 1781
...The garrison of York will march out to a place to be appointed in front of the posts, at two o'clock precisely, with shouldered arms, colors cased, and drums beating a British or German march.  They are then to ground their arms, and return to their encampments, where they will remain until they are despatched to the places of their destination...

 The Fate of the Loyalists
...The Compensation Act of July, 1783, was "to inquire into the circumstances and former fortunes of such persons as are reduced to distress by the late unhappy dissentions in America," and gave no authority for action.  It limited the time of receiving the claims to March 25, 1784.  The time was extended by three later acts, but the business was not completed until the spring of 1790...

 Treaty of Paris: Treaty between the U.S. and Great Britain 3 September 1783
...And that all disputes which might arise in future on the subject of the boundaries of the said United States may be prevented, it is hereby agreed and declared, that the following are and shall be their boundaries, viz.; from the northwest angle of Nova Scotia...

 Jay Treaty: Treaty between the U.S. and Great Britain 9 November 1794
...The said Commissioners shall meet at Halifax and shall have power to adjourn to such other place or places as they shall think fit.  They shall have power to appoint a Secretary, and to employ such Surveyors or other Persons as they shall judge necessary.  The said Commissioners shall by a Declaration under their Hands and Seals, decide what River is the River St Croix intended by the Treaty...

 The War of American Independence: Loyalist Participation
Extensive Bibliography by the U.S. Army Center of Military History

The Penobscot Expedition
(July-August 1779)

The Penobscot Expedition was the
largest American naval fleet assembled
during the Revolutionary War

Many naval historians consider 14 August 1779
to be the greatest United States naval disaster
before Pearl Harbor, 7 December 1941

The total demolition of the American navy
by a British fleet from Halifax

 Images: Destruction of the American Fleet at Penobscot Bay, 14 August 1779
Department of the Navy – Naval Historical Center, Washington Navy Yard, Washington DC

 The Penobscot Expedition Chapter 12 of:
A Naval History of the American Revolution, by Gardner W. Allen, Boston, 1913
...About the middle of June 1779, eight hundred or more British troops from Halifax, convoyed by three sloops of war under the command of Captain Mowatt, entered Penobscot Bay and took possession of the peninsula of Maja-bagaduce or Bagaduce, now called Castine.  The object of this move was the establishment of a new province, furnishing a home for many of the numerous loyalists under British protection in Nova Scotia and elsewhere and at the same time serving as a bulwark for British possessions farther east and as an advanced military post convenient for operating against New England... When the news of the British occupation reached Boston the Massachusetts General Court was in session, and it was soon determined to drive out the enemy, if possible, before he had had time to strengthen his position.  Preparations were made with energy and a military and naval force was soon organized... The fleet organized for this enterprise consisted of nineteen armed vessels and twenty or more transports, mostly from Massachusetts... Leaving the wrecks of their fleet strewn along the banks of the river, the unhappy soldiers and sailors of the Penobscot expedition found their way back to Boston through the wilderness.  The disaster had a depressing effect in Massachusetts...

 The Penobscot Expedition Chapter Fourteen of Volume Two of:
The Rise, Progress and Termination of the American Revolution, by Mercy Otis Warren, 1805

( Mercy Otis Warren was the wife of James Warren, speaker of the Massachusetts House of Representatives)

...Colonel Maclean had been sent with a party of British troops from Halifax to land at the mouth of the Penobscot, within the jurisdiction of the Massachusetts.  He erected a fort, and established a strong post in a convenient situation for harassing the trade and distressing the young settlements bordering on the province of Nova Scotia.  When this intelligence was received at Boston, the hardy and enterprising sprit of the men of Massachusetts did not hesitate to make immediate preparation to dislodge an enemy whose temerity ahd led them to encroach on their state... By the industry and vigilance of public bodies and pirate adventurers... within ten days after Maclean's attempt was known at Boston, the Warren, a handsome new frigate of force, commanded by Commodore Saltonstall and seventeen other continental, state, and pirate ships, were equipped, manned, victualled, and ready for sea.  They were accompanied by an equal number of transports, with a considerable body of land forces who embarked in high spirits and with the sanguine expectation of a short and successful expedition... This business was principally conducted by the Massachusetts state legislature... Scarcely a single event during the great contest caused more triumph to Britain than this total demolition of the beginning of an American navy...

 The Penobscot Expedition the Penobscot fiasco

 The Penobscot Expedition Archaeological Project (1999-2000)
Department of the Navy – Naval Historical Center, Washington Navy Yard, Washington DC
In June 1779, the British sent a contingent of soldiers to Majabagaduce, Massachusetts (present-day Castine, Maine) and established the military and political headquarters of a new colony for loyalist subjects fleeing the rebellious colonies.  In addition, the new fortification (Fort George) served as a source of protection for British shipping operating in the Bay of Fundy and along the coast of Nova Scotia, and prevented a land assault against southern Canada by American forces.  On 24 July 1779 a combined American naval and land force of approximately 40 ships and almost 3,000 men under the command of Commodore Dudley Saltonstall entered Penobscot Bay and laid siege to the new fort...

 Old Seventy-Fourth Highland Regiment, 1778-1783
...The 74th embarked at Greenock in August 1778, for Halifax, in Nova Scotia... The battalion companies, with a detachment of the 82d regiment, under the command of Brigadier-General Maclean, embarked at Halifax in June of the same year, and took possession of Penobscot.  With the view of establishing himself there, the brigadier proceeded to erect defences; but before these were completed, a hostile fleet from Boston, with 2000 troops on board, under Brigadier-General Lovel, appeared in the bay, and on the 28th of July effected a landing on a peninsula, where the British were erecting a fort.  The enemy immediately began to erect batteries for a siege; but their operations met with frequent interruption from parties that sallied from the fort... General Maclean returned to Halifax with the detachment of the 82d, leaving Lieutenant-Colonel Alexander Campbell of Monzie with the 74th at Penobscot, where they remained till the termination of hostilities, when they embarked for England.  They landed at Portsmouth, whence they marched for Stirling...

 The Court-Martial of Paul Revere
...The fleet had been placed in charge of Commodore Dudley Saltonstall.  It consisted of nineteen vessels, mounting in all three hundred and twenty four guns and manned by over two thousand sailors, besides twenty transports.  It was probably, taken altogether, the strongest and finest naval force furnished by New England during the Revolution... On the 24th of July the fleet arrived at the mouth of the Penobscot.  Due warning of its approach had been given the British, who, in spite of the fact that they had hastened in the work of constructing their fortifications, were greatly disheartened, realizing that the American force was much stronger, and ought to be able to quickly overcome the feeble resistance which was all, under the circumstances, they believed they could offer.  All but four of the British fleet had returned to Halifax... Lieutenant-Colonel Revere, in command of the artillery and the ammunition stores on board the ordnance brig, had already gone ashore at Fort Pownal, but the deserted brig managed to get clear of the rest of the fleet and made her way for several miles up stream before being overtaken; then she was burned with all her stores... The filing of these charges was followed by instant action.  Revere was arrested the same day...

 General Francis McLean's letter to Sir Henry Clinton, 23 August 1779 Maine Memory Network
Letter from General Francis McLean to Sir Henry Clinton regarding the Penobscot Expedition... soon as the Tide would permit they attempted to escape up the River, but being closely pursued by His Majesty's Ships... I am happy to inform your Excellency that their destruction has been complete, not one ship having escaped being either taken or burnt...

 Colonel Brewer's Account of the Penobscot Expedition
from the Bangor Whig and Courier, 13 August 1846
Early in the month of June 1779, General Francis McLean, who commanded the Kings' troops in Nova Scotia, entered Penobscot Bay, with 650 men in transports, escorted by three sloops, and took possession of the Peninsula (now called Castine) formed by the waters of Penobscot Bay, and the Majabagaduce River...

Peleg Wadsworth

 The Wadsworths Maine Historical Society
...The Penobscot Expedition, as it came to be called, was one of the worst American military defeats of the war, resulting in the destruction of most of the American vessels.  Peleg Wadsworth organized and led the only "successful" part of the expedition – the retreat from Castine.  Paul Revere and Commodore Dudley Saltonstall, Commander of the Fleet, on the other hand, faced court-martial charges for their roles in the debacle...

 Peleg Wadsworth's Great Escape by Pat Higgins
During the American Revolution, Maine found herself sandwiched between two warring parties.  With Montgomery and Arnold's failure to capture Quebec, new America found that it would be unable to carry Canada along with it to independence from Britain.  Less settled, less established and perhaps less civilized, Maine was in a precarious position at the edge of a new nation.  The British took advantage of the opportunity to invade eastern Maine in June 1779 with 750 troops under Francis McLean and a small squadron of three sloops under Capt. Henry Mowat, the destroyer of Falmouth.  The purpose of this invasion was to build a fort at Castine on the Majabagaduce Peninsular and lay the ground work to establish a new colony for their loyalist supporters.  It would be called New Ireland, sandwiched as it was between New England and New Scotland (Nova Scotia). Massachusetts saw this as a whittling away of its territory.  Without so much as a by your leave from the Continental Congress, Massachusetts raised an army of 1000 militiamen, as well as 20 transports and 19 armed ships, many privately owned... The ill-fated attack on the new British Fort George in July 1779 known as the Penobscot or Bagaduce Expedition was masterfully bungled.  In the end the militia was abandoned, the ships and transports were sunk or run aground, and Massachusetts was all but bankrupt....

 Peleg Wadsworth Maine Memory Network
Peleg Wadsworth, 1748-1826 was a general in the American Revolutionary War and served in Congress.  During the Revolution he commanded troops in what is referred to as the Penobscot Expedition to remove British troops from Fort George at Castine, Maine.  The attempt was a failure.  Wadsworth was one of the few officers to emerge with an enhanced reputation.  He was captured by the British in 1781, but escaped. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow was Peleg Wadsworth's grandson.

 John Campbell's letter to Sir Henry Clinton, 22 June 1781 Maine Memory Network
John Campbell, serving at Fort George in June 22, 1781, wrote this letter to his commander, Sir Henry Clinton about the disposition of the British troops under his command, and the escape of General Peleg Wadsworth from imprisonment...

 Peleg Wadsworth's letter, 14 August 1779 Maine Memory Network
A letter describing the retreat of American troops during the Penobscot Expedition, written by Peleg Wadsworth on 14 August 1779, from the area near Castine...

 Canadian Privateering Privateers were privately owned warships
      Abstract of A Private War in the Caribbean: Nova Scotia Privateering 1793-1805
      Dan Conlin's M.A. Thesis explores privateering from the British Colonies in North American in the period between 1793 and 1805. It asks why individuals and communities turned to privateering and how they were affected by the enterprise. Existing literature on privateering, mostly popular and amateur work, has interpreted this activity as the product of either patriotism or greed. However a closer look indicates that economic necessity was the driving force...
      Privateering FAQ file
      Canadian Privateer Ship List
      The Private Ship of War Charles Mary Wentworth  This report was sent to the British government in 1799 by the Governor of Nova Scotia, to demonstrate the effectiveness of Nova Scotian privateers. It is noteworthy for the ambitious scope of operations which include attacking and capturing Spanish island forts as well as chasing enemy shipping all over the Caribbean Sea...


War of 1812

To Great Britain the War of 1812 was simply a burdensome adjunct
of its greater struggle against Napoleonic France.
To the Canadians it was clearly a case of naked American aggression.
But to the Americans it was neither simple nor clear.
The United States entered the war with confused objectives...
Chapter 6: The War of 1812 American Military History, Army Historical Series
Office of the Chief of Military History, United States Army

 1812, June 18 — An Act Declaring War Between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Dependencies Thereof and the United States of America and Their Territories

 1812, July 6 — An Act for the Safe Keeping and Accommodation of Prisoners of War

 1812, July 6 — An Act to Prohibit American Vessels from Proceeding to or Trading with the Enemies of the United States, and for Other Purposes   ...That if any citizen or citizens of the United States, or person inhabiting the same, shall transport or attempt to transport, over land or otherwise, in any wagon, cart, sleigh, boat, or otherwise, naval or military stores, arms or the munitions of war, or any article of provision, from any place of the United States, to any place in Upper or Lower Canada, Nova Scotia or New Brunswick the wagon, cart, sleigh, boat, or the thing by-which the said naval or military stores, arms, or munitions of war or articles of provision are transported or attempted to be transported, together with such naval or military stores, army munitions of war or provisions, shall be forfeited to the use of the United States, and the person or persons aiding or privy to the same shall severally forfeit and pay to the use of the United States a sum equal in value to the wagon, cart, sleigh, boat, or thing by which the said naval or military stores, arms, or munitions of war or articles of provision, are transported, or are attempted to be transported; and shall moreover be considered as guilty of a misdemeanor, and be liable to be Sued in a sum not exceeding five hundred dollars, and imprisoned for a term not exceeding six months, in the discretion of the court...

 1812, November 28 — Provisional Agreement for the Exchange of Prisoners 11/28/1812   The provisional agreement of November 28, 1812... did not go into force, as it met with objections on the part of the United States.  The original of that provisional agreement has not been found...

 1813, March 3 — An Act to Encourage the Destruction of the Armed Vessels of War of the Enemy   ...during the present war with Great Britain, it shall be lawful for any person or persons to burn, sink, or destroy, any British armed vessel of war, except vessels coming as cartels or flags of truce; and for that purpose to use torpedoes, submarine instruments, or any other destructive machine whatever: and a bounty of one half the value of the armed vessel so burnt, sunk, or destroyed, and also one half the value of her guns, cargo, tackle, and apparel, shall be paid out of the treasury of the United States to such person or persons who shall effect the same...

 1813, May 12 — Cartel for the exchange of prisoners of war between Great Britain and the United States of America   A Provisional Agreement, for the Exchange of Naval Prisoners of War made and concluded at Halifax, in the Province of Nova Scotia, on the 28th day of November, in the Year of Our Lord One Thousand Eight Hundred and Twelve, between the Government of Great Britain and the Government of the United States of America...
Article 1:   The Prisoners taken at sea or on land on both sides shall be treated with humanity conformable to the usage and practice of the most civilized nations during war; and such prisoners shall without delay, and as speedily as circumstances will admit, be exchanged...
Article 3:   American Prisoners taken and brought within the Command of His Excellency the Admiral, shall be stationed for exchange at HALIFAX, QUEBEC, BRIDGETOWN in the Island of Barbadoes, and KINGSTON in the Island of Jamaica, and at no other ports.  And British Prisoners taken and brought into the United States of America, shall be stationed at BOSTON, NEW YORK, PHILADELPHIA, and CHARLESTOWN, and at no other ports in the United States...

 1814, December 24 — Treaty of Ghent: 1814   His Britannic Majesty and the United States of America desirous of terminating the war which has unhappily subsisted between the two Countries, and of restoring upon principles of perfect reciprocity, Peace, Friendship, and good Understanding between them... There shall be a firm and universal Peace between His Britannic Majesty and the United States, and between their respective Countries, Territories, Cities, Towns, and People of every degree without exception of places or persons. All hostilities both by sea and land shall cease as soon as this Treaty shall have been ratified by both parties as hereinafter mentioned. All territory, places, and possessions whatsoever taken by either party from the other during the war, or which may be taken after the signing of this Treaty, excepting only the Islands hereinafter mentioned, shall be restored without delay and without causing any destruction or carrying away any of the Artillery or other public property originally captured in the said forts or places, and which shall remain therein upon the Exchange of the Ratifications of this Treaty, or any Slaves or other private property; And all Archives, Records, Deeds, and Papers, either of a public nature or belonging to private persons, which in the course of the war may have fallen into the hands of the Officers of either party, shall be, as far as may be practicable, forthwith restored and delivered to the proper authorities and persons to whom they respectively belong. Such of the Islands in the Bay of Passamaquoddy as are claimed by both parties shall remain in the possession of the party in whose occupation they may be at the time of the Exchange of the Ratifications of this Treaty until the decision respecting the title to the said Islands shall have been made in conformity with the fourth Article of this Treaty...

 1817, November 24 — Decision of the Commissioners under Article 4 of the Treaty of Ghent   ...We the said Thomas Barclay and John Holmes Commissioners as aforesaid having been duly sworn impartially to examine and decide upon the said claims according to such evidence as should be laid before us on the part of His Britannic Majesty and The United States respectively Have decided and do decide that Moose Island, Dudley Island, and Frederick Island, in the Bay of Passamaquoddy which is part of the Bay of Fundy do and each of them does belong to The United States of America and we have also decided and do decide that all the other Islands and each and every of them in the said Bay of Passamaquoddy which is part of the Bay of Fundy and the Island of Grand Menan in the said Bay of Fundy do belong to His said Britannic Majesty in conformity with the true intent of the said second Article of said Treaty of One Thousand seven hundred and eighty three...

 Deadman's Island — Prisoners of War, 1812-1814 Northwest Arm, Halifax
American Prisoners of War held at Halifax, Nova Scotia

Deadman's Island — Prisoners of War, 1812-1814
by Harrison Scott Baker II, President (1996-1999), War of 1812 Society in the State of Ohio
American Prisoners of War held at Halifax, Nova Scotia
The details of the War of 1812 are not known to many... One of the nearly-forgotten aspects of this war between the United States and the British Empire is the imprisonment of servicemen at Halifax, Nova Scotia.  In the harbor there, Great Britain had a prisoner of war internment camp and a prison hulk, the HMS Magnet. Men from the United States as well as from Napoleon's Armies were held there.  From 1812 through 1815 some 8,100 Americans went through the facility – 195 are still there on in an unmarked cemetery.  Some were army personnel, many being captured at the Battles of Beaver Dam and Lundy's Lane.  This includes men from the 6th, 14th, 16th, 21st and 23rd Army regiments.  Most were captured on the high seas, including crews from the frigate USS Chesapeake; the schooners Growler, Vixen and Julia; the brig Rattle Snake; sloop of war the Wasp; privateers Thomas, Enterprise, Montgomery, General Plummer, Cossack, York Town, Revenge, Lizard, Rolla, Snap Dragon, Saratoga, Diomede, Guerriere; merchantmen: Porcupine, Ulysses, Thomas, George, Nonsuch, Frolic, Three Sisters, Hazard, Montesella, Perseverance, Romp, Mary Ann, Hiram, Leander, Ten Brothers, Eagle, Isabella, Nancy, Wave, Sukey, Financier, Friendship, Jane, Flash, Ambitous, Experiment and the Fair American. There are sixty three Frenchmen and nine Spaniards interned there.  In addition there are 104 Negro slaves that died at Halifax who joined the British forces in the Chesapeake Bay area when the city of Washington, D.C., was captured and the attack on Baltimore occurred.

 War of 1812: Prisoners of War, 1813
Lists of British prisoners confined in the goals of Concord and Portland, and of American Prisoners of war confined in the town goal (jail) at Halifax, Nova Scotia, 1 Sept 1813.  All in close confinement on retaliatory orders from the respective governments.

 War of 1812: Captures by Royal Naval vessels brought to Halifax (1812) - Part 1
A List of Ships and Vessels, belonging to the Government or People of the United States of America, as having been brought as Prize within the Juristiction of the Vice-Admiralty Court at Halifax, June-December 1812...

        War of 1812: Captures by Royal Naval vessels brought to Halifax (1812) - Part 2
Lists of captured vessels reported to the Admiralty by Commanders in Chief...

 The Standing Interrogatories
The 32 questions listed here are the Standing Interrogatories which were used in the War of 1812.  They are the questions which were put to the captured crew of a prize vessel and give a good indication of the range of material which can be found in Prize court records.  To be administered on behalf of Our Sovereign Lord George the Third... To all Commanders, Masters, Officers, mariners, and other Persons found on board any Ships and Vessels, which may have been, or shall be seized or taken as Prize by any of His Majesty's Ships or Vessels... examined as Witnesses in preparatory during the present hostilities with the United States of America.  Let each witness be interrogated to every of the following Questions; and their answers to each Interrogatory written down...

 (1) Ships of the Old Navy
A history of the sailing ships of the Royal Navy
by Michael Phillips
This alphabetical list (now hosted by Patrick Marioné) includes not only
all those vessels built for, and commissioned in, the Royal Navy between
the 1780s and the 1840s, but also a number of the many commercial vessels
which were hired for service as warships during the French wars, and some
of the private warships, or privateers, fitted out by commercial owners to
attack enemy trade and operating under letters-of-marque.  It attempts to
provide more information than the usual ship lists, which normally only
mention launch date, dimensions and fate, by giving an anecdotal history
of the vessel's voyages, actions and people...

        (2) Ships of the Old Navy
A history of the ships of the 18th century Royal Navy
by Michael Phillips

 Historical Background by Michael Phillips
Following the execution of Louis XVI in 1793 Britain and France
were to be at war with each other for the next 22 years, 1793-1815,
except for fourteen months in 1802-3...

 The Journal of the War of 1812

 A Rather Unsuitable Crew: American General Officers at the Start of the War of 1812
In his memoirs, General Winfield Scott (1786-1866) — who served on active duty as a general longer than any other man in American history, promoted in 1856 to the rank of lieutenant general, becoming the first American since George Washington to hold that rank — described many of the officers, especially the general officers, who commanded the forces of the United States during the early period of the War of 1812 as being bad with “a majority of the remainder indifferent.”  He went on to declare most of the officers, who depended on political favoritism for their positions in the service, whether Republican or Federalist as “swaggers, dependents, decayed gentlemen, and others – ‘fit for nothing else,’ who always turned-out utterly unfit for any military purpose whatever.”  The reason for Scott’s rather harsh, but accurate, characterization of the first generals to lead American forces during the 1812 war was based on a number of significant factors...

 ...British Views of the War of 1812 in the Chesapeake
In 1814, Major General Robert Ross (1766-1814) attacked both Baltimore and Washington with about 4,000 men.  Rear Admiral George Cockburn (1772-1853) devised a plan to attack the capital by way of Benedict on the Patuxent.  He assured the general that he would find the capital unprotected. As it turned out, he was proved correct.  A weak, arrogant, and unprepared Secretary of War, John Armstrong jr. (1758-1843), kept denying that Washington could be a target.  The man selected to command the force of mainly Maryland and District Columbia militia named in early July to defend the capital was equally incompetent – Brigadier General William Winder (1775-1824), nephew of the governor of Maryland.  General Winder had been captured at Stoney Creek in Canada in July 1813 in virtually his first real taste of battle.  The British found it hard to conceive that they were able to so easily invade the country without encountering opposition.  Captain of the Fleet Admiral Edward Codrington (1770-1851) thought it remarkable that they were able to sail unharassed so many miles up the Patuxent...


Nova Scotia's Private Navy

The first warships ever built, owned and commanded by Canadians

Almost 200 privateer ships sailed from Nova Scotia harbours

 Enos Collins and the Liverpool Packet 
The Liverpool Packet was a captured slave-smuggling schooner purchased in 1811 by Enos Collins of Halifax.  In the War of 1812 she became the terror of New England.  Her daring captain, Joseph Barss, liked nothing better than to lie in wait off Cape Cod, snapping up American ships headed to Boston or New York... However, the Liverpool Packet was captured in 1813, renamed the Portsmouth Packet, and went to sea under American colours.  Before taking a single ship, she was retaken by the Royal Navy, returned to Halifax and soon returned to haunt Yankee ship owners under her old name.  By the war's end in 1814, the Packet had captured fifty American ships and begun the fortune that made Enos Collins the richest man in Canada when he died in 1871.  In 1825, in association with Samuel Cunard and four other prominent citizens, Collins was a founding partner in the Halifax Banking Company which eventually grew into the CIBC (Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce).

Liverpool Packet's Letter of Marque

 The Canadian Privateering Homepage by Dan Conlin

 Sir John Sherbrooke 1813-1814
Sherbrooke was the largest Canadian privateer in the War of 1812...

 William James

A writer on naval history, William James was from 1801 to 1813 enrolled among the attorneys of the supreme court of Jamaica, and practised as a proctor in the vice-admiralty court.  In 1812 he was in the United States, and on the declaration of war with England was detained as a prisoner.  After several month's captivity he effected his escape, and reached Halifax towards the end of 1813... In March 1816 he published a pamphlet entitled “An Inquiry into the Merits of the Principal Naval Actions between Great Britain and the United States”...  The excitement  which the pamphlet caused both in Nova Scotia and the States was considerable... James's primary conclusion – that no American vessel of equal force ever captured a British ship – essentially remains unchallenged.

Index: Naval History of Great Britain by William James

War of 1812: Naval Actions
compiled by William James from contemporary accounts

The information below was compiled
by William James
from contemporary accounts

Naval Actions

USS Constitution HMS Guerriere 19 August 1812
USS Wasp HMS Frolic 18 September 1812
USS United-States HMS Macedonian 25 October 1812
USS Constitution HMS Java 28 December 1812
USS Hornet HMS Peacock 24 February 1813
USS Chesapeake HMS Shannon 1 June 1813
USS Argus HMS Pelican 14 August 1813
USS Enterprise HMS Boxer 5 September 1813
USS Essex HMS Phoebe 28 March 1814
USS Frolic HMS Orpheus 20 April 1814
USS Peacock HMS Epervier 29 April 1814
USS Wasp HMS Reindeer 28 June 1814
USS Wasp HMS Avon 1 September 1814
USS President HMS Endymion 15 January 1815
USS Constitution HMS Levant & Cyane 20 February 1815
USS Hornet HMS Penguin 23 March 1815
USS Peacock HEICS Nautilus 30 June 1815
HEIC: Honourable East India Company
HMS: His Majesty's Ship
USS: United States Ship

Privateer Actions

Decatur HMS Dominica 5 August 1813
Prince of Neufchatel HMS Leander 28 December 1814
Chasseur HMS St. Lawrence 26 February 1815


War of 1812

Shannon and Chesapeake

 Chesapeake and Shannon: June 1812
The War of 1812 saw the last great sea battles waged under sail...

The Wayback Machine has archived copies of this document:
Fifteen Minutes in History: the Shannon and the USS Chesapeake

Archived: 2000 September 29

Archived: 2001 April 26

Archived: 2003 April 28

 Chesapeake and Shannon
Shannon, Halifax, 6 June 1813: Letter from Captain Philip Broke to Captain the Hon. T. Bladen
...The enemy made a desperate but disorderly resistance. The firing continued at all the gangways, and between the tops, but in two minutes time the enemy were driven sword in hand from every post.  The American flag was hauled down and the proud British Union floated triumphant over it.In another minute they ceased firing from below and called for quarter.  The whole of this service was achieved in 15 minutes from the commencement of the action...

 USS Chesapeake Engages HMS Shannon 1 June 1813
...On the 21st of March 1813, accompanied by the Tenedos, of the same force, and kept in nearly the same order, Captain Hyde Parker, the Shannon sailed from Halifax on a cruise in Boston bay.  On the 2nd of April the two frigates reconnoitred the harbour of Boston...

 USS Chesapeake Engages HMS Shannon 1 June 1813
...Many people assembled on the shores of Hull, Nahant and Marble-head on the ill-fated day June 1, 1813, to witness the conflict between the British "Shannon" and the American "Chesapeake." It was about luncheon time, and many of the wives complained because their husbands dropped their knives and forks when they heard the roar of the guns just north-east of Boston Light...

 Muster Roll HMS Shannon, May 1 to June 30, 1813 [extracted from:
The Shannon and the Chesapeake, by H.F. Pullen OBE.,C.D., Rear-Admiral, R.C.N. (ret.) McCelland and Stewart Ltd. Toronto, 1970.]
(1)  Muster Roll HMS Shannon

(2)  Muster Roll HMS Shannon

(3)  Muster Roll HMS Shannon

(4)  Muster Roll HMS Shannon

(5)  Muster Roll HMS Shannon

(6)  Muster Roll HMS Shannon

(7)  Muster Roll HMS Shannon

(8)  Muster Roll HMS Shannon

(9)  Muster Roll HMS Shannon

(10)  Muster Roll HMS Shannon

(11)  Muster Roll HMS Shannon

(12)  Muster Roll HMS Shannon

(13)  Muster Roll HMS Shannon

 Shannon and Chesapeake: Painting by John Wilson Carmichael
Christchurch Art Gallery, Christchurch, New Zealand

 Chesapeake and Shannon — Courts Martial
...William Brown was found guilty of cowardice and, after mature deliberation on the evidence, sentenced him to receive 300 lashes and be mulcted of his wages now due, and which may accrue to him during the remainder of his period of service.  The U.S. President mitigated the sentence by limiting it to 100 lashes.  John Russell was found guilty of gross misconduct during the battle and was sentenced to stoppage of wages...
Note: Cox's name was officially cleared by President Harry Truman in April 1952.

 Images: HMS Shannon captures USS Chesapeake, 1 June 1813
Department of the Navy – Naval Historical Center, Washington Navy Yard, Washington DC

•   Image NH 42907: Action between USS Chesapeake and HMS Shannon, 1 June 1813
Artwork depicting the two frigates exchanging gunfire early in the battle, which took place off Boston, Massachusetts...

•  (1)  Image NH 63177-KN: Commencement of the action between Chesapeake and Shannon
•  (1)  This print (Plate No. 1 of four) depicts the commencement of the action, with the two frigates exchanging gunfire at close range.

•  (2)  Image NH 63179-KN: HMS Shannon firing on USS Chesapeake, 1 June 1813
•  (2)  This print (Plate No. 2 of four) depicts the scene soon after the action began, with Chesapeake “crippled and thrown into utter disorder” by Shannon’s first two broadsides.

•  (3)  Image NH 63178-KN: HMS Shannon boarding USS Chesapeake, 1 June 1813
•  (3)  This print (Plate No. 3 of four) depicts Shannon “carrying by boarding” Chesapeake “after a cannonade of five minutes”.

•  (4)  Image NH 63180-KN: HMS Shannon leads USS Chesapeake into Halifax Harbor, June 1813
•  (4)  This print (Plate No. 4 of four) depicts Shannon “leading her prize... into Halifax Harbour, on the 6th June 1813”, with the Royal Navy's “White Ensign” flown above the United States Ensign on board Chesapeake.

•   Image NH 63181: (high resolution) Text accompanying the four lithographs
•   Photo NH 63181: Text accompanying the four lithographs by L. Haghe, published by Smith, Elder & Company, London, in 1830.  This text provides general background information on the battle, plus detailed descriptions of the actions represented in each of the prints.

•   Views on board Chesapeake during the action
This page features additional views related to the action between HMS Shannon and USS Chesapeake.

 The Amazing Career of Lieutenant Provo Wallis of HMS Shannon
A fascinating footnote to the famous action between HMS Shannon and the USS Chesapeake off Boston Harbor in June 1813 is the effect it had on the career of Provo Wallis, second lieutenant of the British frigate, who went on to establish a record in the Royal Navy for length of service. Provo William Parry Wallis was born in Halifax on 12 May 1791... By the time of his death, Provo Wallis had officially served 96 years in the Royal Navy... This is a record for length of service that has never been bettered and it is not likely that it ever will be.

 So Uneasy a Ship: The Unfortunate Career of the Frigate Chesapeake
...Chesapeake was taken to Halifax, Nova Scotia under the command of Capt. Alexander Gordon, and, after repairs, on to England.  She served in the Royal Navy under the command of Capt. Francis Newcombe, until placed in ordinary in 1816.  The ship was sold in 1820 to a cooper...

 Light Squadrons and Single Ships 1813
Naval History of Great Britain, by William James
...the irons, which the Chesapeake's crew had got ready for the wrists of the Shannon's crew, instead were put upon the wrists of the Chesapeake's crew.  None of the Americans found them too large, and many, when not allowed to choose such as fitted them, complained that the manacles hurt them on account of their tightness...

 Chesapeake's Timbers Now Serve England
The Virginian-Pilot, 2 June 1996
...the timbers of the USS frigate Chesapeake wound up being used as building materials for houses in Portsmouth, England... After her defeat by the Shannon, the Chesapeake was taken as a prize of war to Halifax, Nova Scotia.  From there she was sailed by her captors across the Atlantic to Portsmouth, England, where she was finally broken up, and much of her wood was used to construct houses.  Most of her oaken beams, keel and planks, however, were utilized in the construction of a mill on the River Meon in the village of Wickham, near Southampton.  There her battle scarred timbers, still seamed and pitted with marks of gunfire, have for more than a century been engaged in the peaceful mission of grinding corn.

 The Chesapeake's copper cooking pot
The history of the Shore Club, in Hubbards, Nova Scotia, goes back to 1813, and a battle between the US frigate Chesapeake and HMS Shannon... The defeated Chesapeake was taken to Halifax after the battle, where the Harnish family aquired the large copper cook-pot from the Chesapeake at a public auction.  It was put to use as a feed trough for the family dairy farm in Hubbards.  In the summer of 1936 The National Gyro Club contacted Guy Harnish about hosting a 'lobster supper' on Hubbards Beach.  The old pot was cleaned and polished and cooked its first meal in over 100 years...


War of 1812

Prince of Neufchatel
American Privateer

 Prince of Neufchatel, American Privateer in the War of 1812

 The Prince De Neufchatel: One of the most remarkable actions of the War of 1812...

 The Prince de Neufchatel was built in New York in 1812-13...

 The Prince de Neufchatel registration certificate, Boston, 12 December 1814

 Overview: American Privateer, Prince of Neufchatel
...The American frigates were bigger, faster, tougher, and more lethal than their British counterparts and could defeat them in one-on-one conflict.  However, British numbers were far superior, and a British blockade eventually tied the frigates up in harbor... Piracy was illegal, of course, and pirates were hung.  What distinguished American privateers from pirates was the state of war between the United States and England and a Letter of Marque signed by the President...

 Prize Accounts for the Prince of Neufchatel, 24 April 1816

 Muster roll of Prince of Neufchatel

 Sworn statement taken from Benjamin Wells, sailmaker on the Prince of Neufchatel

 Vessels which comprised the squadron which captured the Prince of Neufchatel during the War of 1812

 Head Money papers for the capture of the American Privateer Prince of Neufchatel during the War of 1812

 Correspondence (1815) between the Navy Board and the Admiralty over the suitability of the Prince of Neufchatel to be bought in for naval use

War of 1812

The only mention of Nova Scotia in Pierre Berton's two-volume history of the War of 1812

Note by ICS:  This is found in Pierre Berton's two-volume History of the War of 1812.  In the entire two volumes, this is the only mention of Halifax or Nova Scotia, or of any of the events that occurred on the North Atlantic Ocean during 1812-1814.  This single sentence is found in Berton's description of a minor encounter on the border between Quebec and New York state — someone in Quebec making a jocular passing reference.  I have great respect for Pierre Berton; he is a marvellous story-teller who has done more than anyone else to make Canadians more aware of their own history, but in his History of the War of 1812 he completely overlooked that part of the war that occurred on the east coast.  There is no mention of the capture of Bangor, or Castine, or any other event in Maine.  One could ask: just how successful would the defenders of Canada West and Canada East have been without the supplies and reinforcements sent from Britain across the Atlantic during 1812-1814?  The United States government was fully aware of the importance of this transatlantic supply line, and assigned substantial resources to an effort to establish an effective blockade to prevent supply ships from reaching the St. Lawrence River.  Without the naval base at Halifax, the American blockade would have far more effective, and crucial supplies and thousands of soldiers would have been prevented from reaching the defenders of Central Canada.

This is found on page 218 of volume two "Flames Across the Border 1813-1814" of Berton's history of the War of 1812.  Volume one, "The Invasion of Canada, 1812-1813" contains not a single word about events associated with east coast or the transatlantic supply line during this time.

This lack of awareness of Atlantic Canadian history is explained by the heavy concentration in Central Canada of the education of Canada's historians:
Doctoral Theses and the Discipline of History in Canada, 1967 and 1985
William Acheson, President (1985-86) of the Canadian Historical Association, Ottawa

The high degree of concentration of Canadian doctoral studies [in history] in a few universities gave a disproportionate influence in the discipline to a small group of distinguished scholars from these institutions... Within the Canadian field... more than half of all the doctoral theses in progress in 1967 were directed by eight men.  Of these, three were at Toronto, two at Laval, two at Western, and one at McGill... Geographically, nearly five out of six candidates were in Toronto, Quebec, Montreal, and London.  The remainder were sprinkled in niggardly fashion at Vancouver, Edmonton, and in several tiny programmes, none having as many as five candidates.  There appears to have been no effective programme in the Atlantic provinces... (boldface emphasis added)

War of 1812

 Fort George at Castine, Maine by Frederick W. Chesson

Castine, Maine, is especially rich in forts, some sixteen having been erected since French traders built Fort Pentagoet in 1636.  In June of 1779, 650 British troops landed on the Penobscot Peninsula.  Castine was an ideal location from which to control the Penobscot River area with its valuable naval timber resources, and it was a good base for controlling Yankee privateers.  Accordingly, the British constructed Fort160;George, named in honor of King George III.  The British remained in Castine until a peace treaty had been signed in September of 1783.  Thirty-one years later, the British army returned for the War of 1812, ousting the Americans from nearby Fort Porter and reoccupying Fort George...

 The Maine Connection to the War of 1812

At the time of the War of 1812, the District of Maine was still a part of Massachusetts... The 1807 Embargo and other trade restrictions profoundly affected Mainers, dependent as they were upon the sea for most manufactured goods coming into the District as well as the export of their principal products, lumber and fish.  All sorts of goods became scarce and inflation raised prices to unprecedented levels... The seizure by the British of the entire coast east of Penobscot Bay further deepened the economic hardships of the residents of Maine.  The Massachusetts Legislature refused to take any action to relieve or defend Maine... President Madison nationalized the Maine militia, but the Federal Government had no funds to support, arm, or equip the locals, who had to continue to endure the British occupation.  There were countless unpleasant incidents, some crops and stores were burned or destroyed... It should be noted, however, that one reason the British were reluctant to harm the inhabitants of the occupied area was that they claimed the entire region as part of Canada and did not want to inflame residents who, according to them, were by rights British subjects.  The actual boundary between Maine and Canada was not settled until 1842...

 Embargo Act 1807 ship or vessel, having any cargo whatever on board, shall... be allowed to depart from any port of the United States for any other port or district of the United States, adjacent to the territories, colonies, or provinces of a foreign nation: nor shall any clearance be furnished to any ship or vessel bound as aforesaid, without special permission of the President of the United States... no foreign ship or vessel shall go from one port in the United States to another; and should any foreign ship or vessel, contrary to this section, go from one port of the United States to another the vessel with her cargo shall be wholly forfeited...

 Commentary: Embargo Act 1807

 War of 1812 Unpopular in New England

War with England was declared on June 18, 1812.  It was greatly unpopular in New England where comerce suffered ruinous losses.  In December, 1814, a Special Convention met at Hartford, Connecticut, and passed resolutions advocating outright Secession from the United States.  That summer, a British flotilla, headed by the 74-gun Bulwark raided the New England coast, raising invasion alarms and causing a general militia mobilization...

 War of 1812 (James Madison biography)
...Today this war is regarded in U.S. government texts as a stalemate as best... The attempted invasions of Canada were unsuccessful... Hundreds of privateers sailed from New England looking for British prizes, but the state militias stayed home.  Massachusetts even declined to defend Maine which was then part of Massachusetts – Maine was not to forget the injury and acquired its own statehood in 1820...

 The Hartford Convention Dec 1814

The Hartford Convention grew out of New England Federalists' opposition to the War of 1812.  Because of their close trading ties to Great Britain, the New England states had tried to prevent the declaration of war in June 1812, and that summer, both Massachusetts and Connecticut refused to contribute militia to the federal government.  In spite of an embargo enacted by Congress in December 1813, New Englanders continued to sell supplies to British troops in Canada and to British vessels offshore.  This lively demand for wartime provisions benefited New England, as did the enhanced market for domestic manufactures, but the overall loss of trade offset these benefits... The fact that the delegates had discussed secession, though they ended by rejecting it, set an early precedent for the idea that secession was an available choice for states dissatisfied with national policies...

 The Hartford Convention Dec 1814

The War of 1812 was very unpopular in Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island.  The wartime trade restrictions were especially severe in Massachusetts.  Dissatisfaction was so intense by 1814 that leading Massachusetts Federalists called for a meeting of delegates from all New England states to discuss grievances, means of common defense, and possible changes in the Federal Constitution...

 History of Bangor, Maine

...Thirty-five years later, in 1814, the British returned in the War of 1812 and hammered American forces in the Battle of Hampden, which borders Bangor to the south, before moving on to Bangor and forcing its selectmen to surrender unconditionally... The British captured 80 Americans as prisoners of war... After forcing the Bangor selectmen to surrender their town, the British looted shops and homes and occupied the town for thirty hours. Before leaving, they threatened to burn ships in Bangor's harbor and unfinished ships on stocks. The Bangor selectmen feared the fires from the ships on stocks would spread into the town and destroy everything, so they struck a deal with the British in which they put up a bond and promised to deliver the ships by the end of November. With the bond and the frightened Americans' promise to deliver the unfinished ships, the British floated the seaworthy ships into the middle of the Penobscot and set ablaze all but two ships, one brig, six schooners, and three sloops. They then took the remaining ships, horses and cattle back to their post in Castine, which they occupied until 26 April 1815, when they left for Canada...

 The Capitulation of Maine, September 1814 by R. Taylor

On 1st September 1814 the British arrived off the coast of Maine... Their objective was the town of Castine, at the mouth of the Penobscot River... While the British landed with a force totaling 2,000 regulars, the Americans blew up the fort and then abandoned it... On the morning of September 3rd the British landed three miles below Hampden and quickly defeated the local militia of about 1,400... The British forces continued up river to Bangor.  The town surrendered... The British occupied Machias without firing a shot... The British were preparing to advance inland on the 13th of September when they recieved a letter of capitulation from the senior American militia officers of the county... The British accepted the capitulation and this brought the campaign to a close.  Trade between the ports of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and New England opened again following the Rear Admiral's proclamation of September 15th... One other proclamation was issued jointly by Rear Admiral Griffith and Lieutenant General Sherbrooke, to appoint a customs official at Castine and a new Governor for this new British territory.  No hostile acts were directed at the British forces in Maine, the people were too busy with uninterupted trade with Nova Scotia and New Brunswick to care about a war that they did not want in the first place...

 The Border Dispute: How the Maine-New Brunswick border was settled

At the time of the War of 1812 – and continuing until 1842 – both Great Britain and the United States claimed both sides of the upper St.John River valley.  During the War of 1812, this question of the border between New Brunswick and Maine was almost settled... The war itself was very unpopular in New England; indeed, immediately following the declaration of war by the US against Great Britain, the residents of Eastport, Maine – just across the border from New Brunswick – "unanimously voted to preserve a good understanding with the Inhabitants of New Brunswick and to discountenance all depredations upon the possessions of each other."  In September 1814, following US attacks on Upper Canada (including the burning and pillaging of the capital, York, now named Toronto), British forces moved to take control of Eastern Maine, succeeding in gaining possession of that part of the state east of the Penobscot River, including Belfast, Bangor and Machias.  British control was partially due to the fact that the residents of that area capitulated without much resistance, and in return received a guarantee that trade between eastern Maine and New Brunswick and Nova Scotia would be allowed to continue unhindered.  This move was encouraged by New Brunswick authorities, who were hoping to permanently move their western border further westwards...

 Inscription found on a plaque at the remains of Fort George Castine, Maine

Occupied by the British 1779-1783 and 1814-1815
Occupied by the United States 1784-1814 and 1815-1819

This fortress, originally known by its garrison as Fort Penobscot... received its present official designation... upon its completion in December 1779.  It was begun in June, and unsuccessfully besieged July 29 - August 13, by the combined land and naval forces of the Penobscot Expedition.  Fort George was the last post surrendered by the British at the close of War for Independence.  They again occupied the fort on September 1, 1814, rebuilt and mounted it with 60 cannon and evacuated the second time April 15-27, 1815.  The fort was immediately taken into possession by the United States.  It was again rebuilt, strengthened and garrisoned until March 1819, when it was permanently abandoned as a military post...

Map showing the location of Castine and Fort George
Map showing the location of Castine

The Penobscot River (above) was the
western boundary of Nova Scotia, 1763-1783.

 Inscription on a plaque found at Fort Madison Castine, Maine

Built by the United States - 1811 and mounted with four 24 pound guns.  Garrisoned 1814 by a detachment of US artillery commanded by Lt. A. Lewis.  Upon the approach of the British Fleet, September 1, 1814 this officer discharged and spiked his cannon, blew up the magazine, then withdrew his forces to Portland.  Occupied by the enemy September 1, 1814 through April 14, 1815 it was named by them Fort Castine and at a later date sometimes called Fort Porter.  

 Maine's Unluckiest Privateer
...With the end of their war against Napoleon in April 1814, the British had more energy and resources to pit against the Americans.  By August 1814, British were blockading the harbor at Portland, Maine, in earnest.  By September they captured Castine and held the Maine coast east of the Penobscot.  Rumors abounded in Portland warning that "a large fleet with troops" under the flagship Bulwark had left Castine headed westward towards Portland.  Indeed, the British were very bold and sailed daily up to the lighthouse scaring the dickens out of Portlanders, but the promised fleet did not materialize.  Many moved their goods and families off the neck to safety.  Gov. Strong called up 600 militiamen from Cumberland and Oxford Counties to defend Portland.  More defenses were built around the area.  Portland appropriated $10,000 for public defense.  Much of the excitement was driven, in large part, by rumor...

 British Troops in North America, 1812-1814 by Donald E. Graves
On 6 April 1814, as allied armies closed in on Paris, Napoleon Bonaparte, emperor of the French, abdicated his throne, bringing to an end almost two decades of ceaseless warfare in Europe. A few days later, Lord Bathurst, Colonial Secretary and the British cabinet minister primarily responsible for overseas military strategy, informed Lieutenant General Sir George Prevost, commander of the forces in North America, that he would shortly be receiving massive reinforcements. This was welcome news for Prevost who, for nearly two years, had been trying to defend Britain's Canadian colonies, conscious that his was only a secondary theatre and that he could not expect major increases in his strength until the main objective – the defeat of Napoleon – had been accomplished. That had come to pass and, over the next eight months, the number of British regular troops in North America would more than double – from 19,477 to 48,163 officers and men...

 British Privateering Enterprise in the Eighteenth Century by David J. Starkey
That privateering was, and still is, confused with piracy is hardly surprising given the similarities in the aims and methods of the two activities.  Both privateersman and pirate were intent on enriching themselves at the expense of other maritime travellers, an end which was often achieved by violent means, the forced appropriation of ships and merchandise.  However, there had always been a theoretical distinction between the two forms of predation and during the seventeenth century this demarcation became more apparent in practice.  While the privateersman assumed a place within the developing code of international maritime law, his legitimate prey being restricted largely to enemy property in wartime, the pirate's indiscriminate and unauthorised business was increasingly outlawed.  Such developments occurred as the maritime powers sought to protect their growing interest in overseas trade from the stateless sea-robber and to expand it at the expense of their commercial and colonial rivals.  The growth of state navies, and the concomitant advance in the administrative efficiency of marine departments facilitated these advances; thus, the laws against piracy were more rigorously enforced, while privateering enterprise was better regulated.  By the 1730s, therefore, piracy had been largely eradicated from the North Atlantic...

 Events of the War of 1812: A Chronology compiled by Robert Henderson

Castine and Dalhousie University

The Occupation of Castine
September 1814 – April 1815

Probably the most unusual source of funding for any Canadian college
was that of Dalhousie University, which was founded in 1818 under the
name of College of Halifax. A large portion of its original endowment came
from customs duties collected at Castine, now in the State of Maine but
then in Massachusetts, while that port was occupied during the War of 1812
by a British force based in Halifax, Nova Scotia.

 The Castine Fund
In 1818, George Ramsay, the 9th Earl of Dalhousie, who was Lieutenant-Governor of Nova Scotia at the time, used £12,000 – known as The Castine Fund – to establish a college that would become a learning centre for all, regardless of class or creed. The money was the spoils of war. Castine, a small port in Maine, was being used during the War of 1812 as a base by American privateers who harassed shipping along the eastern seaboard. Lord Dalhousie sent a Royal Navy force from Halifax to capture Castine and turn it into a Customs port of entry. When the war ended, the Navy returned to Halifax with the money it had collected as Customs duties. Lord Dalhousie invested £7,000 as an endowment for the college and put aside £3,000 for its construction. The earl, whose home, Dalhousie Castle, was near Edinburgh, wanted the new college to be modelled on the university in the Scottish capital and to adhere to the principles of religious toleration...

 Footnotes, Historical Narrative, Overview of the War of 1812
Records of the Massachusetts Volunteer Militia, Called out by the Governor of Massachusetts to suppress a Threatened Invasion during the War of 1812-1814
published 1913, by Brig. Genl. Gardner W. Pearson, Adjutant General of Massachusetts
• Immediately after the capture of Castine, the British government there established a Custom-house, or excise house, and appointed a Collector of Customs, who from that time until the twenty-fourth of April 1815, continued to receive entries of vessels and merchandise, conformably to the laws and regulations in the province of Nova Scotia. During this period many merchants residing at Castine imported goods and entered them with the said British Collector paying duties thereon to the British government.
• The funds collected at this port by the British Custom-house authorities were used as an endowment for Dalhousie College, Halifax, Nova Scotia.
• The British authorities collected the Revenue of Maine while in occupation which amounted to a considerable sum of money. This fund was placed by the colonial minister in the hands of the Lieutenant-Governor of Nova Scotia who appropriated it in various ways as he thought most beneficial for Nova Scotia. It was from this fund that Dalhousie College was afterwards built.
• The sum of £9,750 was then remaining in the hands of the Governor from the revenues collected at Castine while the State of Maine was in the hands of the British troops. This sum Lord Dalhousie obtained the permission of the Colonial Secretary to appropriate towards the erection of a college in Halifax on the model of the Scots Universities.

 On-Line Institute for Advanced Loyalist Studies
  (This site opened 7 February 2000.)
Greetings to all those who are in search of Americans who remained Loyal to the British Crown during the War for Independence.  Within you will find a combination of information we believe to be unique among sites dealing with the Loyalists of the American Revolution.  It is our goal to provide reliable, high quality material on the Loyalists...
What is a Loyalist? For our purposes, we define a Loyalist as any inhabitant of North America, from Newfoundland to Nicaragua inclusive, plus the islands of the West Indies, Bermuda and Jamaica, who served in a military capacity for the British, or provided services of a military nature or other beneficial services to the Crown. This definition includes those who fought in the war and remained in America afterward, those who deserted, those who settled outside of America afterward, and those who were discharged or died during the war...

 Nova Scotia Loyalists and Military

 Loyalists of Digby, Nova Scotia by Paul J. Bunnell
As in many areas of loyalist Canada, Digby, Nova Scotia presented some great men from the people who supported Great Britain during the American Revolution. John Edison was one of these settlers of Digby; another was Isaac Bonnell, intimate friend and correspondent of New Jersey Governor William Franklin, son of Benjamin Franklin...

 The Atlantic Colonies and the Wars...there were clashes between Loyalist opposition forces in the Nova Scotia Assembly and the pre-Loyalist old-guard in the Council — which indeed led to the Assembly securing the right to bring in money bills, and even to impeach Supreme Court judges for corruption and incompetence...

Nova Scotia Loyalist Pages
Unfortunately, this site has disappeared. It was located at It contained lists of Americans who supported the British Crown during the American Revolution and fled to Nova Scotia, and related information, including — Port Roseway Associated Loyalists of Shelburne, Nova Scotia, 1783 — Westchester Refugees of Westchester County, New York — The Nova Scotia Loyalist List...
The Wayback Machine has archived copies of this website:
Nova Scotia Loyalist Pages

Archived: 1997 April 1

Archived: 1997 April 15

Timeline of the Seven Years War 1754-1763
 The period 2004-2013 is the 250th anniversary of the 
Seven Years War, a.k.a. the French and Indian War.
Includes important events in Nova Scotia.


American Civil War
Events connected with Nova Scotia

 Confederate Operations in Canada
More and more people in British North America, adjacent to the United States – Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Canada East (Quebec) and Canada West (Ontario) – began to see a Southern victory as their best defence and guarantee of independence. There was a growing fear of annexation. The Trent Affair in November 1861, and the Chesapeake incident in Halifax Harbour in December 1863, served to heighten the tension between the North and British North America...

 The Trent Affair The Illustrated London News, 21 December 1861
The Trent Outrage...

Skirmish in Halifax Harbour between
the Confederate States and the Union Government

December 1863

Note: The ship Chesapeake involved in this action
is not the Chesapeake that was captured by HMS Shannon in 1813.

The Chesapeake Affair (1863) The Halifax British Colonist, 22 December 1863
The excitement in Halifax on Saturday last exceeded anything witnessed here for some time. It was only during the morning of that day that the fact became generally known that three men had been illegally seized by the officers of the Federal (United States) gunboats in port...

The Chesapeake 
Department of the Navy – Naval Historical Center, Washington Navy Yard, Washington DC
Chesapeake was the wooden steamer Totten, built in Philadelphia in 1853 and first registered there. In 1857, Totten was rebuilt and renamed Chesapeake – owned by a New York shipping company, it was described at that time as schooner-rigged with single funnel... On 7 December 1863, Chesapeake was captured by a group acting in the name of the Confederacy under alleged authority of a second-hand letter of marque issued 27 October to the former captain of a privateer sold as unseaworthy in Nassau some months earlier... On 12 December 1863, Chesapeake coaled (replenished its fuel) at Shelburne, Nova Scotia, shipped four men and was seeking enough fuel to make Wilmington, North Carolina. USS Ella & Annie captured Chesapeake on the morning of the 17th, in Sambro, a small harbor near the entrance to Halifax Harbour, with three crewmen...

(1)   A Bill for the admission of the States of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Canada East, and Canada West...
On 2 July 1866, a bill was introduced in the United States Congress, calling for the admission or annexation of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Lower and Upper Canada...

(2)   A Bill for the admission of the States of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Canada East, and Canada West...
On 2 July 1866, a bill was introduced in the United States Congress, calling for the admission or annexation of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Lower and Upper Canada...
For the purpose of representation in the U.S. Congress, Prince Edward Island shall be part of Nova Scotia...

 Photograph: The Edgar Cecil loading cannon at Halifax during the American Civil War


CSS Tallahassee

CSS: Confederate States Steamship

 CSS Tallahassee, 1864, Captain John Taylor Wood
Marauders of the Sea, Confederate Merchant Raiders During the American Civil War
...Wood's ship was down to but 40 tons of coal, he had to stop his rampaging, go into Halifax, quickly recoal, and return to his hunting grounds.  At Halifax, as one would expect, the US Consul Mortimer M. Jackson, quickly sent off the vital information about the whereabouts of the Confederate ship to Welles, next he tried to stop any coaling assistance...

 CSS Tallahassee Makes Daring Escape by Ron Low
...Captain Wood agonized over the route he should take to attempt an escape from Halifax. Providence now began to play a part. After looking at marine charts, he made a bold decision to make his getaway through the seldom used eastern passage on the far side of McNab's Island...

 Escape of the Tallahasse, the Largest Steamer That Ever Passed Through the Channel
by H.W. Hewitt, in the Dartmouth Patriot, 26 October 1901
...Never before had so large a steamer gone through that shallow channel and never since has the achievement been paralleled. Down to Lawlor's Island the water is deep enough to float the largest ship in the world, but between it and the mainland it is shallow. The notoriety of the escape arises from the passage through this narrow and shallow channel, so difficult to traverse that no watch was kept for vessels coming out that way. Even that most careful of all bodies, the British War Department, considered the Passage impassable so that little or no attention was paid to fortifying the eastern side of the harbour...

 History of CSS Tallahassee

 (1)   Confederate Seadog: John Taylor Wood in War and Exile by John Bell
...John Taylor Wood had a leading role among the members of the little-known postwar Confederate naval colony in Halifax, Nova Scotia...

(2)   Confederate Seadog: John Taylor Wood in War and Exile by John Bell
...After the Civil War, John Taylor Wood became a successful businessman and leading citizen of Halifax, Nova Scotia, the port from which he avoided capture by taking the Tallahassee through a narrow passage previously thought to be un-navigable to ships of Tallahassee's size...

 Print Culture in the Maritimes
(A revised version of the 1997 paper: History of the Book in the Maritimes)
...From the beginning of European settlement, books and other printed materials have figured in the life of what is now the Maritime Provinces of Canada. As early as 1606, Marc Lescarbot, a Parisian lawyer and author, brought a modest library with him when he travelled to Port Royal (now Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia), and religious and scientific texts played a significant role in the life of the French fortress at Louisbourg in the eighteenth century. But it was not until the founding of Halifax by the British in 1749 that printers and book binders arrived in the colony. Here printing was introduced in 1752 with the launching of The Halifax Gazette, the first newspaper in the country. From this location printing spread throughout the region and throughout the country...


Royal William

   There is a lot of misinformation about the Royal William.   

Part of the problem is that there were two steam ships named
Royal William — both were built in the 1830s and both crossed
the North Atlantic in the 1830s.  This creates much confusion,
and facts which are true of one of them are often reported as
being true of the other.

There are also statements of "fact" that simply are wrong. The
most prominent of these is the statement that Royal William
was the first ship to cross the Atlantic entirely by steam.
This is not true. 

False: Royal William was the first ship
to cross the Atlantic entirely by steam.

True: Royal William was the first ship
to cross the Atlantic under steam all the way.

Royal William crossed the Atlantic in 1833, powered partly
by steam and partly by sail.  The two steam engines were kept
running all the way across, but propulsion assistance from the
sails was used whenever the wind was in the right direction.

Actually, the statement that the "engines were kept running all the way across"
needs qualification.  Several sources — probably one source if you trace them
all back to the original — report that the engines were kept running continuously
except that, once every four days, Royal William's machinery was stopped for a
few hours to clean accumulated salt from the boilers.  To people familiar with
steam machinery, this sounds plausible.

Every steam boiler must be supplied with lots of water to replace that taken
from the boiler as steam.  This replacement water — called feed water —
must be fed continuously and in quantity.  For every kilogram of steam taken
from the boiler, a kilogram of feed water must be supplied.  Where does this
feed water come from?  For a boiler on land, the feed water can be obtained
from a nearby stream or pond, but what about a boiler in a ship at sea? 

When a ship is at sea, there's lots of water available for boiler feed, but it is
salt water.  When salt water is fed to a boiler, the water is evaporated away but
the salt remains in the boiler.  As the boiler produces steam for the engines,
salt is building up in the boiler.  For a steamship running a coastal route,
stopping frequently at ports along the way, the salt accumulation in the boiler
can be flushed out whenever the vessel is stopped to unload and reload. 

Steamships crossing the North Atlantic in the 1830s and 1840s were under
way for two or three weeks at a time.  At this early stage of development of
steam technology, the boilers had to be cleaned of salt after just a few days of
operation.  This required the steam machinery to be stopped for a few hours.

While the steam machinery was stopped, the ship could continue under sail
– when the wind was right – but slowly because the paddle wheels were still in
the water and caused a lot of drag when stopped.  (This drag from the paddles
when stopped was a strong incentive for keeping the ship's engines running at
all times.)

The solution to salt buildup in the boilers was to find a way to provide fresh
(unsalted) feed water.  Condensed exhaust steam from the engines became
the main source of good feed water.

By the way, this problem – providing the boilers with fresh feed water – remains a
problem to this day (2012).  For example, the United States operates twelve ten
(as of 1 December 2012) nuclear aircraft carriers, all with steam-powered
propulsion.  At full speed – about 280,000 horsepower – each carrier requires
about 1,300,000 litres of feedwater per hour, mostly obtained by condensing
exhaust steam.  These carriers have on duty at all times a specially-trained
officer responsible for the feedwater supply.

Almost certainly, the first crossing wholly by steam power
was a westbound trip, toward North America.  The prevailing
wind is such that eastbound trips were much more likely to
be able to use sail assistance.  On the North Atlantic,
wind blowing toward the west is much rarer than wind blowing
toward the east.

The distinction of being the first ship to cross the
Atlantic Ocean solely by steam power, with no help from the
sails at any time, seems to belong to Sirius, which
departed Cork, Ireland, on 4 April 1838 and arrived in New York
on 22 April 1838.

 Royal William of 1831
Designed for service between Quebec and the Maritime Provinces, Royal William (named for William IV) was built for the Quebec and Halifax Steam Navigation Company, of which Samuel Cunard was a part owner. After a successful first season during which she completed three round trips between Quebec and Halifax, Royal William was quarantined in 1832 because of a cholera epidemic...

 Royal William of 1831

 Royal William of 1831 There were two early steamers (steam ships) named Royal William. This article is about the first Royal William, built in 1831, which steamed out of Pictou, Nova Scotia, in 1833 to be the first ship to cross the Atlantic under steam all the way. The second Royal William, built in 1837, crossed the Atlantic in 1838...

 Royal William stamp

 The Ships List Eighteenth and nineteenth century passenger lists, schedules, ship specifications, wreck data, and other information which is not readily available, has been collected for an assortment of ships, along with links to other sites of interest.  This website is an excellent resource.

      Britannia, Cunard Line from the Illustrated London News, 23 October 1847
Pictures of Britannia, the first ship built for Cunard's transatlantic service

      Immigration Report of 1865 for Nova Scotia

      Cunard Sailings of 1849 A very detailed presentation of each and every trip of a Cunard steamship in 1849 on the North Atlantic service from Liverpool, England, to Boston and New York, with a stop at Halifax both westbound and eastbound.

      Cunard Line, The British and North American Royal Mail Steam Packet Company, Cunard Steamship Company Samuel Cunard and two partners formed the British and North American Royal Mail Steam Packet Company in 1840. The company's name was changed to the Cunard Steamship Company, Limited in 1878...

 Cunard Steamship Society John G. Langley

 Register of Ships transcribed from the Lloyd's Register, 1764-2003, by Gilbert Provost

 Basic Guide to Researching Nova Scotian Ships and Seafarers

The Atlantic Blue Riband The Atlantic Blue Riband began not as an actual trophy, but a metaphorical reward for being the fastest ship to cross the Atlantic... The paddlewheeler Britannia, owned and operated by the North American Royal Mail Steam Packet Company, was the first holder of the Blue Riband when, in 1840, it covered the stretch from Liverpool, England, to Halifax, Nova Scotia, at ten knots 18km/h.

The Blue Riband of the North Atlantic was awarded to the ship that made the fastest transatlantic crossing. Actually, the award consisted of two prizes — one for eastbound crossings and one for westbound...
The Wayback Machine has archived copies of this document:
The Blue Riband of the North Atlantic

Archived: 2000 August 17

Archived: 2001 May 18

Archived: 2002 June 14

Archived: 2003 February 15

Blue Riband: Westbound Crossings

Archived: 2000 August 26

Archived: 2002 December 22

Blue Riband: Eastbound Crossings

Archived: 2000 August 26

Archived: 2002 December 22

The Blue Riband of The North Atlantic Westbound and Eastbound

History of the Hales Trophy for the Blue Riband of The AtlanticThe era of the trans-Atlantic steamships dates from August 17, 1833, when the Royal William set out on the first crossing under steam power. As ships became more technically sophisticated, a gentlemen's rivalry grew among owners of steamship lines who sought to mark the shortest crossing time between Europe and America. By the end of the 19th century, the rivalry had begotten the Blue Riband, the prize awarded to the fastest trans-Atlantic steamship, which entitled that vessel to fly a large blue ribbon as a symbol of the honor.  In 1935 Harold Keates Hales, a former member of the British Parliament, donated another emblem to honor speed supremacy on the Atlantic — the Hales Trophy. In 1933, Hales commissioned the trophy to be fabricated by Henry Pidduck & Sons Ltd., well-known silversmiths of Hanley, England...

The Blue Riband by Arnd Stroeh
The Blue Riband is awarded to the ship that makes the fastest transatlantic crossing. The challenge finds its birth in 1833 when for the first time ever a ship that relied mainly on steam power crossed the Atlantic Ocean: it was the Royal William...

The Decline of trans-Atlantic Passenger Ships, 1945-1960 Travel Statistics
By the early 1950s, more people were crossing the North Atalntic by air than by sea...

New Blue Riband record, July 1998 CAT-LINK V, a 91 metre (300 feet) car and passenger double-hulled catamaran ferry with four diesel engines generating 34,000 horsepower, crossed the Atlantic from New York to Bishop Rock outside Southampton, Britain, in 2 days, 20 hours and 9 minutes — the first such voyage in under three days.


R.M.S. Titanic
and Nova Scotia

With the largest concentration of Titanic victims' graves in the world
at Halifax, it can be said the Titanic's only voyage really ended here.

Titanic was not a Cunard ship.
Titanic was a White Star ship,
two decades before the merger
of White Star with Cunard
in 1934.

 Titanic and Halifax Halifax is where the maiden voyage of Titanic really ended, with the most lasting legacy from the sinking located here...

 Titanic Victims Buried in Halifax This list was prepared by Bob Knuckle of Dundas, Ontario.  There are 150 Titanic victims buried in Halifax, the largest number anywhere in the world. This list includes all victims buried in Halifax, arranged by name, with unknown victims listed at the end by number. Another 119 bodies of Titanic victims were recovered but buried at sea and 59 more were shipped home to relatives...

 Titanic Cemeteries, Halifax Regional Municipality

 Garth Wangemann's Titanic Graves website Striking map of graves at Fairview Cemetery

 Transcript of the Actual Radio Messages Sent by Titanic and Rescue Ships

 Bill Wormstedt's Titanic webpage

 Titanic coverage by the Truro Daily News  Transcribed clippings from the Truro Daily News, Truro, Nova Scotia, 15, 16, 17 April 1912

 Yarmouth County Museum & Archives

Titanic's Mystery Ship

Almost everyone is familiar with the sinking of the famous Titanic. Fewer know of the story behind the "mystery ship". Why would a vessel within five miles of the foundering Titanic shut off her lights and steam away? Many people wonder whether the tales of another ship are true and, if so, why did she disappear into the night and not respond to the distress calls of the floundering Titanic? Here's the solution to this mystery, including the ultimate fate of the mystery ship near Yarmouth, Nova Scotia, in 1952.
The Wayback Machine has archived copies of this document:
Titanic's Mystery Ship
by the Yarmouth County Museum

Archived: 1999 February 24

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Archived: 2002 February 22

Telegram: Titanic Disaster
15 April 1912

Telegram 1912 Titanic
Captain Rostron of Carpathia informs AP New York of Titanic disaster

Mackay-Bennett Departs from Halifax
17 April 1912

The cable ship Mackay-Bennett, usually assigned to the laying and repair of undersea telegraph cables, steamed out of Halifax Harbour on this day on the voyage for which this ship will always be remembered — to search the surface of the North Atlantic 600 kilometres off Newfoundland for bodies of victims of the Titanic disaster.  Titanic had gone to the bottom shortly after 2am on 15 April.  Carpathia had picked up most of the survivors on 15 April, but had retrieved only a very few bodies.

Under the command of captain Frederick Larnder [this is the correct spelling], Mackay-Bennett departed from what is now (1998) Karlsen's Wharf, north of the site of the new Halifax Casino.  Before the ship sailed, tons of ice had been placed in the holds, and a hundred wooden coffins and embalming supplies taken on board.  Several undertakers and Canon Kenneth Hind of All Saints Cathedral were on the ship.  At daylight on 21 April, Mackay-Bennett lowered boats amid large waves and dangerous ice floes, and began retrieving bodies floating on the water.  A crew member reported that "as far as the eye could see the ocean was strewn with wreckage and debris with bodies bobbing up and down in the cold sea." The undertakers on board started embalming procedures while the search continued.

On 22 April, a crewman on Mackay-Bennett wrote: "This day we picked up 27 bodies, Col. John Jacob Astor among them.  Everybody had on a lifebelt and bodies floated very high in the water in spite of sodden clothes and things in pockets." On Astor, the 47-year old New York multimillionaire, they found a belt with a gold buckle, a gold watch, gold-and-diamond cufflinks, a diamond ring, $2440 in US money, and £225 in British money.

Mackay-Bennett recovered 306 bodies but ran out of supplies and 116 bodies were buried at sea, weighted with iron which had been brought for that purpose.  Mackay-Bennett returned to Halifax with 190 bodies.  A few days later Minia found another 17 bodies.

Embalmers from Across Maritimes Called in for Titanic by Shirley Hill,
      in the Halifax Chronicle-Herald, 10 April 1998
Volume 1 Number 2 of The Sunday Herald, Halifax, 26 April 1998
Halifax Daily News, 10 August 1999
The Globe and Mail, 9 October 1999

Mackay-Bennett Returns to Halifax
30 April 1912

On this day, the cable ship Mackay-Bennett steamed into Halifax Harbour with the bodies of 190 Titanic victims.  Crewmen lined the rails, and a tarpaulin covered a pile of bodies on deck.  The ship had run out of coffins.  Mackay-Bennett tied up at the Halifax Dockyard on the east side of Barrington Street, now (1998) under the Angus L. Macdonald Bridge.  Horse-drawn hearses awaited the ship's arrival.

Shirley Hill wrote: "Even in death the class distinctions were maintained as the unloading began with the bodies of first-class passengers in coffins, second and third class in canvas bags, and bodies of crewmembers on stretchers." Some families came to claim bodies of their loved ones and made their own funeral arrangements.  The rest, unclaimed or unidentified, were buried in local cemeteries — 19 in Mount Olivet, 10 in Baron de Hirsch, and 121 in Fairview.  The White Star Line paid for gravestones with the victim's number, and name if known.

The 121 graves in Fairview Lawn Cemetery on Windsor Street in Halifax, constitute the largest concentration in the world of Titanic victims; including John Law Hume, the ship's violinist, and Ernest Edward Samuel Freeman, personal secretary to Bruce Ismay, President of the White Star Line.  Ismay paid for the special headstone at Freeman's grave.

[Excerpted from:
Embalmers from Across Maritimes Called in for Titanic by Shirley Hill,
in the Halifax Chronicle-Herald, 10 April 1998]

Role of the Mackay-Bennett in the Titanic Disaster

The name Mackay-Bennett

The Cable Ship Mackay-Bennett was named for the two founders of the
Commercial Cable Company, which was incorporated in New York in 1883.

James Gordon Bennett (1841-1918) (the younger) was the owner
of the New York Herald newspaper, having inherited it from his father
James Gordon Bennett (the elder).

John William Mackay (1831-1902) had made a fortune in mining after
emigrating in 1840 to the United States from Ireland; in 1859 he joined the
rush to Nevada, where silver had been discovered. Mackay and J.G. Fair,
later joined by William Shoney O'Brien and J.C. Flood, acquired control
of valuable silver mines, which yielded them great fortunes.

Bennett and Mackay both used telegrams extensively in their businesses,
and wished to compete with the Anglo-American Company and others, which
at that time had formed a syndicate known as "The Pool", and enjoyed a near
monopoly of transatlantic traffic while being able to keep telegraph rates high
and profits large. The two men agreed to work together to found a new
transatlantic telegraph company in 1883.  The Commercial Cable Company
quickly laid two undersea telegraph cables from Europe, landing the North
American ends at Hazel Hill, near Canso, Nova Scotia.

To maintain these cables the company kept a specially-designed cable ship,
the Mackay-Bennett, in Halifax, ready to go to sea at any time on short
notice if a cable failed.


 Cable Ship Mackay-Bennett by Bill Glover

 Cable Ship Mackay-Bennett Encyclopedia Titanica

 Bodies Recovered by the Cable Ship Mackay-Bennett Encyclopedia Titanica

 Cable Ship Minia Encyclopedia Titanica

 Mackay-Bennett's Search for Bodies from Titanic Encyclopedia Titanica
Halifax Evening Mail, 30 April 1912

 Chapter XXI: The Funeral Ship and Its Dead by Jay Henry Mowbray, 1912

 Titanic by nsonline: a collection of links, information, Nova Scotian newspaper stories, photos and other interesting facts about one of the world's most compelling marine disasters, and the parts that Nova Scotia played in its aftermath...

 The Marconi Wireless Installation in R.M.S. Titanic by Parks Stephenson

 The Marconi Wireless in R.M.S. Titanic The Shipbuilder, Vol. VI, Midsummer 1911

Nova Scotia: Book cover Coal for Burning Coal Was There for Burning, by Charles Henry Milsom (1926-1996) 88 pages published 1975 by the Institute of Marine Engineers, London, ISBN 0900976500
Only the loss of the Titanic surpasses the horror of the wreck of the Atlantic, and coincidentally both vessels were owned by the White Star Line. This is the dramatic story of the loss of the Atlantic which was wrecked on the rocks off Nova Scotia and which rates amongst the worst sea disasters the world has known. This compelling account of the tragedy reports the decisions and blunders leading up to the loss of the ship and the heavy loss of life, as well as portraying the appalling suffering of the survivors and their hazardous rescue.

 Treacherous Waters A great many ships have been wrecked off Nova Scotia's foggy shores

 1866: Fever and Cholera on the steamship England

The S.S. England of the National Steam Navigation Company, a well-appointed ship, left Liverpool, England on March 28th, 1866 with over 1200 passengers on board, many more than allowed by the emigration regulations of Great Britain. Four days after leaving Queenston a boy was found dead alongside his mother. Cholera had broken out and as many as 15 emigrants died in one day. Up to the time of making Halifax 46 had succumbed and 30 were on the sick list. Ship's fever raged along with the cholera. Finding it impossible to reach her port of destination, New York, the steamer was headed for Halifax which port she made on the night of April 8th, 1866. She came to quarantine and all night long the silence of the calm night was broken by the sounds made in making coffins. Next morning (April 9) the yellow flag was hoisted and help signalled for. The deck was heaped with coffins. Permission having been given four boat loads of coffined emigrants were conveyed to the island where they were buried. The steamer was ordered to anchor at Meagher's Beach... As near as could be estimated, 200 died after the arrival of the England at Halifax. This with the number who died on the voyage brings up the total mortality to about 250. The names could not be ascertained for a healthy man in the morning might be a corpse before noon. The captain of the England claimed that 100 escaped from the island. This may or may not be true. The pilot who brought the England into port died. Two of his children also died...
S.S. England Passenger List taken at New York, May 11th, 1866

 History of the International Fisherman's Trophy

 Ships and Seafarers of Atlantic Canada

Available by mail from the Memorial University of Newfoundland
Price (non-Canadian residents) C$54.95
Canadian residents add 7% GST for a price, tax included, of C$58.80
A fully searchable CD containing data on the vessels, captains and crews of Atlantic Canada, 1787-1936.  This CD contains information on the shipping industry of Atlantic Canada, derived from two British record series, structured as three interactive databases that allow the user to search, sort and query the data.  The first database is compiled from the Certificates of Registry for ten major ports of Atlantic Canada: Miramichi, Richibucto and Saint John in New Brunswick; Halifax, Sydney, Pictou, Windsor and Yarmouth in Nova Scotia; Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island; and St. John's, Newfoundland, from 1787 to 1936 (outside dates). It contains information on the vesses registered at each port and on their owners. Shipping registers for the port of Bermuda are also included on the database.  The second database is compiled from the crew agreements of vessels registered in the ports of Saint John, New Brunswick; Yarmouth, Windsor and Halifax, Nova Scotia for the period 1863-1914. This file contains information on the masters and seafarers who crewed the vessels, their ports of call and voyages. In total the file contains information on 182,000 seafarers and 20,000 masters of Atlantic Canadian vessels.  A third database contains a one per cent sample of crew agreements from non-Canadian (British) vessels which was compiled for comparative purposes. The data is arranged in the same format as the file described above and contains 85,000 records of individual seamen and 19,000 records of masters.  There are a total of approximately 1,700,000 locations specified for crew and master birthplaces; master, owner and managing owner residences; where ships were built, previously registered or subsequently sold; and voyage ports of call.

 Nova Scotia History An extensive collection of links to websites containing nuggets of Nova Scotia history


in Nova Scotia

 Slaves in Isle Royale (Cape Breton Island) by Kenneth Donovan
Between 1713 and 1758, there were at least 266 slaves in Ile Royal, mostly in Louisbourg... In 1734 there were 28 slaves in Louisbourg... In Halifax in 1749 there were 14 enslaved black people... By 1759 there were 3,604 slaves in Canada...

 Slavery in Canada and The First Wave
We northerners have maintained a bit of a 'holier than thou' attitude about the widespread use of slaves in the southern States.  If one were to ask if Canada ever had slaves, many Canadians would respond with an indignant 'no', yet we did have slaves...

Advertisement: Negro Man, for Nova Scotia
Ad in New York newspaper, July 1783
For sale: Negro Man, for Nova Scotia

Enlarged view

Nova Scotia Slave Ads

 Runaway Slave Ad, Nova Scotia
Comment:  This image was placed online by Nova Scotia Archives and Records Management.
They somehow overlooked identifying this advertisement – published when? where?
That's the kind of basic information one would think that an archive
would be sure to include for a historic document like this.

Twenty Dollars Reward
Ran away, on Thursday evening, the
18th inst a Negro Man Servant, the
property of the Subscriber, named BEL-
FAST ; but who commonly goes by the
name of BILL, —— -At the time of he
elopement he was in the service of William
Forsyth, Esq ; and had meditated an at-
tempt to get on board a ship that night
which lay in the harbour, bound to Newfoundland ; but was
frustrated : It is probable, however, he may still endeavour to
escape that way, therefore, the masters of all coasters going
along shore, or other vessels bound to sea, are hereby forewarn-
ed from carrying him off at their peril, as they will be prose-
cuted, if discovered, with the utmost rigour of the law.
    The above reward will be paid to any person or persons who
shall apprenend and secure him, so that I may recover him a-
    He is a likely, stout-made fellow, of five feet eight or nine
inches high, and about 27 years of age ; of a mild good coun-
tenance and features, smooth black skin, with very white
teeth ; is a native of South Carolina, speaks good English,
and very softly, and has been in this Province ten years.
    When he went off, he wore an old Bath-Coating short coat,
of a light colour, wore out at the elbows ; brown cloth or
duffil trowsers, also much wore at the knees ; a round hat,
and an old black silk handkerchief about his neck :— But as
he had other cloaths secreted in town, he may have changed
his whole apparel.
    He will no doubt endeavour to pass for a free man, and
possibly by some other name.

Note: In this ad, "the 18th inst" means the 18th day of this month.
"Subscriber" means Michael Wallace, the person who inserted the ad.

 To Be Sold At Auction 3 November 1760

Former Slaves in Nova Scotia

Between 1783 and 1785, more than 3000 Black persons
came to Nova Scotia as a direct result of the American Revolution
and the circumstances associated with it

These circumstances include:
• the decision by Lord Mansfield in the Somersett case in England, 1772
• the Proclamation by Lord Dunmore, Governor of Virginia, Nov. 1775
• the Virginia Legislature's Response to Lord Dunmore's Proclamation, Dec. 1775
• the Philipsburg Proclamation, 1779

 England's Slave Law: Does It Apply in the Colonies? Massachusetts, Nova Scotia...
In June 1772, James Somersett sued for his freedom in English courts. Somersett, a slave taken to England by his master Charles Stuart, ran away but was recaptured and bound for Jamaica. Lord Mansfield, Chief Justice of the King's Bench, ruled that Somersett be released because slavery is "so odious, that nothing can be suffered to support it..." His decision outlawed slavery in England, but did not apply to British colonies. When the news reached the colonies however, American slaves began petitioning for their own freedom. The General Court in Boston received in January 1773 the first petition in which a slave argued that the Mansfield decision should apply to the colonies. Mansfield's decision was not extended to the colonies in this instance, but it provided fodder for the belief of many slaves that their best chance for freedom lay with the British. They believed the British held a widely different view of slavery than the majority of Americans...

 Proclamation by Lord Dunmore, the last Royal Governor of Virginia 7 November 1775
...I do hereby further declare all indented Servants, Negroes, or others, (appertaining to Rebels,) free that are able and willing to bear Arms, they joining His Majesty's Troops as soon as may be...

 7 Nov. 1775: Proclamation by Lord Dunmore, Governor of Virginia by WGBH
...Word of Dunmore's plan was known as early as April 1775, when a group of slaves presented themselves to him to volunteer their services. He delayed the decision by ordering them away, but the Virginia slaveholders' suspicions were not allayed. On 8 June 1775, Dunmore left Williamsburg, taking refuge aboard the man-of-war Fowey at Yorktown. Over the next five months, he reinforced his troops by engaging in a series of raids and inviting slaves aboard the ship. On November 7, Dunmore drafted a proclamation, and a week later he ordered its publication....

Image: Lord Dunmore's Proclamation

 Virginia Legislature's Response to Lord Dunmore's Proclamation 14 December 1775
WHEREAS lord Dunmore, by his proclamation, dated on board the ship William, off Norfolk, the 7th day of November 1775, hath offered freedom to such able-bodied slaves as are willing to join him, and take up arms, against the good people of this colony... it is enacted, that all negro or other slaves, conspiring to rebel or make insurrection, shall suffer death, and be excluded all benefit of clergy...

 Dunmore did not intend to emancipate all slaves and indentured servants. He owned slaves himself and did not free them during this revolutionary period. Dunmore offered freedom only to those able-bodied slaves belonging to rebels and he did not want to provoke mass slave rebellion. Within a month he had nearly 300 blacks in his regiment. By the following summer at least 800 blacks had joined Dunmore's troops...

 Philipsburg Proclamation 1779
The Philipsburg Proclamation expanded Dunmore's Proclamation to include any rebel slave who could escape, ready to serve for the British or not, anywhere in the rebel colonies... Slaves who revolted in the years following the Philipsburg Proclamation were often put to work in captured plantations to grow food for the British Army...

 Lord Dunmore's Proclamation: Causes and Effects by Jamie Morgan
...The colonists immediately responded to Lord Dunmore's Proclamation by intimidating their slaves with threats, tightening security around slaves and by making examples of caught runaways.  Only a few days after the Proclamation was issued, a letter from a slave owner was printed in the Virginia Gazette trying to discourage slaves from seeking their freedom.  The slave owner who wrote this letter opened by reminding slaves that "to none is freedom promised but to such as are able to do Lord Dunmore's service [bear arms]".  He then went on to threaten the slaves by saying that if they were to run away, the family members that they would leave behind will suffer on their behalf.  He therefore urged them to "remain the property of their masters, masters who will be provoked to severity, should part of their slaves desert them"... Runaways who were caught were publicly beaten until their blood ran on the ground, and their wounds were then washed with salt. After this horrible ordeal they were forced to immediately return to work...,Jamie.doc

    Note: Oak Park and River Forest High School (OPRFHS), Oak Park, Illinois

 African Captives Yolked in Pairs

 Slave Code of the Colony of Virginia 1705
...If any slave resist his master... correcting such slave, and shall happen to be killed in such correction... the master shall be free of all punishment... as if such accident never happened... For minor offences, such as associating with whites, slaves would be whipped, branded, or maimed...

 Book of Negroes by WGBH
Sir Guy Carleton assigned three men to compile a register of Negroes who were eligible for evacuation from New York, and the Continental Congress appointed a three-man commission to inspect and supervise the process. For the next several months the British board and the American commission met each Wednesday in New York City at the Queen's Head, a tavern owned by Samuel Fraunces, a free black, and reviewed cases brought by slaveowners...

Image: one page of the Book of Negroes

 Book of Negroes by the Nova Scotia Government
This book is a hand-written list of Black passengers leaving New York on British ships in 1783. It gives a name, age, physical description, and status (slave or free) for each passenger, and often an owner's name and place of residence. Three copies of the Book of Negroes exist: one in England, at the Public Records Office, Kew; one in the United States, at the National Archives, Washington; and one in Canada, at the Nova Scotia Archives, University Avenue, Halifax...

 Certificate of Freedom, issued 21 April 1783 in New York City to Cato Ramsay

 Nova Scotia: Slavery and Freedom, 1749-1782

Halifax: Captain Thomas Bloss RN brought sixteen black slaves to Halifax, 1750

Halifax: Fugitive slave advertisement, 1 September 1772

Halifax: Advertisement, Boy For Sale, 28 March 1775

Windsor: Sale of Slave, 1779

Falmouth, Hants County: Runaway Slave advertisement, 22 May 1781
This ad shows that slaveholding was an integral part of the fabric of everyday life in Nova Scotia in the 1700s.

 Nova Scotia: Free Black Immigrants and Slaves, 1783-1792
From the beginning enslaved African Nova Scotians challenged slavery by escaping from it.  Some free African Nova Scotians who were enslaved or re-enslaved courageously protested their treatment in court...

 Nova Scotia: The Decline and Disappearance of Slavery, 1793-1812

Halifax: Runaway slave advertisement, 15 March 1794

Shelburne: "Peter's services were sold to Zebulon Perkins of Liverpool", April 1794

Digby: Deed of Sale of a Slave Child, July 1796

Halifax: Advertisement about Runaway Indentured Servant, 11 June 1799

Halifax: Advertisement for Lease of a Woman Slave, 24 June 1800

Kings County: Slaves Included in Inventory of Property of the Deceased, 1802

 Nova Scotia: "Black Refugee" Immigrants, 1813-1834

Several Hundred Black Refugees Arrive at Halifax, 3 September 1814
"...a Transport with a few hundred Negroes (dead and alive)..."

Nova Scotia: An Act to Prevent the Clandestine Landing of Liberated Slaves, April 1834

 Excellent Collection of Links to Information on Slavery in the United States
These links point to much additional information about the circumstances faced by Blacks in the United States in the 1750s-1770s — the context in which they had to decide which side to join after it became clear in 1783 the the British had lost the American War of Independence.

 Slavery, Abolition, and Emancipation: Links and Web Resources
There are thousands of pages on the web that deal with slavery, abolition, and emancipation. This page offers links to a few of them....

Boston King

 Boston King
Boston King was one of the many enslaved African Americans – perhaps as many as 100,000 – who risked punishment and even death [in the 1770s] in order to reach the British lines and a chance at freedom... In 1776, British troops under the command of General Billy Howe captured New York City. The city continued to be a British stronghold for the duration of the war, and large numbers of enslaved blacks sought refuge there... Prior to the evacuation of New York, Congress instructed General Washington to obtain American property held by the British, including slaves, as stipulated under the terms of the agreement signed in Paris in November, 1782. Sir Guy Carleton, negotiating on behalf of the British, dismayed the Americans when he expressed an intention to honor the proclamations of freedom issued by previous commanders... After his conversion to Methodism in 1786, Boston King began to preach in Birchtown and Shelburne in Nova Scotia, eventually moving to Preston...

 Famine of 1787
...the country was visited with a dreadful famine, which not only prevailed at Burch Town, but likewise at Chebucto, Annapolis, Digby and other places. Many of the poor people were compelled to sell their best gowns for five pounds of flour, in order to support life. When they had parted with all their clothes, even to their blankets, several of them fell down dead in the streets, thro' hunger. Some killed and eat their dogs and cats, and poverty and distress prevailed on every side...
  — Boston King

 Memoirs of Boston King Methodist Magazine, March 1798

 Memoirs of Boston King: The complete text Methodist Magazine, March 1798

Legal Racial Discrimination
in Nova Scotia

 Viola Desmond
On November 8, 1946, Viola Desmond attended a movie at the Roseland Theatre in New Glasgow, Nova Scotia. She was arrested for choosing to sit downstairs in the racially segregated theatre, rather than upstairs in the balcony (where Blacks were forced to sit). She was thrown in jail for 12 hours and then finally charged with "attempting to defraud the Federal Government." The charge was based on her refusal to pay the one cent amusement tax difference between the 3 cents tax charged to those sitting in the balcony and the 2 cents charged to those sitting downstairs. She was sentenced to a fine of $20 and 30 days in prison...

 History of How Blacks Came to Nova Scotia
Mississippi State University /


Joshua Slocum
(20 Feb 1844 - 1909)

 Sailing Alone Around the World Captain Joshua Slocum's book (online site #1)

 Sailing Alone Around the World Captain Joshua Slocum's book (online site #2)

 Joshua Slocum Society International
Joshua Slocum Society International ew Official Website, November 2001

 Around the World Alone Smithsonian Magazine, May 1998

 Joshua Slocum memorial Westport, Nova Scotia

 Books about Joshua Slocum

 The Slocum Spray Society of Australia

 In the Wake of the Spray
Photographs of the original Spray

 Joshua Slocum Centennial Page by the Millicent Library, Fairhaven, Massachusetts



 The saga of the Samson, Canada's Oldest Locomotive

Pictures of the Samson

Excellent maps showing the railway travelled by the Samson

 Nova Scotia Railway Heritage Society NSRHS website startup: 10 February 2003

Historical Nova Scotian Railway Photographs Canadian National Railway stations

Historical Nova Scotian Railway Photographs Dominion Atlantic Railway stations

 History of Railway Companies in Nova Scotia

 Boat-hunting in Nova Scotia The year 1996 was declared "Year of the Wooden Boat" in Nova Scotia, and we are always being encouraged to celebrate those eclectic, small craft which have figured so prominently in our history...

This website was launched at a ceremony in Halifax on 6 October 1999.  Senator Willie Moore was there, representing the federal Department of Industry.  The provincial Department of Education was represented by Michael Jeffery, Director of Learning Resources and Technology.  Both departments supported the development of this website.
[The Halifax Daily News, 7 October 1999]

 History of Sweeny's Funeral Home Bridgewater

 History of Thompson's Moving & Storage Middleton
In 1947 the company opened its first terminal in Halifax...

 History of Clare Beverage Company Meteghan — cases of 24 bottles sold for 85¢...

 History of the Golden Horse Fountain Yarmouth 1893-2004
The fountain had two drinking troughs for horses and cattle. It had four smaller and lower troughs for dogs and sheep...

 Rum_Running Days in Yarmouth

 History of Public Transit in Yarmouth
The electric railway operated 1892-1928...

 History of the Village of Greenwood

 History of Weymouth

 History of Nauss Brothers Limited Bridgewater
Building supplies, general contracting, manufacturer of roof trusses
Johnann Christopher Nauss left his home Palheinhe and his country from Rottingham, Germany aboard The Gale on 9 January 1752. He arrived in Halifax eight months later on 6 September 1752...

 History of Silver's Garage, Bridgewater

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History of Silver's Garage

Archived: 2001 April 6

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 History of Evangeline Motors started in Aylesford in 1956...

 History of the Bedford Fire Department

 History of Springhill

Springhill Firsts History Nuggets about the Town of Springhill

The Great Colliery Explosion  21 February 1891

 Age of Sail Heritage Centre, Port Greville

 A brief history of Curling in Nova Scotia The Royal Caledonian Curling Club of Scotland bestowed the powers of a Branch on the Halifax Curling Club in 1851...

 History of Golf in Nova Scotia

 A Brief History of Valley Chapter Royal Arch Masons, Middleton

 Chapter X: Louisburg, Fort Duquesne, and the Fall of Quebec online e-book
New France and New England, by John Fiske
published 1902 by Houghton, Mifflin, and Company
...On the twenty-eighth day of May, 1758, there sailed out from Halifax an English force which was to undertake the reduction of Louisburg. It was commanded by Admiral Boscawen, who had twenty-three ships-of-the-line and eighteen frigates along with a fleet of transports carrying eleven thousand British regulars and five hundred colonial militia. The land force was commanded by the new general-in-chief for America, Sir Jeffrey Amherst. It was the 2nd of June when this powerful force arrived in Gabarus Bay...

 Medical History Society of Nova Scotia has been working since 1968 to collect, preserve, conserve, research, and interpret the medical heritage of Nova Scotia...

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Medical History Museum of Nova Scotia

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 History of the Nova Scotia Rifle Association The NSRA has been in continuous operation for more than 130 years and is older than Canada as a country.  It is the second oldest Rifle Association in the Commonwealth.

 Nova Scotia Archives and Records Management
(Formerly PANS, Public Archives of Nova Scotia)

          Halifax and its People, 1749-1999

          Halifax 1749-1999, Transportation and Communications

 1849: Communications between Nova Scotia and New Brunswick A collection of "clippings" from New Brunswick sources containing information about transportation and communications links between New Brunswick and Nova Scotia in 1849.

 History of Maritime Command Museum Halifax

 Greenwood Military Aviation Museum

 History of CFB Shearwater United States Naval Air Station Halifax 1918-1919
...On 15 August 1918, Lieutenant Richard Evelyn Byrd, United States Navy, (later an Admiral renowned for his polar exploits) established United States Naval Air Station Halifax at Baker's Point on the Dartmouth side of Halifax harbour. Lieutenant Byrd assumed direct command of the station at Halifax and acted as liaison officer between the American and Canadian governments in naval aviation matters.  Crates containing the first two Curtiss HS-2L seaplanes arrived in Halifax by railway train on 17th August and were barged across the harbour to the Dartmouth air station. The first aircraft was assembled and successfully test flown two days later and the first operational patrol was flown 25 August 1918; maritime patrol aviation in Canada had begun...

 Brief History of Chester Lunenburg County, Nova Scotia

 Blandford and Area Historical Society Lunenburg County, Nova Scotia

 Fieldwood Heritage Society Canning, Kings County

 Wolfville Historical Society Canning, Kings County

 Whycocomagh and District Historical Society

 Early Canadiana Online (formerly CIHM) is a full text online collection of more than 3,000 books and pamphlets documenting Canadian history from the first European contact to the late 19th century...
[On 25 April 1999, I did a search of this website using selected keyphrases and words:
"nova scotia" returned 2638 matches in 282 documents.
"cunard" returned 95 matches in 45 documents.
"north atlantic" returned 30 matches in 23 documents.]

 Books about Kings County, Nova Scotia
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Books about Kings County, Nova Scotia

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 West Hants Historical Society books for sale: local histories, etc.

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West Hants Historical Society: Books for Sale

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 Daniel Craig's Letter, May 1851 During the winter and spring of 1851, Daniel H. Craig travelled "from Halifax, Nova Scotia, through the Atlantic cities to New Orleans, and from thence to Louisville, Cincinnati, Buffalo, Albany, &c." He found everywhere that the general character of telegraphic news, as published in the leading newspapers of the country, "was a positive disgrace to all concerned." He reported that the public had come to regard "all telegraphic newspaper despatches with suspicion or disgust." In this letter, Craig outlines the leading features of new policies he was implementing on behalf of the New York Associated Press, to improve the "inefficient and irresponsible" system which had previously prevailed.  The principles and policies outlined by Craig in this letter quickly became the basic working principles and policies of the Associated Press, and to this day have remained its defining framework.


Nova Scotia

 The oldest newspaper in Canada began publication in 1752 in Halifax, Nova Scotia, as the Halifax Gazette. The first issue is dated March 23rd, 1752.  In 1766, the name was changed to the Nova Scotia Gazette. Today it continues regular publication as the Royal Gazette.

 Nova Scotia Newspapers currently published

 Nova Scotia Newspapers published today A list of all daily and community newspapers being published regularly in Nova Scotia in 2002.  There are six daily newspapers (can you name them?) and more than forty others, mostly weeklies.

 Nova Scotia newspapers available on microfilm at the National Library, Ottawa
From the Londonderry Arc-Light
to the Yarmouth Tribune

 Nova Scotia newspapers available on microfilm at the Vaughan Memorial Library, Acadia University, Wolfville
From the Wolfville Acadian
to the Windsor Tribune

 History of Yarmouth newspapers, by ATCHA The Argyle Township Court House and Archives (ATCHA) lists more than fifty newspapers that were published in Yarmouth at one time or another! The earliest was the Yarmouth Telegraph (1831), and the longest-running was the Yarmouth Herald (1833-1966)...

Old Nova Scotia Newspapers available on microfilm at ATCHA in Tusket The Argyle Township Court House and Archives (ATCHA), in Tusket, Yarmouth County, Nova Scotia, has the most extensive and complete collection of Yarmouth County newspapers available on microfilm in the Province. They also have a moderate sized collection of original newspapers.

 Clips and Snips Historical Information, mostly genealogy and shipping news 1817-1821, from The Acadian Recorder (Halifax newspaper)

 Extracts from the Berwick Register, 1897-1899

 The Tiny Tattler, "Canada's Smallest Newspaper", 1933-1943
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The Tiny Tattler, "Canada's Smallest Newspaper", 1933-1943

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 A brief history of newspapers in Weymouth, Nova Scotia, 1887-1934

 The Canso Breeze and Guysborough County Advocate excerpts 1922-1931

Nova Scotia Newspaper Websites

Bridgewater Bulletin, Lunenburg Progress-Enterprise

Oran Inverness

Guysborough Journal Guysborough County

Evening News New Glasgow

Cape Breton Post Sydney

Chronicle-Herald, Mail-Star Halifax

Victoria Standard Baddeck

Nova Scotia Electronic News Sites

Nova News Net School of Journalism, King's College, Halifax

Halifax Live

Halifax News

NovaServe The Newsmagazine for Southwest Nova Scotia

Highway Eastern Shore
Online since 1995

Archived Newspaper Websites

The Inverness Oran, Inverness
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The Inverness Oran

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The Weymouth Bridge, Weymouth
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The Weymouth Bridge

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The Bedford-Sackville Weekly News
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The Bedford-Sackville Weekly News

Issue: 8 January 1997 Archived: 1997 May 4

Issue: 5 February 1997 Archived: 1997 February 06

Issue: 19 February 1997 Archived: 1997 May 4

Issue: 12 March 1997 Archived: 1997 May 4

Issue: 23 April 1997 Archived: 1997 May 4

The Halifax Daily News
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The Halifax Daily News

Archived: 1996 December 19

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NovaNewsNet, University of Kings College, Halifax
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Archived: 1999 February 24*frontpage.htm

Archived: 2000 March 01

 Icelandic Memorial Society of Nova Scotia

This website includes one of the best online historic maps I've seen.


William Cottnam Tonge

born 29 Apr 1764 at Windsor, Nova Scotia
died 6 Aug 1832 at Georgetown, Demerara [Guyana]

 William Cottnam Tonge Winckworth Tonge married Martha Grace Cottnam. Four sons were born to them. Their first born was William Cottnam Tonge...

 Are There Islands On The Marsh? by Bill Hamilton
...William Cottnam Tonge (1764-1832), son of Winckworth Tonge (1727-1792), followed his father's footsteps in Nova Scotian politics and is regarded as the forerunner of Joseph Howe. For more than a decade the younger Tonge was the "unofficial" leader of the opposition and a "thorn" in the side of the governing establishment...
Tantramar Flashback column, Sackville Tribune-Post, 1 March 2000

 Tonge - Smith House (North Street, Chester, Nova Scotia) by C.L. (Chipman Lyman) Smith, Public Archives of Nova Scotia, MG 100 Vol 239 #13

 Naval Office Shipping Lists for Nova Scotia (1730-1820) three microfilm reels
Special Collections Division, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri —
The Navigation Acts of 1698 provided for the collection of detailed information regarding every vessel entering and clearing British ports. The principal ports of Nova Scotia were Halifax, Sydney and Arichat — and Benjamin Green, Winckworth Tonge and William Cottnam Tonge were the principal naval officers whose records are filmed. The lists include date of entry, name of ship, home port, when the ship was built and registered, the name of the master, the name of the owner, measured tonnage, number of guns, size of crew and details of the cargo carried including the names of passengers and the number of slaves or indentured servants. The guide to the collection provides tabulations that establishes the relative importance of different regions as suppliers to Nova Scotia and compares Halifax and Boston shipping.
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Naval Office Shipping Lists for Nova Scotia (1730-1820)

Archived: 2001 December 24

Archived: 2002 June 03

 Anglo-American Telegraph Company diary of 1866 Here are reproductions of four pages from the Anglo-American Telegraph Company diary of 1866. The diary covers the testing of the 1866 cable, the commencement of traffic handling, transfers between the Anglo cable and the Western Union landlines, a count and evalutation of the traffic, log entries of distinguished visitors to the office, records of staff assigned movement of cable ships, the successful landing of the 1865 cable and the beginning of its operations, references to Cyrus Field and other officers, and so on.

 History of St. Paul Island St. Paul Island is at the entrance of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, in the Cabot Strait, about 25 km from Cape Breton and 70 km from Cape Ray, Newfoundland. The island is five kilometres long and approximately a kilometre wide, covered with small spruce whitch gives it a green appearance in all seasons. It is very hilly, the highest being about 150 metres... One of the first wrecks on record is the loss of the British Transport Sovereign in 1814. Sovereign was bringing detachments of different regiments to Canada, and in all, about 800 lives were lost...

 Kennetcook — Past and Present History of Kennetcook, Hants County.  Includes a good picture of Nova Scotia's last covered bridge.

 History of Sackville Halifax County

 History of Municipality of Argyle Argyle originated with the Grant of the Township by the Government of the Province of Nova Scotia in 1771...

 History of the Town of Mulgrave Guysborough County
Name changed from McNair's Cove to Mulgrave in 1859

 The Story of McKenna's Pictou Twist

 History of Westville Pictou County
How did Westville get its name? As the village grew it was decided by the citizens that it should have a name other than Gairloch Road or Acadian Mines, so a meeting was held to select a name. Some wanted it called Ayr, some Airdrie, and other Scottish names were proposed. The meeting was at a deadlock until one man proposed the name Westville, explaining that it was west of Albion Mines, as Stellarton was then known...

 History of Riverton Pictou County
This document appears to have been written prior to 1960; the author is unknown...
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History of Riverton

Archived: 1999 September 7

Archived: 2000 October 19

Archived: 2001 December 20

 Pictou County Online Books

 Meacham's History of Pictou County

 Patterson's History of the County of Pictou

 Brief community histories prepared by students at St. Mary's Elementary School:
                History of Victoria Harbour

                History of Nicholsville

                History of Morristown

                History of Morden

                History of Millville

                History of Lake Paul

                History of Harmony

                History of Factorydale

                History of Dempsey Corner

                History of Aylesford

                History of Auburn

 Sydney Tarponds Timeline 1900-2003


Pre-Confederation Times
The 1860s in Nova Scotia

Published Reports and Opinions
About the Confederation Proposition

 The Canadian Visit clipping from the Halifax Citizen, 13 August 1864
The programme for the entertainment of our distinguished Canadian and New Brunswick visitors, has so far proceeded satisfactorily. Yesterday the principal arrangements were under the auspices of the Royal Halifax Yacht Club...

 The Colonial Convention the Halifax Morning Chronicle, 10 September 1864
...We are quite certain that Charlottetown was never honored, on any occasion, by the presence of so many distinguished visitors as at present reside within and in the vicinity of its quiet borders. The delegates from Canada, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia comprise the ablest men of those Provinces, several of who have earned for themselves a North American reputation, as wide and as envious as that which falls to the lot of many European statesmen...

 The Botheration Scheme clipping from the Halifax Morning Chronicle, 11 January 1865
...In 1849, the Canadians tried their hands at another insurrection. They burnt down their Parliament House; pelted Lord Elgin and his Lady through the streets; hung American flags out of the windows, and published a manifesto, to which the principal citizens of Montreal signed their names, demanding annexation to the United States. Novascotians must have short memories if these things are forgotten...
(published anonymously, but now known to have been written by Joseph Howe)

 The 1st of July the Pictou Colonial Standard (newspaper), 2 July 1867
...Should some old pamphlet or bundle of newspapers of the present day find its way into some old chest, packed away and forgotten in some cellar or attic, should its resurrection two or three hundred years hence disclose the truth...

The writer foresaw the "resurrection two or three hundred years hence" of this editorial, but could not have foreseen the electric network known as the Internet, an unimaginably sophisticated and powerful evolutionary development of that astonishing telecom marvel of 1867 – the electric telegraph, then less than twenty years old in Nova Scotia.

 A Fizzle the Halifax Morning Chronicle, 2 July 1867
...The whole strength of the Confederates was put forth to make a great demonstration, and we do not exaggerate when we say that they failed lamentably...

 Dominion Day the Halifax Unionist and Halifax Journal, 3 July 1867
...The Torch Light Procession of the Union Engine Company was a brilliant affair – it was the most attractive feature of the day's proceedings. The display of Fire Works was creditable. The Provincial Building and Lunatic Asylum were brilliantly illuminated...

 Dominion Day the Eastern Chronicle and Pictou County Advocate, 3 July 1867
...Nova Scotians, you are now said to be Canadians, by Act of Parliament, against your wishes. Do you accept the will of the despots who have forced this measure upon you...

 Married – Born – Died the Eastern Chronicle and Pictou County Advocate, 3 July 1867
...Married: On Monday morning last, at Ottawa C.E. (Canada East), by the British Parliament, assisted by Canadian Rebels and Annexationists and home-born Traitors, in all her midsummer beauty, the young and fair Nova Scotia and "big brother" Canada. Contrary to all the principles of Liberty, the young lady was forced into what her friends consider to be an unhappy union. She was beautiful and rich; her suitor was old, crabbed and almost bankrupt...

 The New Dominion the Halifax Evening Express, 3 July 1867
...The day of small things has passed away, and henceforth we will have our names inscribed among the nations of the Western World. The United States is great and powerful, and for generations to come will continue in advance of us, but to us will be accorded the second place on the Continent of North America and before many years shall have passed over our heads, we will be in point of position, influence, and material prosperity the second on the whole Continent from Behring's Straits to Cape Horn....

 Pre-Confederation Nova Scotia

Nova Scotia Separatists (1867)

 Nova Scotia Separatists (1867) by Lloyd Duhaime
In Nova Scotia in 1867 there was a strong feeling that the province should get out of Confederation.  The provincial general election of 1867 had swept the government of pro-confederate Premier Charles Tupper out of office. Anti-confederate not only won 35 of 38 seats in the provincial assembly, but also 18 of 19 Nova Scotia ridings in the federal election...

The Wayback Machine has archived copies of this document:
Nova Scotia Separatists (1867)
by Lloyd Duhaime

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 A Brief History of L'Ardoise, Cape Breton by Patrick B. Burke

 Brief History of Riverview High School Coxheath, Cape Breton

 History of Fairview Heights Elementary School Halifax

 History of Oxford School 6364 North Street, Halifax

The Wayback Machine has archived copies of this document:
History of Oxford School

Archived: 1999 October 12

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 Birchtown, Shelburne County

 Birchtown Archaeology Project Shelburne County

 History of the Public Gardens Halifax

 The Horton Journal of Canadian History
by students at Horton High School, Greenwich, Kings County

History of Lawrencetown Annapolis County

History of Lawrencetown: Early Settlers

Here's hoping this model project, by the class of 1977, will inspire others to prepare similar histories of lots of other towns and villages in Nova Scotia.

Economy, Nova Scotia: Photograph of the Solar Eclipse of 11 August 1999
Six minutes after sunrise, partially-eclipsed sunlight Nova Scotia: Eclipse, August 11th, 1999 shimmers across the Fundy mud flats at Economy, Nova Scotia.  Photo by John Potter, of Pembroke, Ontario, who traveled to Economy specially to see and photograph this eclipse, the last solar eclipse before the Big Rollover to 2000. He stayed at the Four Seasons Retreat in Economy, right on the Bay of Fundy; with the alignment of the Moon and Sun the tides "were amazing." Ordinarily this area has some of the highest tides in the world, but when there is an eclipse the tides are extra extreme.  In Nova Scotia, the Sun rose over the horizon already partially eclipsed.

Mr. Potter:
Sunrise in Economy happened at 6:13am
My estimate is that at sunrise, sun was approx 40% eclipsed
This picture was taken at 6:19am looking toward Bass River, with Kodak 100asa film, a shutter speed of 1/125 sec, and fstop of f11
Max was around 6:33am at around 90%
Eclipse ended at 7:32am at this location.

This photo was taken 5.8 kilometres north-west of Burntcoat Head.  Economy and Burntcoat Head are on opposite sides of Cobequid Bay, at the head of the Bay of Fundy.  At Burntcoat Head, on 11 August 1999, from the time of high tide at 1:01am to low tide at 7:27am, the ocean surface fell 14.22 metres 46 feet 7 inches, exposing the mud flat seen in the foreground. (On 23 January 2000, between high tide at 2:30pm and low tide at 8:53pm, the tidal range here was 15.59 metres 50 feet 6 inches.)

 History of the Royal Bank The Merchants' Bank (renamed The Royal Bank of Canada in 1901) was founded as a private commercial bank in 1864 by a close-knit group of Haligonian merchants.  The bank's first office on Bedford Row was situated within sight of the busy wharves of Halifax.  Focusing on the financing of fishing and timber as well as the annual flow of retail goods from Europe into the colony, the Merchants' Bank was closer linked to England and the Caribbean in its early operations than it was to the heartland of the North American continent. Confederation brought new perspectives.  It also brought the necessity of a federal charter, which was obtained in 1869 under the name of the Merchants' Bank of Halifax.  During the 1870s and 1880s the bank expanded into its Maritime hinterland by adding representation in Nova Scotia and establishing its presence in both Prince Edward Island and New Brunswick.  At the same time it pursued the possibilities of international trade, opening an agency in Bermuda in 1882...

 Ralph Pickard Bell: A Biography  by W. John E. Williams
Nowhere in the history of the Maritime provinces is there a more colourful or controversial character than Halifax-born industrialist, Ralph Pickard Bell (1886-1975).  With an iron will and a vocabulary as foul as his temper, he triumphantly presided over some of the most influential businesses of his time — The Lockeport Company, the shipping firm of Pickford and Black, The Halifax Insurance Company and, perhaps most notably, National Sea Products Ltd. which, at its inception in 1945, became the largest and most powerful fish company on the Eastern seaboard.  From Bell's high-profile second marriage to New Brunswick heiress, Marjorie Young Smith of Shediac, to his celebrated stint as Mount Allison University's inaugural chancellor, Ralph Pickard Bell: A Biography provides an intriguing look at both the personal and professional highs and lows of one of Canada's most fascinating figures.

 Ed Coleman's Columns from the Kentville Advertiser
                Nova Scotia Pony Express, 150th Anniversary
                McKay Motor Car - Valley-Made
                The Start of the Stage Coach Line

 Royal Nova Scotia Historical Society

 Cape Sable Historical Society The Cape Sable Historical Society was formed in 1937 by a group of concerned citizens, to collect and preserve all documents, papers, and other objects of interest, which may serve to throw light upon and illustrate the history of Shelburne and Yarmouth Counties; preserve historical sites and land marks; promote the study of history of both counties. Today our goals are much the same...

 History of McNabs Island, by Brian Kinsman
The death of Ellen McNab in 1934 ended the long association between McNabs Island and the McNab family...

The Wayback Machine has archived copies of this document:
History of McNabs Island
by Brian Kinsman

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 History of Georges Island, in Halifax Harbour. For nearly two hundred years Georges Island was the scene of constant military activity. Tales of executions, forts and hidden tunnels surround the folklore associated with the mysterious island...
For some unknown reason Parks Canada has scuppered this document,
but the Wayback Machine has archived copies of:
History of Georges Island in Halifax Harbour

Archived: 2000 August 17

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Archived: 2002 October 26

 Georges Island Lighthouse

 The Bottom of Halifax Harbour
These web pages are a combination of multibeam bathymetric maps of Halifax Harbour produced by the Canadian Hydrographic Service and the Geological Survey of Canada (Atlantic) and a collage of map-referenced images of the seabed. It has been assembled from data collected during seven years of marine geological mapping. Together, they tell a varied, complex and colorful history of Halifax Harbour and the surrounding communities of Halifax, Dartmouth, Bedford, Eastern Passage and Herring Cove. A combination of sidescan sonograms (similar to aerial photographs), seismic reflection profiles (cross-sections), bottom photographs, archival images, and other relevant data sources are interpreted and combined for graphic illustration...
"Duc D'Anville" Shipwreck in Bedford Basin, may be one of the most historically significant shipwrecks in eastern Canada. In 1746 a fleet of French warships was abandoned in Bedford Basin as the soldiers headed across Nova Scotia on foot because of an English blockade of the Harbour. This shipwreck, which may be one of that fleet, appears as a series of ribs on the west side of Bedford Basin.

 Water-Sharing Contract 22 March 1817 — between Frederic Vogler and Frederic Conrad, both of West Medway in the Township of New Dublin, in Lunenburg County, Nova Scotia. Excellent reproductions of well-preserved 180-year-old handwritten documents, agreements about the sharing of water power...
  Page one 1817     Page two 1817     Page three 1846

 Fortress of Louisbourg The Official Louisbourg Institute Home Page
                Index to Historical Societies in Cape Breton
                Orangedale Railway Station
                Margaree Salmon Museum
                MacAskill House Museum
                Sydney & Louisburg Railway Historic Society The S&L was the last all-steam Class One railroad in North America...

 History of the Scots in Nova Scotia

 Judique History

 Mi'kmaq Names in Guysborough County

 Nova Scotia Lighthouse Preservation Society
        The Doomsday List
        List of Nova Scotia Lighthouses

 Nova Scotia Lighthouses by Lorne Hull

 Nova Scotia Lighthouses by Val and James Campbell

 A Brief History of Canadian Lighthouses The second-oldest lighthouse on the continent, and the first Canadian one, went into service at the French fortress of Louisbourg on Cape Breton island in 1734. Patterned after the lighthouse of Les Baleines built off La Rochelle in 1682, the beacon at Louisbourg was destroyed by British troops during the seige of 1758, and not rebuilt until 1842; the rubble of the original lighthouse is still visible at the base of the current Louisbourg lighthouse, which dates from 1924. Next came the lighthouse on Sambro Island in 1760. Located at the entrance to Halifax harbor, it has been upgraded over the years but remains the oldest continuously-operating lighthouse in North America, predating New Jersey's Sandy Hook lighthouse by four years, and such venerable lighthouses as Virginia's Cape Henry, Maine's photogenic Portland Head, and Long Island's Montauk Point lighthouses by three decades...

 Pictures of Canadian lighthouses beginning with more than a dozen of Nova Scotia lighthouses.

 We say goodbye to lighthouses and cabooses
Lighthouses are doomed by improved technology

 King's Head Lighthouse: King's Head light was extinguished after it suffered the singular indignity of being declared a hazard to shipping... The Lighthouse is now a beautiful home...
The Wayback Machine has archived copies of this website:
King's Head Lighthouse
Pictou County:   45°39'N   62°29'W

Archived: 1998 July 13

Archived: 1999 February 8

Archived: 1999 April 27

 The H.R. Banks Collection of NovaScotiana The Herbert Robertson Banks collection, amassed over many years, is a remarkable record of Nova Scotian and Maritime life and culture. Included is fiction, non-fiction and poetry, some of it quite rare, as well as political works, literary criticisms, an outstanding accumulation of materials on art and antiques, and an impressive number of periodicals dealing with Nova Scotia. Mr. Banks also collected small local newspapers, unpublished manuscripts, scholarly papers on Nova Scotia history, and local histories. There is no aspect of Nova Scotia life which is not touched by this remarkable compilation.


First Nations

His Majesty King George III promised:
"Henceforth I will provide for you and for the future generation
so long as the sun rises and river flows."
Mi'kmaq Treaty of 1794

The Royal Proclamation of 1763 recognizes that the peoples
indigenous to the newly-acquired section of British North America
hold Aboriginal titles to their ancestral lands – titles
that cannot be unilaterally extinguished or transferred.

The First Nations delegates, who were not accustomed to the written word,
believed that whatever the treaty commissioners told them on behalf of
the Crown during their talks would be accurately recorded in the treaty
and would be honoured for all future generations to come.

 The Mi'kmaq by Patrick Johnson, University College of Cape Breton (UCCB), Sydney, Nova Scotia, in The Encyclopedia of North American Indians, 1996, Houghton Mifflin Company, New York
...The Mi'kmaq tribal territory included all of what is now Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island, the Gaspe Peninsula of Quebec, the north shore of New Brunswick and inland to the Saint John River watershed, eastern Maine, and part of Newfoundland... The first of the series of treaties between the British Crown and the Micmac Nation was signed in 1725. All were reaffirmed in 1752, and culminated in the Treaty and Royal Proclamation of 1763. The main thrust of these treaties was an exchange of Micmac loyalty for a guarantee that Micmacs would be able to continue hunting and fishing in their territory. These treaties have been recognized by the Supreme Court of Canada as legal and binding through its decisions in cases that have extended well into the present century... The First Nation communities (reservations) of Canada are governed by an elected chief and council, who hold office for two years. Under the terms of a 1959 act of the Canadian Parliament, all aboriginal people of Canada are Canadian citizens and have the right to vote in federal and provincial elections...

 Peace, Friendship and Respect: Understanding Indigenous Treaties in Canada
Assembly of First Nations, 2002
...Most treaties in Canada involved an exchange of promises between First Nations and the Crown. The most common promises in these transactions were of peace and friendship. This was not an insignificant promise. From the 1600s until the 1860s many First Nations had the ability to seriously disrupt French or British aspirations in this land by taking a stance contrary to that of the Crown. Correspondingly, the Crown also had the ability to repress or disrupt First Nations aspirations in their traditional territories throughout most of their history together. The mutuality between the parties with regard to peace illustrates that the exchange of promises to maintain friendship is a foundational principle in First Nations treaty making...

 Mi'kmaq Treaties of Peace and Friendship
Speech to the Indigenous Bar Association, Vancouver, Canada, 20 October 2001
...The treaties of Peace and Friendship contain provisions that reinforce fundamental principles that include the existence of aboriginal rights and aboriginal title.  I am always humbled by the foresight of our ancestors when reading the historic documents.  Nowhere in the treaties will you find a single phrase that surrenders, extinguishes or derogates our rights whether one was to use the rule of law based on English Common Law or the French Civil Code.  The non-derogation of rights was reinforced in the Royal Proclamation of 1763...

 Daniel Paul's website

 Proclamation Forbidding Social Contacts Between Acadiens and Mi'kmaq August 1722'kmaqContactsOutlawed.html

 Text: Treaties of 1693, 1713, 1714, 1717, with Tribes of Massachusetts Bay...

 Text: Treaties of 1725, 1752, 1794, with Tribes of Nova Scotia...
Annapolis Royal and Boston Treaties with British Crown and Nova Scotia or New England tribes

 Treaty of 1725 for Ratification at Annapolis Royal

 Printed proclamation of the 1752 Treaty
Printed proclamation of the 1752 Treaty
Printed proclamation of the 1752 Treaty, detail
Halifax, 1752

 Crown Draft Proclamation of 1761 to Colonial Governors
Draft of an Instruction for the Governors of Nova Scotia, New Hampshire, New York, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia forbidding them to Grant Lands or make Settlements which may interfere with the Indians bordering on those Colonies.

Royal Proclamation of 1763
7 October 1763

Proclamation of 1763
Royal Proclamation of 1763, by King George III
Contemporary printed copy

 Royal Proclamation of 1763
...This document has been called the "Magna Carta of Indian Rights" and has been held by the courts to have "the force of a statute which has never been repealed".  It issued after the Treaty of Paris ended the Seven Years War and was intended to organize the governments of Britain's new acquisitions on the mainland of North America...

 Royal Proclamation of 1763
...The proclamation established or defined four new colonies, three of them on the continental mainland.  Quebec, which was of course already well settled, two colonies to be called East Florida and West Florida – and off the continent, Grenada.  These facts were established immediately, but most of the proclamation is devoted to the subject of Indians and Indian lands.  It asserted that all of the Indian peoples were thereafter under the protection of the King.  It required that all lands within the "Indian territory" occupied by Englishmen were to be abandoned.  It included a list of prohibited activities, provided for enforcement of the new laws, and indicted unnamed persons for fraudulent practices in acquiring lands from the Indians in times past... Relations between the Indians and the English colonials were so poor that few settlers would argue in public that the Indians had rights to any lands...

 Royal Proclamation of 1763
...It is curious to report that the National Archives of Canada holds no surviving originals.  There are several transcribed copies of both the 7 October 1763 document proclaimed by the King George III in England and the one later pronounced by the Superintendent of Indian Affairs, Sir William Johnson, in North America on 24 December 1763; the National Archives also has a negative photostat of this latter document.  For its part, the Canadian Institute for Historical Microreproductions (CIHM) has determined that there are five known originals.  One is held by the Society of Antiquarians in England, another by the Privy Council Library in London, England, a third by the Massachusetts Archives in Boston (CIHM has obtained a microfilmed copy of this one), a fourth by Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island, and the last by McGill University in Montreal in the Lande Room...

 Map: Royal Proclamation of 1763

 Map: Royal Proclamation of 1763
...The Royal Proclamation of 1763 is the best example of an imperial instrument with broad remedial applications in an era when the world is dominated by the lawless, laissez-faire empire of a single superpower.  As I see it, the Royal Proclamation of 1763, in which King George reserved the interior of North America as an Indian hunting ground and as a mercantile hinterland of the Canadian fur trade, was the primary cause of the schism within the British Empire that gave rise to the creation of the United States.  The Royal Proclamation of 1763 was thus instrumental in generating the American Revolution, perhaps the most consequential single event in the entire course of world history up to this point.  The Royal Proclamation essentially outlawed conquest as an acceptable means of expanding Anglo-American settlements within British North America... Some saw in the Proclamation proof that the King was trying to undo the constitutional principles established by the Glorious Revolution of 1688... There were broad implications for the genesis of international law in King George's seminal recognition that Indigenous peoples possess Aboriginal titles to their own ancestral lands, titles that cannot be transferred or alienated without obtaining Aboriginal consent in public negotiations... The Royal Proclamation recognizes that the peoples indigenous to the newly-acquired section of British North America hold Aboriginal titles to their ancestral lands – titles that cannot be unilaterally extinguished or transferred...

 Royal Proclamation of 1763
The Royal Proclamation of 1763 was intended to integrate New France into the British Empire in North America. It created the Province of Quebec along a fairly narrow stretch of land located along the shores of the St. Lawrence River. Part of the proclamation, however, specifically dealt with Aboriginal issues...

 Royal Proclamation of 1763
As printed in 1824 in "A Collection of the Acts Passed in the Parliament of Great Britain and of Other Public Acts Relative to Canada": "Compilations and Extracts of Treaties Relating to Canada, With His Majesty's Proclamation of 1763..."
[Note: In 1824 (when this book was printed) the territory identified by the name "Canada" did not include the territory now known as the Atlantic Provinces.  That is, don't look here for Acts or Treaties that mainly applied to the area now identified by the names Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland.]

 1776 Watertown Treaty: Text
...That each party to this Treaty shall and will consider the enemies of the other as enemies to themselves, and do hereby solemnly promise and engage to, and with each other, that when called upon for that purpose, they shall, and will to the utmost of their abilities, aid and assist each other against their public enemies; and particularly, that the people of the said Tribe of lndians shall and will afford, and give to the people of the said State of Massachusetts Bay and the people of the other United States of America during their present war with the king of Britain, all the aid and assistance within their power. And that they the people of said Tribes of Indians shall not, and will not directly or indirectly give any aid, or assistance to the troops or subjects of the said King of Great Britain, or others adhering to him or hold any correspondence or carry on any commerce with them during the present war...

Watertown Treaty 1776: Title
1776 Watertown Treaty: Image of the Original Document

 1776 Watertown Treaty Re-Enacted June 1987
Micmac Indian Nation and state officials on June 24, 1987 re-enacted the signing of the 1776 Treaty of Watertown, which made them the first ally with the newly formed United States...

The Watertown Treaty was never ratified by the Mi'kmaq Chiefs.
They never became "the first ally with the newly formed United States".

See Watertown Treaty, 1776 by Dr. Daniel Paul

Also see American Flag The Mi'kmaq signed an Agreement in Principle
with the American Colonies in 1776, The Watertown Treaty, under which
they would have provided military assistance, but they did not ratify it.
The reason they didn't was because they were gunshy of getting burnt
again in the wars of the white man. Whichever side won, they lost...

 The Paris Peace Treaty September 1783

PRE-CONFEDERATION:  Peace and Friendship Treaties
Date Peoples Concerned
15 December 1725 Abenaki (Penobscot, Naridgwalk, and other tribes), Micmac, Maliseet
15 August 1749 Maliseet
November 1752 Maliseet (Shubenacadie Band)
23 February 1760 Maliseet, Abenaki (Passamaquoddy)
10 March 1760 Micmac
25 June 1761 Micmac
24 September 1778 Maliseet, Micmac
22 September 1779 Micmac

 Facing Canada's Darkest Hours
by Tom Brodbeck, Winnipeg Sun, 12 June 2005
...the explicit Government of Canada policy at the time to abolish aboriginal culture, language, political structure – everything.  I find most people today are still unaware of the federal government's official policy of extinguishing aboriginal culture and language.  They may have heard some aspects of it.  But most of them have no idea that it was official government policy... Trouble is, we gloss over this stuff in Canada – at best. At worst, we try to conceal it.  We don't teach it to our children in public schools.  We teach them Canadian history and some aspect of aboriginal history.  But we don't get into the finer points of how our federal government committed attempted cultural genocide... After all the commissions and studies and reviews, we're still sweeping this dark period of history under the carpet...

 Time to Stop Honouring Monsters of the Past
...there be granted to be paid out of the public treasury to any company, party or person... who shall voluntarily, and at their own cost... go out and kill a male Indian of the age of 12 or upwards... for as long as the war shall continue... and produce his scalp in evidence of his death, the sum of £100 in bills of credit of this Province of New England; and £105 for any male... who shall be taken captive;... and... £50... for women, and for children under the age of 12... killed... and £55...(for those) taken prisoner, together with plunder... A party of Gorham's rangers one day brought in 25 scalps, claiming the bounty of £10 per scalp.  It was strongly suspected that not all of the scalps were those of Indians, but included some Acadians too.  The paymaster protested the payment, but was ordered to pay £250 anyway...

 The Chijekwtook River – Why Not? by Ed Coleman, 24 September 2004
...The Mi'kmaq name for the Cornwallis River (in Kings County, Nova Scotia), which Dr. Watson Kirkconnell says was Chijekwtook, meaning deep, narrow river...

 Edward Cornwallis – The Evidence Against Him by Ed Coleman, 1 October 2004
...Cornwallis issued a proclamation on October 2, 1749, authorizing and commanding "all Officers Civil and Military, and all His Majesty's Subjects or others to annoy, distress, take or destroy the Savage commonly called Micmac, wherever they are found, and all as such as aiding and assisting them, give further by and with the consent and advice of His Majesty's Council, do promise a reward of ten Guineas for every Indian Micmac taken or killed, to be paid upon producing such Savage taken or his scalp if killed to the Officer Commanding at Halifax, Annapolis Royal, or Minas."

 Edward Cornwallis – The Evidence Against Him

 Gorham of Gorham's Rangers – Some Glimpses by Ed Coleman, 5 November 2004
Does anyone recall the controversy that arose six years ago when a proposal was made to name a road between Bedford and Sackville the Capt. John Gorham Boulevard?...

 The John Gorham Controversy
A collection of 45 "clippings" about the John Gorham Boulevard controversy from Nova Scotia newspapers, January - February, 1998...

 Time to end 250 years of sorrow for Mi'kmaq
...On October 1, 1749, Governor Edward Cornwallis met with his Council aboard HMS Beaufort, a British warship anchored in Chebucto Harbour, Halifax, to set strategy to conduct their war with the Mi'kmaq Nation.  Among those council members present were a future governor, Charles Lawrence (Acadian Expulsion), and Captain John Gorham (bounty hunter).  The plan adopted by the council was to mount an attempt to exterminate the Mi'kmaq.  Thus, bounty hunters and anyone else interested in making extra money were offered £10 per Mi'kmaq scalp.  The bounty was increased by council on June 21, 1750, to £50.  Contemporary records indicate that the hunt was bountiful and that possibly thousands of Mi'kmaqs were killed before the bounty was revoked by Cornwallis on July 17, 1752...'kmaq.html

Treaty Denial 1779-1982 by Simon Osmond

 Confronting Canada's Colonial Legacy
...Colonialism depends on a constructed, instrumental racism for its moral legitimation. Incommensurability between colonizer and colonized is invoked to demonstrate the superior nature of the colonizer and the inevitability of the new order... Justifications are created: the "natives" are lazy, simple, wild, inept, lascivious or immoral... They are the repository of vice and fault, contrasted with the rectitude and competence of colonial society... The denial of Canada's origins in colonial enterprises prevents scholars and legislators from grappling with the consequences of that initial relationship. This denial takes the form of legal acrobatics by the judiciary to deny treaty status to "Indian" treaties... to deny sovereignty in historically sovereign Aboriginal nations, and so to deny contemporary Aboriginal claims... Settled colonies were regarded as extensions of Britain in the sense that British subjects took their rights under the common law with them when they moved to the colonies... The inhabitants of conquered colonies, on the other hand, had no such rights...

 Historians and Indians
Until quite recently, the concept of race has run through all histories of North American Indians.  Invariably, scholars have portrayed Indians as inherently inferior to Europeans.  This perceived inferiority is sometimes ascribed to divine predestination, sometimes to a lack of the capacity to learn the arts of civilization, sometimes to an inability to live in the presence of civilized Europeans... Throughout this conceptual change, the idea persisted that Indians were savage creatures of the wilderness, in contrast and antagonism to the "civil" society of Europeans... One can trace the abolition of Indian humanity back to Captain John Smith and the Reverend Samuel Purchas, whose seventeenth-century propaganda in behalf of the Virginia Company has been enormously influential among historians.  Smith denounced the Chesapeake Powhatans as "cruel beasts" with "a more unnaturall brutishness than beasts."  His comparison with predatory animals remains to the present day a favorite device to dehumanize Indians... One can also trace these concepts to Massachusetts's colonial governor John Winthrop, Sr... Winthrop believed that divine providence must be presented "according to truth with due weight," and he achieved due weight by omission of sources reflecting Indian understandings... Lewis Henry Morgan, often called the founder of American anthropology, thought that Indians were so passionately devoted to "the hunter life" that "the red race has never risen, or can rise above its present level."  Nature had created Europeans as "the highest type of mankind," which has "proved its intrinsic superiority by gradually assuming the control of the earth..."

 Convention Concerning Indigenous and Tribal Peoples in Independent Countries
27 June 1989, Adopted by the General Conference
Article 3   §1.  Indigenous and tribal peoples shall enjoy the full measure of human rights and fundamental freedoms without hindrance or discrimination...

 Draft Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples via University of Saskatchewan
Article 1.   Indigenous peoples have the right to the full and effective enjoyment of all of the human rights and fundamental freedoms which are recognized in the Charter of the United Nations and in the human rights law...

 Universal Declaration of Human Rights United Nations General Assembly, December 1948
Article 1:  All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood...

 Who Has Treaty Rights?
...Aboriginal Rights were not lost through "conquest" in the Maritimes, and no treaties specifically ceded lands to the Crown.  The wording of some treaties, however, recognized "settlements already made or lawfully to be made" and this seems to indicate that lands actually occupied by settlers were understood by the Indians to have been ceded.  All other lands were to be acquired "lawfully" from the Indians.  The only settlements "already made" at the time of the Proclamation of 1763 were Annapolis Royal, Canso, and Halifax...

The statement: "The only settlements 'already made' at the time of the
Proclamation of 1763 were Annapolis Royal, Canso, and Halifax..."
– which seems to have come from a Maritime Provinces school textbook
published in the mid-1990s – is wildly inaccurate.

Lunenburg was settled in 1753 (ten years before 1763), Mahone Bay
and Riverport in 1754 (nine years before) and Chester in 1759
(four years before 1763).

In addition to these, by 1763 there were well-established settlements
at Liverpool, Cornwallis (Greenwich), Horton, Newport, Falmouth, Truro,
and at least a dozen other locations in Nova Scotia.

 Confederated Native Court Judgement and Reasons 1997
...In the Anglo-American legal tradition which applies in North America, in 1215 Magna Carta settled that no person is above the law, not even the king, and therefore none other. Judges are "persons" for this purpose. And just because theirs is the function of interpreting the law, judges are not placed above the law. They can not change the law simply by making it conform to their sentimental inclinations... The said Indians...are by no means to be deprived of their liberty or the possession of their property...; and that they may and should, freely and legitimately, enjoy their liberty and possession of their property...

 The Battle for Aboriginal Treaty Rights CBC
It's a battle over the land and its resources. The fight has taken place on the land, in the courts and in the media. When government and native groups signed treaty agreements over a century ago, neither side imagined the repercussions. Canada's native people say treaties have been ignored...

 The Struggle for Aboriginal Rights and Rule of Law Toronto, 1999

 The Extension of the Common Law to Settled, Ceded and Conquered Territories, and the Survival of Indigenous Laws...
Law in History Australia and New Zealand Law and History Society Conference
The University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand, 6th-8th July 2001 —
In classical international law, there were fives modes of acquisition of territory. These were:
  • the occupation of terra nullius (uninhabited territory)
  • prescription (effective control over inhabited territory)
  • cession
  • accretion (the acquisition of title over new land), and
  • subjugation or conquest.
All were based on Roman law principles, and were often difficult to apply in practice.  The common law, and British practice, generally mirrored the international law... In the nineteenth century all British colonies were generally classified as either settled colonies (title by occupation), or conquered or ceded colonies.  Accretion was exceptional, as was prescription... Colonies ceded by a civilised state retained their own private law, but public law was created by the Crown.  Gibraltar was acquired 1713, and English laws were introduced by letters patent 1721.  Spanish law was retained in Minorca.  Nova Scotia was ceded by France 1713, but it had been long settled by British settlers.  Almost invariably the acquisition of the territories of indigenous peoples was obtained by cession, accompanied by treaties in which the inhabitants' entitlement to the continued occupation of the territory was declared.  This practice implies, by definition, that the territorial sovereignty and/or property rights of the inhabitants was recognised...

 Mustard Gas in the Bras d'Or Lakes

 List of Nova Scotia First Nation Communities The registered Indian population of Nova Scotia was 10,599 as of December 31, 1995...

Court Decisions, Indians in Nova Scotia

 Rex v. Heisler
Indian Lands – Gold River Reserve in Lunenburg County
Nova Scotia Supreme Court, 27 August 1913

 Re Indian Reserve, City of Sydney, N.S.
"...the undersigned has the honour to report he finds it expedient, having regard to the interest of the public and of the Indians located on the small Sydney Reserve, that the said Indians should be removed... to another place outside the limits of the city of Sydney... They would be there away from the liquor shops and the undesirable foreigners settled at the Coke Ovens, where they often get liquor – always a source of trouble to them..."
Exchequer Court of Canada,16 March 1916

 R. v. Syliboy
Indians – Cape Breton – Treaty of 1752 – Scope and effect
The Treaty of 1752 made between Governor Hopson and certain of the Mick Mack Indians of Nova Scotia, was not in reality a treaty... The Indians' rights of sovereignty, even of ownership, were never recognized. Nova Scotia had passed to Great Britain not by gift or purchase from or even by conquest of the Indians but by treaty with France, which had acquired it by priority of discovery and ancient possession; and the Indians passed with it...
Nova Scotia County Court, 10 September 1928

 Afton Band of Indians v. Attorney General of Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia Supreme Court Trial Division, 22 February 1978

 History of Nova Scotia
with special attention given to Communications and Transportation
  1. Go To: History of Nova Scotia, Before 31 December 1699
  2. Go To: History of Nova Scotia, Jan 1700 to Dec 1769
  3. Go To: History of Nova Scotia, Jan 1770 to Dec 1775
  4. Go To: History of Nova Scotia, 1776 Jan to Dec
  5. Go To: History of Nova Scotia, Jan 1777 to Dec 1779
  6. Go To: History of Nova Scotia, Jan 1780 to Dec 1819
  7. Go To: History of Nova Scotia, Jan 1820 to Dec 1839
  8. Go To: History of Nova Scotia, Jan 1840 to Dec 1849
  9. Go To: History of Nova Scotia, Jan 1850 to Dec 1859
  10. Go To: History of Nova Scotia, Jan 1860 to Dec 1869
  11. Go To: History of Nova Scotia, Jan 1870 to Dec 1879
  12. Go To: History of Nova Scotia, Jan 1880 to Dec 1889
  13. Go To: History of Nova Scotia, Jan 1890 to Dec 1893
  14. Go To: History of Nova Scotia, Jan 1894 to Dec 1899
  15. Go To: History of Nova Scotia, Jan 1900 to Dec 1904
  16. Go To: History of Nova Scotia, Jan 1905 to Dec 1909
  17. Go To: History of Nova Scotia, Jan 1910 to Dec 1919
  18. Go To: History of Nova Scotia, Jan 1920 to Dec 1939
  19. Go To: History of Nova Scotia, Jan 1940 to Dec 1949


Local Government
in Nova Scotia

Counties, Towns, Villages,

Municipal Government in Nova Scotia

(1): Municipal Government in Nova Scotia
Local Government in Nova Scotia was originally based on the sessional system in England. For many years following the election of the first General Assembly in 1758, Crown-appointed magistrates met in the counties in courts of sessions to administer local matters... Elected local government was introduced in 1841 with the incorporation of Halifax, followed over the next 37 years with the incorporation of five towns. Then in 1879, twenty-four rural municipalities were established under the County Incorporation Act, on the basis of existing sessional boundaries. Until 1994, these rural municipalities remained the basic units of local government outside incorporated towns and cities... Over the years 45 towns have been incorporated, the last one in 1980. 0f these, two became cities and eventually were amalgamated into regional municipalities, eight others were amalgamated into regional municipalities and four have dissolved. In 2000, there were 31 incorporated towns and 22 incorporated villages in Nova Scotia...
The Wayback Machine has archived copies of this document:
Municipal Government in Nova Scotia

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Astonishingly, this history does not name the 45 towns
or the 22 villages which have formed such an important
part of local government in Nova Scotia.

(2): History of Municipal Government in Nova Scotia

History of County Boundaries in Nova Scotia

(1): History of County Boundaries in Nova Scotia
Annapolis County was established in August 1759 by Order in Council. In 1837 Annapolis County was divided into two distinct and separate counties – Annapolis and Digby...
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History of County Boundaries in Nova Scotia

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(2): History of County Boundaries in Nova Scotia

The County Incorporation Act of 1879

(1): The County Incorporation Act of 1879
..."The Inhabitants of every County and Sessional District in this Province... shall be a body corporate under the name of the Municipality of the respective county or district, as the case may be..." Thus were established twenty-four rural municipalities, which have been governing most of Nova Scotia's territory since 1879. The boundaries of these 24 municipalities followed the boundaries of twelve counties and the twelve sessional districts in six divided counties. None of these boundaries had changed markedly after 1863 and most had been finalized many years earlier. None have been changed to any important extent since...
The Wayback Machine has archived copies of this document:
The County Incorporation Act of 1879

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(2): The County Incorporation Act of 1879

Establishment of Elective Rural Municipal Government

(1): The Establishment of Elective Rural Municipal Government in Nova Scotia
In April 1879, the County Incorporation Act became the law of Nova Scotia, establishing twenty-four rural municipalities. The new rural municipalities were run by elected councils, replacing the non-elected courts of sessions. Their powers embraced those of the sessions and of town meetings, and extended further primarily to roads, streets, and bridges.
The Wayback Machine has archived copies of this document:
The Establishment of Elective Rural Municipal Government
in Nova Scotia

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(2): The Establishment of Elective Rural Municipal Government in Nova Scotia

Astonishingly, this history does not
name the 24 rural municipalities.

Rural Municipalities Date of
Date of
Municipality of Annapolis County 1879 Apr 17
Municipality of Antigonish County 1879 Apr 17
Municipality of the District of Argyle
    (southeastern part of Yarmouth County)
1879 Apr 17
Municipality of the District of Barrington
    (western part of Shelburne County)
1879 Apr 17
Municipality of Cape Breton County 1879 Apr 17 1995 Aug 1
Municipality of the District of Chester
    (eastern part of Lunenburg County)
1879 Apr 17
Municipality of the District of Clare
    (western part of Digby County)
1879 Apr 17
Municipality of Colchester County 1879 Apr 17
Municipality of Cumberland County 1879 Apr 17
Municipality of the District of Digby
    (eastern part of Digby County)
1879 Apr 17
Municipality of the District of Guysborough   1879 Apr 17
Municipality of Halifax County 1879 Apr 17 1996 Apr 1
Municipality of the District of Hants East
    (eastern part of Hants County)
1879 Apr 17
Municipality of the District of Hants West
    (western part of Hants County)
1879 Apr 17
Municipality of Inverness County 1879 Apr 17
Municipality of Kings County 1879 Apr 17
Municipality of the District of Lunenburg
    (western part of Lunenburg County)
1879 Apr 17
Municipality of Pictou County 1879 Apr 17
Municipality of Queens County 1879 Apr 17 1996 Apr 1
Municipality of Richmond County 1879 Apr 17
Municipality of the District of Shelburne
    (eastern part of Shelburne County)
1879 Apr 17
Municipality of the District of St. Mary's 1879 Apr 17
Municipality of Victoria County 1879 Apr 17
Municipality of the District of Yarmouth
    (northwestern part of Yarmouth County)
1879 Apr 17

Note: The above are the 24 rural municipalities established by the County Incorporation Act of 1879.
The twelve named "Municipality of Example County" each occupy a whole county.
The twelve named "Municipality of the District of Example" are in a split county.

Regional Municipalities Date of
Cape Breton Regional Municipality 1995 Aug 1
Halifax Regional Municipality 1996 Apr 1
Region of Queens Municipality 1996 Apr 1

Towns Date of
Date of
Town of Amherst 1889 Dec 18
Town of Annapolis Royal 1892 Nov 29
Town of Antigonish 1889 Jan 9
Town of Bedford 1980 1996 Apr 1
Town of Berwick 1923 May 25
Town of Bridgetown 1897 Sep 15
Town of Bridgewater 1899 Feb 13
Town of Canso 1901 May 14
Town of Chester 2002 ?
Town of Clark's Harbour 1919 Mar 4
Town of Dartmouth 1873 Apr 30 1961 Jun 27
Town of Digby 1890 Feb 28
Town of Dominion 1906 1995 Aug 1
Town of Glace Bay   1995 Aug 1
Town of Hantsport 1895 Apr 1
Town of Inverness    
Town of Kentville 1886 May 1
Town of Liverpool    
Town of Lockeport 1907 Feb 26
Town of Louisbourg   1995 Aug 1
Town of Lunenburg 1888 Oct 29
Town of Mahone Bay 1919 Mar 31
Town of Middleton 1909 May 31
Town of Mulgrave 1923 Dec 1
Town of New Glasgow 1875 May 6
Town of New Waterford   1995 Aug 1
Town of North Sydney 1885 Apr 24 1995 Aug 1
Town of Oxford 1904 Apr 19
Town of Parrsboro 1889 Jul 15
Town of Pictou 1874 May 4
Town of Port Hawkesbury  1889 Jan 22
Town of Shelburne 1907 Apr 4
Town of Springhill 1889 Mar 30
Town of Stellarton 1889 Oct 22
Town of Stewiacke 1906 Aug 30
Town of Sydney Mines   1995 Aug 1
Town of Trenton 1911 Mar 18
Town of Truro 1875 May 6
Town of Westville 1894 Aug 20
Town of Windsor 1878 Apr 4
Town of Wolfville 1893 Mar 4
Town of Yarmouth 1890 Aug 6

Note: The above are 40 of the 45 towns that have existed in Nova Scotia.
Over the years 45 towns have been incorporated in Nova Scotia. 0f these, two became cities and eventually were amalgamated into regional municipalities, eight others were amalgamated into regional municipalities and four have dissolved. In 2000, there were 31 incorporated towns in Nova Scotia.

Villages Date of
Date of
Village of Aylesford  
Village of Baddeck  
Village of Bible Hill 1946
Village of Brooklyn  
Village of Canning  
Village of Chester  
Village of Cornwallis Square  
Village of Greenwood  
Village of Kingston  
Village of Lawrencetown  
Village of New Minas 1968 Sep 1
Village of Port Williams  
Village of Pugwash  
Village of River Hebert  
Village of St. Peter's  
Village of Sherbrooke  
Village of Tatamagouche  
Village of Wallace  

Note: The above are 18 of the villages that exist in Nova Scotia.
In 2000, there were 22 incorporated villages in Nova Scotia.

History of Nova Scotia Planning Acts Prior to 1969

(1): History of Nova Scotia Planning Acts Prior to 1969
The first provincial planning legislation adopted in Nova Scotia was the Town Planning Act of 1912... The 1915 Planning Act compelled each municipal unit to appoint a town planning board consisting of the mayor or warden, two councillors and at least two ratepayers. The boards were required to prepare a set of town planning by-laws within three years from the passing of the Act (that is, by 1918)...
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History of Nova Scotia Planning Acts Prior to 1969

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(2): History of Nova Scotia Planning Acts Prior to 1969

Local History
in Nova Scotia

 History of Tancook Island

History of the Tancook Ferry by the Big Tancook Elementary School

 Hewitt Histories A series of 27 articles by H.E. Hewitt, published in the Dartmouth Patriot in 1901, about the history of Eastern Passage and vicinity, in Halifax County

 History of Inverness County, Nova Scotia by J. L. MacDougall, 1922

 History of Snyder's Shipyard Dayspring, Lunenburg County.  Snyder's Shipyard Limited is located on the beautiful east side of the LaHave River at Dayspring, 19km inland from the Atlantic Ocean.  The business was purchased in 1944 by Reginald (Teddy) Snyder and has remained a family business since then.  At the time the Shipyard was purchased, it was being operated under the name of Leary's and had been in operation since the mid 1800's....

 Wooden Ships of River John, Nova Scotia

 Chronological List of events at Pictou

 1899-1925:   Shipping in the LaHave River, Bridgewater, Nova Scotia
May 1, 1899 - "In this book will be found a complete list of the vessels that were piloted in the LaHave River by us after this date..."

May 8, 1899   Barquentine Addie Morrill 595 tons hailing from Boston. Captain King, from New York bound to Bridgewater to load lumber for Buenos Ayres. Anchored off Getsons Cove. Pilotage 7 dollars.

 Yarmouth, Nova Scotia History Through Photos

Ships & The Waterfront — Yarmouth more than 50 photos

Cape Forchu, Markland — Yarmouth, more than 20 photos

The Wayback Machine has an archived copy of:
Old Photographs, Cape Forchu, Markland — Yarmouth

Archived: 2001 April 14

Old-Time Buildings — Yarmouth more than 50 photos

Argyle Township, 15 photos

The Wayback Machine has archived copies of:
Argyle Township, Old Photographs
Provided By Argyle Township Court House & Archives

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Yarmouth Streets, more than 50 photos

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Old Photographs, Yarmouth Streets

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 Halifax District, Nova Scotia Census, 1901
Bedford, Bedford Basin, Chezzetcook East & West


Canadian Navy

 HMCS Sackville — the Canadian Naval Memorial Trust

 Monthly Chronology of Canadian Naval History

 Canadian Navy of Yesterday and Today information about the ships and aircraft of Canada's navy, from its inception in 1910 until present day...

Canadian Navy Photo Archive 1

Canadian Navy Photo Archive 2

Canadian Naval Aviation Photo Archive

Ships of the RCN, 1910 - 1965

World War Two Canadian Ship Listing, 1931-1945

Postwar Canadian Ship Listing, 1945 - Present This list attempts to give an accurate and in-depth look at the ships that served with the postwar Canadian Navy. Designations are based on Canadian Navy Official designations...

Seasoned Sailors

 Seasoned Sailors is an ongoing production of a series of short historical videos, each running less than an hour and focussing on one or another of Canada's gallant band of World War Two naval heroes... Doug Fisher, national journalist: "To a country and people short on appealing stories of our naval past, the series Seasoned Sailors is a blessing... the RCN's Debbie Piers – a natural story teller. Listen to him, watch him and the magnitude of what our small ship men did for us comes rolling over you."
The Wayback Machine has archived copies of this website:
Seasoned Sailors

Archived: 1997 April 17

Archived: 1998 April 21

Archived: 1999 February 8

Archived: 2000 August 16

Archived: 2001 May 17

Archived: 2003 October 17

 A Starshell Video Review – Seasoned Sailors: Dick Leir 
Guest of the Emperor...


 Submarines of the RCN The RCN's involvement with subs originated on the eve of World War One, when the Premier of British Columbia purchased two submarines. They were built in Seattle, and intended for the Chilean Navy, but were sold to British Columbia when Chili defaulted...

 Uboats in the Royal Canadian Navy At the end of the Second World War, a couple of German U-boats surrendered to the Royal Canadian Navy. U190 and U889 surrendered on May 12th and 13th, 1945, respectively. These large IXC/40 type submarines were commissioned into the RCN, and were used for testing and evaluation...

 U-Boats After World War Two
U-190 surrendered at Halifax, U-889 surrendered at Shelburne...
They were known as unterseebootes, or U-boats...

Submarine Association of Canada (Eastern Branch)

SAOC (Eastern Branch) — formerly Submarine Old Comrades Association

Radio in the Canadian Navy

 Radio Communications in the RCN  by Jerry Proc
A remarkably detailed and informative description of radio communications in the Canadian Navy in the 1940s - 1960s.

 Naval Radio Station Albro Lake Dartmouth, Nova Scotia
Receiving site at Albro Lake and a transmitter site at Newport Corner

 Canadian Forces Station Mill Cove Lunenburg County, Nova Scotia


Broadcast Radio

 History of CBA Radio Sackville, New Brunswick [CBA  Atlantic]
CBC 50kW transmitter serving all three Maritime Provinces

 History of CKDH Radio Amherst

 History of CFTA Radio Amherst

 History of CICR Radio Parrsboro
Broadcasting Notice of Consultation CRTC 2009-158, 25 March 2009
         Application by Parrsboro Radio Society to amend the licence... 99.1 MHz...
Broadcasting Decision CRTC 2009-631, 7 October 2009
         Denial of application...

 History of CKCL-FM › CKCL-AM › CKCL-FM › CKTO-FM Truro
CKCL-AM began operation in 1947; it left the air forever on 12 May 2001.

 History of CKCL-AM › CKTY-AM › CKTY-FM Truro

 History of CKEC Radio New Glasgow [CKEC  East Coast]
Broadcasting Decision CRTC 2006-87, 24 March 2006
         Approval of conversion from AM to FM... 94.1 MHz... 36,680 watts...

 History of CKEZ Radio New Glasgow
Broadcasting Decision CRTC 2012-278, 9 May 2012
         The CRTC approves the application for a broadcasting licence... 97.9 MHz... 46,720 watts...


 History of CJFX Radio Antigonish [CJFX  St. Francis Xavier Univ.]

 History of CFXU Radio Antigonish

 History of CKBG Radio Middle Musquodoboit
Broadcasting Decision CRTC 2010-125, 2 March 2010
         The CRTC approves the application for a broadcasting licence... 107.3 MHz... 50 watts...
Broadcasting Decision CRTC 2012-499, 17 September 2012
         Revokation of broadcasting licence for CKBG-FM Middle Musquodoboit, Nova Scotia...

 History of CKBW Radio Bridgewater [CKBW  BridgeWater]

 History of CJHK Radio Bridgewater [CJHK  HanK Snow]
CJHK-FM went on the air 26 July 2010 as “Hank FM.”
Acadia Broadcasting Limited launches Hank FM, christens new North Street location
by Patrick Hirtle, Lighthouse Publishing Company, 3 August 2010

Hank Snow Hits

 History of CJQC Radio Liverpool [CJQC  Queens County]
a.k.a. QCCR Radio Liverpool [Queens County Community Radio]
Broadcasting Decision CRTC 2009-580, 15 September 2009
         CRTC approval of application for a broadcasting licence... 99.3 MHz, 50 watts...
                 Official call letters not yet assigned
Alex J. Walling
A radio station for Queens County?
Queens County Advance, 11 February 2008
A Radio Station For Queens County
Queens County Community Radio

 History of CFAB Radio Windsor [CFAB  Avard Bishop]

 History of CKEN Radio Kentville [CKEN  KENtville]

 History of CKWM Radio Kentville

 History of CIJK Radio Kentville
Broadcasting Decision CRTC 2007-221, 6 July 2007
         Approval of application for a broadcasting licence... 89.3 MHz...

North East Radio Watch, 16 June 2008
         There's a new FM signal on the air in eastern Canada; Kentville, Nova Scotia, to be precise.
         Newcap's CIJK ("K-Rock 89.3") launched Thursday (12 June 2008) morning at the
         frequency-appropriate time of 8:09:30...

 History of CKAD Radio Middleton

 History of CKDY Radio Digby [CKDY  DigbY]

 History of CJLS Yarmouth [CJLS  Laurie Smith was the original owner]
CJLS-AM began operation on 1 April 1934; it ceased operation in June 2003.

 History of CHNS Radio Halifax [CHNS  Halifax Nova Scotia]

CHNS radio, full-page advertisement in The Maritime Merchant, volume XLVII (v47 n26) 29 June 1939
CHNS radio, full-page advertisement in
The Maritime Merchant, (v47 n26) 29 June 1939
Size of this ad as printed: 17.5cm × 25.4cm

The Maritime Merchant and Commercial Review, front page banner, volume XLVII (v47 n26) 29 June 1939
The Maritime Merchant front page banner
volume XLVII (v47 n26), 29 June 1939

 History of CHFX Radio Halifax
        (CHNS-FM before 9 February 1970)

 History of CBH/CBHA (CBC Radio One) Halifax
        (CBH-AM Radio One 1944-1989)  (CBH-FM Radio One 1978-  )
Duplicated service for Radio One (simultanous transmission
in Halifax both on AM and FM) existed from 1 June 1978 to 1 October 1989.

     On 1 October 1989, CBH ceased operations on AM 860 kHz.
     CBC Radio One was now provided on FM via CBHA at 90.5 MHz.

Public Notice CRTC 1985-86, 2 May 1985
         Review of CBC Long Range Radio Plan... Phasing-out of those AM stations
         which were replaced with FM facilities and vacating their frequencies...

Decision CRTC 85-752, 11 September 1985
         The CRTC expects the CBC to phase out its AM station in Halifax by 1 November 1985...
Decision CRTC 85-962, 11 October 1985
         The CRTC renews the broadcasting licence for CBH Halifax
         from 1 November 1985 until 31 October 1986...

Decision CRTC 86-709, 6 August 1986
         The CRTC strongly urges the CBC to undertake immediately
         a close assessment of its radio coverage in Halifax...

 History of CBH-FM (CBC Radio Two) Halifax

The Wayback Machine has archived copies of this document:
History of CBH-AM Radio Station, Halifax

Archived: 2001 February 08

Archived: 2003 December 2003

Archived: 2004 October 10

 History of CJCH Radio Halifax [CJCH  Chronicle Halifax]
(In 1939, the Chronicle and the Herald were two separate, competing newspapers.)

 History of CFDR & CFLT Radio Halifax-Dartmouth

 History of CFRQ Radio Halifax-Dartmouth

 History of CKDU Radio Halifax [CKDU  Dalhousie University]

 History of CIEZ Radio Halifax

 History of CIOO Radio Halifax

 History of CKUL Bedford, HRM
Public Notice CRTC 1989-39, 1 May 1989
         The CRTC hereby calls for applications from other parties...
Decision CRTC 90-216, 5 March 1990
         Applications by Arthur J. Hustins, Jr. and Finlay MacDonald, both
         representing companies to be incorporated, competing for a licence...

 History of CJNI Radio Halifax
Broadcasting Decision CRTC 2004-513, 26 November 2004
         The CRTC approves the application for a broadcasting licence to operate a
         specialty English-language commercial FM radio station in Halifax, Nova Scotia.
         The station will operate in a spoken word News/Talk format... 95.7 MHz... 22,100 watts...

 History of CKHZ Radio Halifax
The official on air date of this new station at 103.5 MHz was 14 August 2006.

Broadcasting Decision CRTC 2004-514, 26 November 2004
         The CRTC approves the application for a broadcasting licence... 103.5 MHz... 78,000 watts...

 History of CKHY Radio Halifax
Broadcasting Decision CRTC 2004-515, 26 November 2004
         The CRTC approves in part... Easy Listening FM radio station in Halifax...
Broadcasting Decision CRTC 2005-333, 20 July 2005
         The CRTC approves the application by Global Communications Limited (Global) to operate
         its new English-language FM radio station in Halifax at 105.1 MHz... 32,000 watts...

Broadcasting Notice of Consultation CRTC 2009-158, 25 March 2009
         The CRTC has received several applications for a licence to serve Halifax...
Broadcasting Decision CRTC 2009-631, 7 October 2009
         The CRTC approves the application of HFX Broadcasting Inc. for a broadcasting licence to operate
         an English-language commercial FM radio undertaking in Halifax... 105.1 MHz... 32,000 watts...

 History of CFEP Eastern Passage, HRM [Eastern Passage]

 History of CHCN-FM Radio 106.9 MHz Cole Harbour, HRM
Cole Harbour Community Radio Society, 9 May 2000
         Approval of application for a broadcasting licence
Cole Harbour Community Radio Society, 1 May 2001
         Extension of time limit
Cole Harbour Community Radio Society, 2 May 2003
         Revocation of licence

The Wayback Machine has archived copies of this document:
History of CKO-FM Radio Station, Halifax

Archived: 2000 August 17

Archived: 2001 April 18

Archived: 2002 October 21

Archived: 2003 December 04

Archived: 2004 October 10

 History of CIGO Radio Port Hawkesbury [101.5 “The Hawk”]
“The Hawk” was the first Nova Scotia radio station to convert from AM to FM, in April 2000.

Decision CRTC 99-492, 17 November 1999
         Approval of conversion from AM to FM
Broadcasting Decision CRTC 2010-691, 17 September 2010
         Approval of application to change the authorized contours of the radio station

 K-LEE Radio AM 1600 kHz Baddeck

 History of CBI-AM (CBC Radio One) Sydney [CBI  Cape Breton Island]
Broadcasting Decision CRTC 2007-222, 9 July 2007
         CBI Radio One — Approval of conversion from AM to FM

 History of CBI-FM (CBC Radio Two) Sydney [CBI  Cape Breton Island]

List of defunct CBC radio transmitters in Nova Scotia
CBC Radio One
CBC Première Chaîne

 History of CJCB Radio Sydney [Cape Breton]

 History of CKPE Radio Sydney

 History of CHER Radio Sydney
Broadcasting Decision CRTC 2006-355, 11 August 2006
         Approval of conversion from AM to FM

 History of CHRK Radio Sydney
Broadcasting Decision CRTC 2007-220, 6 July 2007
         Approval of application for a broadcasting licence... 101.9 MHz CHRK-FM...

 History of CKCH Radio Sydney
Broadcasting Decision CRTC 2007-220, 6 July 2007
         Approval of application for a broadcasting licence... 103.5 MHz CKCH-FM...

Cape Breton Radio Stations
broadcasting on the Internet

 CJIJ Radio FM 99.9 MHz Membertou
Public Notice CRTC 2001-70, 15 June 2001
         Changes to conditions of licence for certain native radio undertakings
CRTC: CJIJ, New Native FM radio, 27 February 2002
         Approval of application for a broadcasting licence

 History of CICU Radio Eskasoni
Decision CRTC 93-759, 23 December 1993
         Approval of application for a broadcasting licence... 94.1 MHz, one watt...

 History of CKJM Radio Cheticamp

 CNRH Canadian National Railways Halifax (a "phantom" station)
Canadian National Railways used the CHNS facilities and staff to run Phantom Station CNRH until they closed down their network in 1931...

CNRH "Phantom" radio station CNRH (Canadian National Railway Halifax)
A Phantom Radio Station was one which did not possess any technical facilities and was licensed to broadcast only over an existing physical station. The phantom's licensee's assigned station call was used only during the period of time where the facilities of the physical station were leased.  The physical station ostensibly 'signed off' and the call letters of the phantom station were announced and possibly used throughout the period.  At the conclusion of the leased time, the phantom 'signed off' and the physical station 'signed on' again... The Phantom stations disappeared in the early 1930s...

 Call Letters of Canadian Radio Stations

CBH Halifax
CBA Atlantic
CBM Montreal
CBO Ottawa
CBT Toronto
CBW Winnipeg
CBE Edmonton
CBV Vancouver

 History of CBHT
The early days of CBC Television in Halifax. Do you remember the days of Don Tremaine, Max Ferguson and Rube Hornstein? They're here, along with Don Messer and Marg Osbourne and Charlie Chamberlain, and a young whippersnapper named Frank Cameron, and others...
The Wayback Machine has archived copies of this document:
The History of CBHT

Archived: 1998 June 29

Archived: 1999 October 1

Archived: 2000 August 17

Archived: 2000 August 26

Archived: 2001 May 28

Archived: 2001 August 4

Archived: 2002 February 13

 History of CBHFT (French television) Halifax

CBHFT Halifax
CBHFT-1 Yarmouth
CBHFT-2 Mulgrave
CBHFT-3 Sydney
CBHFT-4 Cheticamp
CBHFT-5 Middleton
CBHFT-6 Digby
CBHFT-7 New Glasgow
CBHFT-8 Weymouth

Prominent People
in Nova Scotia Radio

 Willard Bishop

 William Borrett

 Arleigh Canning

 Mike Duffy

 Max Ferguson

 John Fisher

 Danny Galivan

 Arthur Grieg

 Jerry Lawrence

 Finlay MacDonald

 Jamie MacLeod

 Arthur Manning

 Guglielmo Marconi

 Don Messer

 Marven Nathanson

 Nate Nathanson

 Clyde Nunn

 Arnie Patterson

 Sir Henry Thornton

 Don Tremaine

 Austin Willis

 J. Frank Willis

CBC Archvive
CBC Pensioners Association, Maritimes

We're into the sales business helping to promote and sell an audio cassette featuring the highlights of sixty years of CBC radio broadcasting in the Maritimes.  It features the best audio clips available from the CBC Archives in Halifax.  Ern Dick, former national CBC Archivist, started by calling together a group of retired CBC radio programmers to make suggestions for suitable material.  Then researchers sifted through the Archives to find the clips.

The program is in the form of a documentary, voiced by Don Tremaine, and covers a period from 1936 to 1997.  The highlights include:
    • The Moose River Mine cave-in coverage with J. Frank Willis.
    • A selection from the Gillans, a fictional Maritime Farm Family.
    • Incident at Capstan Cove, a drama.
    • Harmony Harbour, celebrating the seafaring traditions of the Maritimes.
    • Don Messer and his Islanders.
    • Rawhide, featuring the wit and many voices of Max Ferguson.
    • Bill of Fare with J. Frank Willis.
    • It also includes clips from AM Chronicle, Atlantic Airwaves, Information Morning, the Maritime Gardener and other shows.

The cassettes are being sold at various craft fairs throughout the region. They are also being placed in book and record stores around the Maritimes. They are being promoted on CBC radio shows and we have advertised them on our home page...
Source: CBC Pensioners Association, Maritimes

 Developing a new tree-ring network in Nova Scotia...
...Over four hundred spruce and pine timbers have been collected from twelve historic buildings in Nova Scotia...Our analysis has developed a composite spruce-hemlock record for central Nova Scotia spanning 410 years (AD 1572 to 1982).

 John Parr, Governor of Nova Scotia 1782-1791

 Pier 21 The Pier 21 Society has been created to revitalize Pier 21 as a permanent testament, designed to celebrate the profound contributions of immigrant Canadians. Pier 21 will do for Canada and Canadians what Ellis Island has done for the United States. It will be a national and international centre whose purpose is to explore the Canadian immigration experience....


Guglielmo Marconi

The radio stations at Glace Bay, Nova Scotia, and Poldhu, England, worked together to carry messages both ways — eastward and westward — across the North Atlantic Ocean.  Messages sent from Glace Bay were received at Poldhu, and messages sent from Poldhu were received at Glace Bay.  Both stations were connected by land lines (telegraph circuits consisting of wires carried on insulators at the top of wooden poles) to inland points

Glace Bay was connected to the North American telegraph network which reached all railway stations on the continent and almost all communities larger than mere villages; and Poldhu was connected to the large telegraph network in Great Britain, Europe, Asia, and Africa.  Anyone who wanted to send a telegram, say, from/to Toronto or New York or San Francisco to/from London or Paris or Berlin or Athens or Moscow, could do so quickly and conveniently, with the jump across the Atlantic Ocean being performed by Marconi's radio system between Nova Scotia and England.

 Marconi Wireless Telegraph in Nova Scotia

 Timeline of the First Thirty Years of Radio

 The 1901 Transatlantic Radio Experiment Marconi in Newfoundland

 Fessenden and Marconi: Their Differing Technologies and Transatlantic Experiments During the First Decade of the Twentieth Century

...Marconi kept building larger antenna systems, larger since he was striving for greater transmission distance and improved signal reception, which lowered the operating frequency. At Poldhu the frequency of his station in October 1902 was 272 kHz. His initial station at Table Head, Glace Bay, NS in December 1902 was a massive structure comprising 400 wires suspended from four 61 metre wooden towers, with down leads brought together in an inverted cone at the point of entry into the building. The frequency was 182 kHz. By 1904 his English antenna had become a pyramidal monopole with umbrella wires, and the frequency was 70 kHz. In 1905 his Canadian antenna, moved to Marconi Towers, Glace Bay was a capacitive top-loaded structure, with 200 horizontal radial wires each 305 metres long, at a height of 55 metres, and the frequency was 82 kHz. By late in 1907 he was using a frequency of 45 kHz...

Celebrating the Centenary of the First Transatlantic Wireless Signal 1901-2001

Marconi, Guglielmo, Marchese (1874-1937)

Marconi Betrayed
The formation of Cable & Wireless

In 1925-26, the advent of the very successful Marconi-Franklin short-wave beam system shook the all powerful cable companies to their core.  The new technology, which concentrated the signal in a "beam" instead of scattering it in all directions, was a winner.  (Think of a flashlight projecting a beam of light, compared to a candle which spreads light in all directions.)

The wireless beam utilised a fraction of the power and was much less prone to interference, and transmissions could be sent at three times the speed, using a fiftieth of the power, and at a twentieth of the cost.  This did not just put wireless on a par with cable, but well ahead of it.

The original wireless beams were tested at 300 words per minute and often worked at 200, which was a higher speed than possible on any Commonwealth cable system at the time.  There was a rush to build beam stations across the world, and the whole of the short-wave Imperial Chain came into operation between October 1926 and September 1927.

By the end of 1927, the Chairman of Eastern Telegraph appealed to the British Government, the owner and operator of the radio beam service which threatened to put them out of business, to save them from total collapse.  On 28 December 1927, the chairman of the Marconi Company met with the chairman of Eastern Telegraph at dinner in the house of a mutual friend.  Here they agreed to negotiate a merger of the Marconi Company with the cable companies.

On 10 January 1928 the two companies issued a joint statement of intent and by 14 March the details of the merging of the companies had been worked out.  The deal gave the cable shareholders 56.25% of the shares of the new company, Cable and Wireless Limited, while Marconi shareholders got only 43.75% — which gave the cable shareholders complete control.  Marconi had been totally betrayed by those he trusted.

After years of toil in pioneering work and finally hitting the jackpot, Marconi had been sold out by those that had fed on his genius and efforts...

Cable & Wireless PLC website

In 2000, Cable & Wireless is a major global telecommunications business with revenue of over £9,000,000,000 (US$14,000,000,000) in the twelve months April 1999 to March 2000, and customers in 70 countries.  Its operations around the world offer a full range of telecommunications services.  Cable & Wireless' focus for future growth is on IP (internet protocol) and data services and solutions for business customers.  It is developing advanced IP networks and value-added services in the United States, Europe and the Asia-Pacific region in support of this strategy...

The Cable & Wireless family tree

Names of the most important companies which eventually were merged to form Cable & Wireless

Halifax and Bermudas Telegraph Company

In 1889 the British Government decided to go ahead with the project and link the naval base at Nova Scotia with the British Naval harbour at Hamilton, Bermuda.  The Halifax & Bermudas Telegraph Company was established to carry out the work...

The End of the Cable Monopoly

In the early years of the 20th century, telegraph cables had a monopoly on long distance communications. However, the seeds of competition began to emerge in 1907 when the Italian Marchese Guglielmo Marconi established a wireless telegraph service between Clifden in Ireland and Glace Bay in Canada...

The Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company

In 1909, Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Company began operation of his first trans-atlantic radio telegraph service. In 1910 he conceived a plan to link the whole British Empire by radio...


Coal Mining

 History of Coal Mining in Nova Scotia
The Louis Frost Notes, 1685 - 1962.  A previously unpublished internal document of the Dominion Coal Company, written c. 1962.  A long document, with a lot of details...

 A Great Treasure: The Geology and History of Coal in Nova Scotia
by J. H. Calder, K. S. Gillis, R. D. Naylor, and N. Watkins Campbell

A Brief History of Coal Mining in Nova Scotia

 Introduction: History of Coal Mining in Nova Scotia by Gary Ellerbrok

 Nova Scotia Department of Mines
Annual Report: 1871
Annual Report: 1872
Annual Report: 1873

 Nova Scotia Department of Mines, Coal Statistics
Inspector of Mines Report, Coal, 1871
1871: Number of Persons Employed, Number of Horses, Engines, etc. at each Colliery
Coal Produced, January-June 1871 Total raised: 268,441 tons
Coal Produced, July-December 1871 Total raised: 404,901 tons

It is not known whether these are long tons or short tons.
    One short ton was/is 2000 pounds [905kg]
    One long ton was/is 2200 pounds [996kg]

 Coal Companies operating in Cape Breton, 1917
The Coal-Fields and Coal Industry of Eastern Canada

 Overview of the Development of Railways on the Sydney Coal Fields, 1720-Present by Robert Chant

 History of Mining in Cape Breton

 Westray Coal Mine Disaster

 Mining in Nova Scotia, Past and Present, by Howard V. Donohoe, Jr.
The Wayback Machine has archived copies of this document:
Mining in Nova Scotia, Past and Present
by Howard V. Donohoe, Jr.

Archived: 1998 May 9

Archived: 1998 December 2

Archived: 1999 April 29

Archived: 1999 October 7

 History of the Mining Society of Nova Scotia

The Wayback Machine has archived copies of this website:
History of the Mining Society of Nova Scotia

Archived: 1998 May 9

Archived: 1998 December 1

Archived: 1999 April 20

Archived: 1999 October 18

Archived: 2000 June 18

Archived: 2001 February 8

Archived: 2002 June 12

 Glossary of Coal Mining Terms by United States Department of Labor
from "Abandoned Areas" to "Yieldable"

Miners Memorials

 Miners Memorial Database Gary W. Ellerbrok
Contains the names of 2,275 coal miners who were killed in or about the coal mines of Nova Scotia.  The database covers 101 years, from November 1866 to November 1967...

 Westray Miners Memorial Park New Glasgow
The Westray Coal Mine exploded on 9 May 1992.

 Miners Memorial monument 1891 Westville
To the memory of those who lost their lives in the Drummond Colliery on 13 May 1873.

 Coal miners monument Inverness Miners' Museum
Historic Site in memory of the miners who lost their lives in the Inverness Coal Field.

 Inverness Miners' Museum located in the old CN railway station on Lower Railway Street

 Workers Monument Trenton

 Sobeys Industrial Monument Stellarton

 Springhill Mining Disasters by the CBC
In the 1950s, the town of Springhill, Nova Scotia, was devastated by two of the worst mining disasters in Canadian history. An explosion in 1956 killed 39 miners, and another 74 died in the "bump" of 1958...

 Cape Breton Miners Gallery Cambria Publishing, Calgary, Alberta
Coal Mines of Canada Gallery: Nova Scotia

 Mining History Network

 Wallace R. MacAskill's photographs

 History Scrapbook A collection of "clippings" of historical interest


Short stories, all true,
from Nova Scotia's past

 Mary Hichen — the Lighthouse Heroine of Seal Island

Every spring, fishermen visited the uninhabited island to collect and bury the dead from the winter's wrecks, including one wretch found frozen solid crouched over a pile of unburned twigs and sticks...

 Rufus Parks: the One-Man Rescue Machine

Returning again and again, he rescued every man, the captain last of all...

 Bell's Hydrofoil

A desperate call for help by the U.S. Navy...

 The Saladin Pirates

No one remained who could navigate the ship...

 Joshua Slocum

The first man to sail around the world by himself...

 Mi'kmaq Seagoing Legacy'kmaq.htm

The Mi'kmaq were formidable sea raiders, capturing more than 80 vessels at sea in the wars of the 1700s...

 Treasure of the Chameau

The Chameau was a navy transport ship — large, fast and heavily armed with 44 cannons... Chameau's last voyage began in July, 1725...

 Angeline's Wedding Dress

It was supposed to be a one-day trip...

 Ensign Prenties

On December 5, 1780, way off course and waveswept, the St. Lawrence ran aground near the mouth of the Margaree River, on the north shore of Cape Breton Island. Pretty today in summertime, at that time the Margaree was uninhabited and in the grip of an icy winter. Two of the crew of 19 froze to death getting ashore. Three more died of frostbite in the days that followed... contemplating cannabalism...

 The Captain's Captain

He once took a large ship up the twisting, shallow Clyde River to Glasgow by sail only, to win a silver plate as the only large ship ever to make it without a tow... His feats as a ship builder were equally remarkable. In 1850 he started building a large barque in August, even though everyone said it would be impossible to finish before winter. He took on extra hands, built the ship with a cargo already inside, and had it sailing past the Pictou lighthouse for Scotland less than ninety days after the keel was laid...

 Captain Allan and the Tickler

He was a typical coastal schooner captain, a jack-of-all-trades who fished, farmed and sailed... He was caught at sea in the notorious August gale of 1873...

 Wooden Shipbuilding Lives on

In 1942, Captain Andy watched his schooner, Lillian E. Kerr, the last four-masted schooner in Canada, head off for New York. There she was run down at night by a wartime convoy of steamships. All aboard, including his son and son-in-law, were killed...


Walters demanded more headroom in the crews quarters in the bow...

 Nova Scotia History Peter Landry's website...
Selected Nova Scotia Biographies, 1764-1800
Selected Nova Scotia Biographies, 1800-1867

 One-line notes about Nova Scotia history The White House and Washington D.C. were burned by General Ross in 1813, (buried in Halifax, 1813), resulting in the writing of the Star Spangled Banner by Francis Scott Key and the painting of the President's Home — White...

        Some Famous Nova Scotians Bucknam Pasha (1866-1919) - Founded the Turkish Navy and was titled Pasha by the Sultan of Turkey...


Simon Newcomb

For his mathematical work on the motion of the Moon,
and also on the positions of Uranus and Neptune, he was awarded
the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society in 1874

 Simon Newcomb
by the School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St. Andrews, Scotland

 Portrait of Simon Newcomb United States Naval Observatory

 Photograph of Simon Newcomb United States Naval Observatory

 Simon Newcomb retired as a Rear Admiral in the United States Navy...

 Elements of Astronomy, by Simon Newcomb the motion of the Earth around the Sun

 Simon Newcomb

 Simon Newcomb, the First Bruce Medalist

 Address delivered by Arthur Cayley, President of the Royal Astronomical Society, on Presenting the Society's Gold Medal to Simon Newcomb, Feb. 1874

 Simon Newcomb Encyclopedia Britannica 1911

 Simon Newcomb
...In the prelude to the American Civil War, many US Navy staff of Confederate sympathies left the service and, in 1861, Newcomb took advantage of one of the ensuing vacancies to become professor of mathematics and astronomer at the United States Naval Observatory, Washington D.C.. Newcomb set to work on the measurement of the position of the planets as an aid to navigation, becoming increasingly interested in theories of planetary motion...

 Simon Newcomb's Obituary in The Times of London 12 July 1909

 Simon Newcomb's Obituary in The Astrophysical Journal  October 1909

 Simon Newcomb Arlington National Cemetery website
Newcomb died in Washington and was buried with military honours in Arlington National Cemetery with President William Howard Taft in attendance.

 Simon Newcomb's role in the assassination of President Garfield
James Garfield was shot on 2 July 1881 and lingered until September 19, 1881 when he died.  The problem was that a bullet was lodged inside his chest.  Finding the exact location of the bullet was very critical in the president's recovery.  X-rays had not been invented yet... One week after the shooting, Simon Newcomb was interviewed by a reporter for the Washington National Intelligencer...
This report is available at
and at

 Transatlantic Cable Communications Canso & Hazel Hill, "the Original Information Highway"... With the exception of a small piece of Labrador, Canso is the farthest point east on the mainland of North America.
                Early History of Atlantic Cables
                The Cable Story in Canso
                FAQ file submarine telegraph cables
                The Commercial Cable Company's Cable Station, Hazel Hill, Nova Scotia by Charles Bellamy, Superintendent in 1927
                William Walsh assisted in locating and landing ten international telegraph cables, in the vicinity of Canso
                Frederick Creed invented what he called the "High Speed Automatic Printing Telegraph System", which we know as the teletype machine. In 1898, he demonstrated that he could transmit the Glasgow Herald newspaper to London via telegraphy at a rate of sixty words per minute. By 1913, his system was being used routinely to transmit London newspapers to other major centres in Great Britain and Europe. Creed Teleprinters were sold to Denmark, Sweden, India, Australia and South Africa, and provided almost instant printed communications between heads of state...
                Tools of the Cable Trade

Newfoundland: Original Transatlantic Cable, 1858
This is a piece of the first Atlantic Cable laid
in 1858, from Valencia, Ireland, to Newfoundland. Half
the cable was made at Birkenhead, Cheshire, and half
at Blackwall, London, England, and laid by British
Man-of-War Agamemnon and American Man-of-War Niagara.


Newfoundland: Original Transatlantic Cable, 1858
Enhanced view of the 1858 cable
Outside diameter 2.5 cm (1 inch)

(Digitally enhanced portion of above.)

The First Transatlantic Cable, 1858
[Obituary from The Salina Journal, Salina, Kansas, 20 August 1940] A snowy-haired old gentleman died here Tuesday night at his home, 319 North Thirteenth, quietly and in the fullness of his 93 years. Few knew that in Henry A. Pickering Salina was linked with the glory of that era when the expanding British empire was throwing out its first direct commercial contact with the new world. He was an intimate friend of Cyrus Field, who laid the first Atlantic Cable... British money built the first Atlantic cable and Henry A. Pickering's father raised it...
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Henry A. Pickering Obituary
The Salina Journal, Salina, Kansas, 20 August 1940

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Newfoundland: First transatlantic telegrapher
Mr. St. John
First transatlantic telegrapher
(Photo dated 1876)



 The Early Days of Automobiles in Nova Scotia
A history, mostly excerpts from contemporary sources, of the early days of automobiles in Nova Scotia: The first few autos, speed limits, laws relating to autos, highway conditions, the ways people reacted to the new machines, etc.

 History of Nova Scotia licence plates by David Fraser
Plate #1 was issued 8 May 1907...

 The First Trans-Canada Auto Trip
From Halifax 27 August 1912, to Victoria 17 October 1912
Thomas Wilby and Jack Haney drove a 1912 REO automobile across Canada. It was the first Trans-Canada automobile trip (sort of)

28 August 1912: Left Truro at 7:45 AM, got good send off, arrived in Moncton 7:30 PM. Roads were bad.  Had much trouble with poor gas and spark plugs, motor missed all day... Got a pilot out of Amherst.  He ran out of gas so we left him.  Worked on car at Moncton until 11:30 PM...

 Guysborough County Historical Society
Guysborough, named by the Loyalists after Sir Guy Carleton, commander-in-chief of the British forces in America and Governor General of Canada during the 1780s...
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Guysborough County Historical Society

Archived: 2001 May 07

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 Guysborough County History

 History of Lyons Brook Pictou County

 Jerome: Mystery Man of Sandy Cove (1854-1912)
Many attempts were made to find an identity for this mystery man but none succeeded...

 d'Entremont Millstone found in East Pubnico Yarmouth County. Seventeenth century millstone has been discovered on the Hipson Brook between the railway bridge and the stone bridge (map). There are historical writings of a Sieur de Villebon who sailed into Pubnico Harbour, in 1699, with 80 bushels of wheat to be milled at the d'Entremont grist mill...
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d'Entremont Millstone found in East Pubnico

Archived: 1999 February 20

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 The History of the Lowbush Blueberry Industry in Nova Scotia, 1880 - 1950

 Index to The Collections of The Nova Scotia Historical Society 1878 - 1998

 History of the Uniacke & District Volunteer Fire Department, Mount Uniacke
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History of the Uniacke & District Volunteer Fire Department

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Archived: 2001 June 19

 Archaeology at the Uniacke Estate A short archaeological survey at Uniacke Estate by the Nova Scotia Archaeology Society in 1991 led to a full-scale project in 1992...

 Family Roots of Pictou and Antigonish Counties

 Pictou County Place Names, their origins


Prince Henry Sinclair

2 June 1398

600th Anniversary

On 2 June 1998, the Nova Scotia Legislature unanimously adopted


Whereas, according to legend, Prince Henry Sinclair, in 1398, set sail from the Orkney Islands with 12 ships and 300 crew; and

Whereas on June 2, 1398, Prince Henry Sinclair and crew landed in Guysborough; and

Whereas this week, Sinclair Societies and Scottish clans are celebrating the arrival of Prince Henry in the New World;

Therefore be it resolved that this House extend congratulations to the Sinclair Society and wish them every success in their quest to authenticate the arrival of Prince Henry in North America.

Complete Hansard report[Page 613]

This is the earliest event in the history of Nova Scotia that can be dated to a single day (according to legend). The Resolution refers to "Guysborough," located on the west side of the Strait of Canso, which separates the Nova Scotia mainland from Cape Breton Island.

Born in Scotland in about 1345A.D. Henry Sinclair became Earl of Rosslyn and the surrounding lands as well as Prince of Orkney, Duke of Oldenburg (Denmark), and Premier Earl of Norway. In 1398 he led an expedition to explore Nova Scotia and Massachusetts. This was 90 years before Columbus 'discovered America'! Prince Henry Sinclair was the subject of historian Frederick J. Pohl's Atlantic Crossings Before Columbus, which was published in 1961. Not all historians agreed with Pohl, but he made a highly convincing case that this blond, sea-going Scot, born at Rosslyn Castle near Edinburgh in 1345, not only wandered about mainland Nova Scotia in 1398, but also lived among the Micmacs long enough to be remembered through centuries as the man-god Glooscap...
Source: The Westford Knight

 Rosslyn Chapel official website

 From Jerusalem to Rosslyn? The Templars in Scotland BBC
Where folklore meets history, there is usually some legendary character, whose exploits have inspired stories that have been passed down and reinterpreted by each generation...

 Unlocking Rosslyn's secrets Rosslyn Chapel was founded in 1446 by Sir William St. Clair, third and last Prince of Orkney.

  • Additional information may be found in these books:
  • Atlantic Crossings Before Columbus, by Frederick J. Pohl, 1961, Norton, New York.
  • Prince Henry Sinclair : His Expedition to the New World in 1398, by Frederick J. Pohl, 230 pages, 1974, Davis-Poynter.
    Reprinted in paperback March 1998, 232 pages, Nimbus Publishing Ltd. ISBN 1551091224   [Frederick J. Pohl died in January 1991, aged 102; the quality of his research warrants further investigation of the Henry Sinclair story.]
  • Holy Grail Across the Atlantic: The Secret History of Canadian Discovery and Exploration, by Michael Bradley with Deanna Theilmann-Bean, 391 pages, 1988, Hounslow Press, 124 Parkview Avenue, Willowdale, Ontario, M2N 3Y5. ISBN 088882100X.
  • The Sword and The Grail, by Andrew Sinclair, 240 pages, 1992, Crown.
  • The Discovery of the Grail, by Andrew Sinclair, 307 pages, 1998, Carroll & Graf, New York. ISBN 078670604X.
  • Grail Knights of North America, by Michael Bradley, 416 pages, 1998, Hounslow Press. ISBN 088822030. [Michael Bradley is the author of several provocative and controversal interpretations of history. He has written seven books, inlcluding two novels. A former lecturer at Dalhousie University's Centre for African Studies, he has been invited to give guest lecture series at Kennedy-King College (Chicago), Yale University, The Princeton Institute for Advanced Studies, Vanderbilt University, The University of Toronto, and York University.]
  • The Sinclair Saga: Exploring the Facts and the Legend of Prince Henry Sinclair, by Mark Finnan, 154 pages with photographs, 1999, Formac Publishing Company Ltd., 5502 Atlantic Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 1G4.  ISBN 0887804667.  Distributed in the U.S.A. by Seven Hills Book Distributors, 1531 Tremont Street, Cincinnati, Ohio, 45214.
  • The Labyrinth of the Grail by William F. Mann, 350 pages, June 1999, ISBN 0965970183, Laughing Owl Publishing Inc., Grand Bay, Alabama.
  • The Second Scottish War of Independence 1332-1363 by Chris Brown, Tempus, 2002, 157pp inc. 64 monochrome illustrations, plus 16 pages of colour plates
 Prince Henry Sinclair In 1398 he followed Zeno's map to Newfoundland and Nova Scotia to explore, colonize and claim territory for Queen Margaret of Norway... Nova Scotia was the only place on North America's coast with open pitch deposits described in the Narrative, at Pictou and Stellarton, where Micmacs lived in caves.  Sinclair's year of exploration was determined by traditional naming discoveries from religious calendars and Trin Harbor anchorage.  They arrived in early June.  The only year between 1395 and 1402, the time frame of Sinclair's voyage, when Trinity Sunday fell in early June was 1398...

 Cruising Nova Scotia — 600 Years Ago
The first European to reach these shores... may well have been Henry Sinclair, Earl of Orkney. There is reason to speculate that Sinclair visited Nova Scotia in 1398 — 94 years before Columbus' "voyage of discovery"... The late Frederick J. Pohl, who spent 40 years investigating the Sinclair voyage, asserted that sixty days out from Orkney, Earl Henry's vessels dropped anchor in Nova Scotia's Chedabucto Bay outside Guysborough Harbour on June 1, 1398...

 Prince Henry Sinclair, The Voyage to the New Jerusalem
What became of the Templar fleet, and those Brothers of the Order that avoided arrest?... Sinclair's base may have included a castle built in Nova Scotia between the headwaters of the Gold and Gaspereaux Rivers.  At the mouth of both of these rivers are islands — both named Oak Island and both being the only islands in Nova Scotia with oak trees growing on them...

 Henry Sinclair: The Legendary Atlantic Journey
Seeing smoke above a distant hill and thinking it to be a sign of civilisation, Zichmni despatched 100 of his soldiers to investigate. Upon their return, the reconnaissance party informed Zichmni that the smoke was a natural phenomenon, billowing from a fire at the base of a nearby hill. Beneath this hill was a spring from which there flowed a black substance like pitch that ran into the sea... It has been speculated that the location of this smoking hill was at a place now known as Stellarton, approximately 50 miles from Guysborough Harbour...

 The Templars, based in southern France, were an order of fighting monk-knights prominent in the Crusades, who amassed great wealth. "To them, the Crusades were largely a matter of loot." Powerful and loyal only to the Pope, the Templars became a threat to European kings. In 1307, the King of France arrested almost all the Templars.  A few escaped and have never been heard of since.  Some say they went to a far away land now known as Nova Scotia.  Oak Island might hold the lost treasure of the Knights Templar, a trove touted as being so fabulous it could contain the Holy Grail.  Born in Scotland in about 1345. Henry Sinclair became Earl of Rosslyn and the surrounding lands as well as Prince of Orkney, Duke of Oldenburg (Denmark), and Premier Earl of Norway. In 1398 he led an expedition to explore Nova Scotia and Massachusetts. This was 90 years before Columbus 'discovered America'! Prince Henry Sinclair was the subject of historian Frederick J. Pohl's Atlantic Crossings Before Columbus, which was published in 1961. Not all historians agreed with Pohl, but he made a highly convincing case that this blond, sea-going Scot, born at Rosslyn Castle near Edinburgh in 1345, not only wandered about mainland Nova Scotia in 1398, but also lived among the Micmacs long enough to be remembered through centuries as the man-god 'Glooscap'...

 600th Celebration News, published by the Prince Henry Project Committee.  The Prince Henry Project is a non-profit organization in the USA, committed to exploration, research, education, and sharing of information of the 14th century transatlantic journeys of Henry Sinclair...
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600th Celebration News

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 Newsletter: Preparations for the Prince Henry Sinclair Anniversary in 1998
Issue I of the 600th Celebration Newsletter July 1996 (issue 1)
Issue II of the 600th Celebration Newsletter August 1996 (issue 2)
Issue III of the 600th Celebration Newsletter 15 September 1996 (issue 3)
Issue IV of the 600th Celebration Newsletter 15 October 1996 (issue 4)
Issue V of the 600th Celebration Newsletter 15 November 1996 (issue 5)
Issue VI of the 600th Celebration Newsletter 20 December 1996 (issue 6)
Issue VII of the 600th Celebration Newsletter 5 February 1997 (issue 7)
Issue VIII of the 600th Celebration Newsletter 30 March 1997 (issue 8)
Issue IX of the 600th Celebration Newsletter 1 May 1997 (issue 9)
Issue X of the 600th Celebration Newsletter 25 June 1997 (issue 10)
Issue XI of the 600th Celebration Newsletter 12 August 1997 (issue 11)
Issue XII of the 600th Celebration Newsletter 23 August 1997 (issue 12)
Issue XIII of the 600th Celebration Newsletter 25 September 1997 (issue 13
Issue XIV of the 600th Celebration Newsletter 21 October 1997 (issue 14)
Issue XV of the 600th Celebration Newsletter 3 December 1997 (issue 15)
Issue XVI of the 600th Celebration Newsletter January-February 1998 (issue 16)
Issue XVII of the 600th Celebration Newsletter March 1998 (issue 17)
Issue XVIII of the 600th Celebration Newsletter March 1998 (issue 18)
Issue XIX of the 600th Celebration Newsletter May 1998 (issue 19)
Issue XX of the 600th Celebration Newsletter July 1998 (issue 20)
Issue XXI of the 600th Celebration Newsletter August 1998 (issue 21)

 Fundy: Origin of the name
According to G.H. Armstrong, author of The Origin and Meaning of Place Names in Canada (Macmillan, Toronto, 1930):   "Fundy: bay, an arm of the Atlantic Ocean, almost separating Nova Scotia from New Brunswick.  The origin of the name is somewhat uncertain.  Many writers derive it from French Fond de la Baie, corrupted into Fundy Bay, meaning "head of the bay", as if applied in the first instance to the entrance to the bay.  However, this French phrase might be translated "deep bay".  On Portuguese maps of the 16th century, it is marked Rio Fondo, meaning "deep river", that is, a water extending far inland. Cabot's map of 1544 also has Rio Fondo.  The weight of evidence is in favour of this origin." Actually, being interested in old maps of the bay, I have seen the name Rio Fondo on the originals, and the direct translation is "deep river".
(from e-mail sent 30 March 2001 by Peter G. Wells, Dartmouth)

 Origin of the name Acadia first used in mid-1500s

        Acadia: Origin of the name

 History of the Acadians


Oak Island Treasure

"one of the most bungled treasure hunts in history"
"almost certainly there was something there at one time"

 Treasure hunter says he's pieced together Oak Island puzzle
Halifax Chronicle-Herald, 29 December 2003

After 38 years of searching, Oak Island's most famous treasure hunter believes he's solved the mystery of the famous Mahone Bay island. In an exclusive interview with this newspaper, Dan Blankenship said he has uncovered evidence that proves the 32-hectare island is the repository for millions in silver and gold left behind by marauding Spaniards in the mid-16th century...

Globe and Mail clipping, 30 December 2003
Globe and Mail clipping, 30 December 2003
Listed alphabetically by URL

 The Oak Island Enigma: A History and Inquiry Into The Origin of The Money Pit A story of treasure on a deserted island. The historical account of Oak Island, Nova Scotia, given here is true — that is, as true as any history of events covering more than 150 years...

 Oak Island, Nova Scotia is the site of one of the world's greatest archeological enigmas. For the past 200 years, its deadly secret has lured adventurers and explorers, among them Franklin D. Roosevelt, John Wayne, and even Errol Flynn. Long ago, someone came to this island and buried something. Exactly who they were and what they buried remain unknown to this day. Yet over two million dollars have been spent and six lives lost in the search for an answer...

 Treasure Hunters Sniffing Holy Grail There's a sudden revival of interest in the Oak Island mystery and new theories about the fabled money pit that has baffled treasure hunters for more than two centuries. Two new books explore the latest speculation and one is a shocker. It suggests Oak Island might hold the lost treasure of the Knights Templar, a trove touted as so fabulous it could contain the Holy Grail...

 The Mystery Pit of Oak Island...At the ten foot level they hit wood. At first they figured they'd hit a treasure chest, but quickly realized that they had found a platform of oaken logs sunk into the sides of the shaft. Pulling up the logs they discovered a half-metre depression and more of the shaft. Continuing to dig, they finally reached a depth of about eight metres. At that depth they decided they could not continue without more help...

 What lies at the bottom of the Money Pit? Imagine yourself walking through the trees of a wooded island rumored to hide buried pirate treasure. Suddenly you come across a depression in the ground...

 The Inscribed Stones Drawings of the stones with mysterious inscriptions that have been found on Oak Island...

 New Light on the Oak Island Mystery — The Lost Treasure of the Knights Templar by Steven Sora.  A small island off the fog-shrouded coast of Nova Scotia may conceal the world's greatest treasure, that of the order of the Knights Templar. Missing since the fourteenth century, the treasure of the Templars is reputed to contain massive amounts of gold and silver bullion, the crown jewels of royal European families, religious artifacts sacred to both Judaism and Christianity and documents that may be as explosive now as when they were buried...

 Aspects of the Oak Island Mystery by Geoffrey Bath.  The dimensions of the Cross were determined by Frederick Nolan and confirmed by William Crooker. It is described as comprising five boulders referred to as Cones (A through E) and a rock at the point of intersection designated the Head Stone...

 A Critical Analysis of the Oak Island Legend Oak Island is a small island off the coast of Lunenburg County, Nova Scotia.  It is the site of the mysterious "money pit"...

 Skeptical Inquirer: The Secrets of Oak Island It has been the focus of "the world's longest and most expensive treasure hunt" and "one of the world's deepest and most costly archaeological digs", as well as being "Canada's best-known mystery"...

 Revealed: The Secret of Oak Island

 Myths and Stories of the Knights Templar...What became of the Treasure? Let's assume that after escaping from France with the treasure, buying lands in Scotland, supporting Robert the Bruce's successful bid for the kingdom, building and sustaining the St. Clair's and funding a less than successful expedition to the new world, there was actually still treasure remaining. Then, as the unsuccessful colony dies out, instead of sailing back east with the treasure, the American Templars decide to hide it. They build an incredibly complex "Money Pit" on Oak Island in Nova Scotia. They mark the spot using arcane symbolism involving rocks laid out in the form of a cross...

 DNR Geologist Interviewed for Documentary on the Oak Island Mystery
Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources (DNR) Minerals and Energy Branch, Minerals Update volume 12, Spring 1997
Oak Island, which lies just off the coast of Nova Scotia near Western Shore, Lunenburg County, has been a target for treasure-hunters since 1795. Excavations at the site have encountered wood, interpreted as barriers of oak logs, as deep as 30m below surface. When local film producer Andrew Cochran needed an authoritative source for his upcoming documentary on the Oak Island mystery, he came to the Department's office at Founders Square in Halifax, complete with film crew, to interview Ralph about the morphology and origin of glacial deposits... Ralph Stea has studied the Quaternary geology of Nova Scotia for twenty years. His maps and reports have been a mainstay of the department's publications list since 1978, and his contributions to scientific journals have included publications in Nature, Quaternary Research, Marine Geology, Sedimentary Geology, Journal of Geochemical Exploration, and many more...
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DNR Geologist Interviewed for Documentary
on the Oak Island Mystery

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 Captain William Kidd: Privateer and Pirate

 Catholic Encyclopedia: The Knights Templars A detailed article describing their humble beginning, marvellous growth, and tragic end — including the events on and after 13 October 1307...

 Searching for Buried Treasure (on Oak Island) by Bill Milstead

 Oak Island Friends

 Death Trap Defies Treasure Seekers for Two Centuries by Douglas Preston.  This article originally appeared in Smithsonian Magazine, June 1988.  On Oak Island, everybody gets up early. By dawn, with the fog turning into a drizzle, the crew is hard at work... Here in Mahone Bay, about 40 miles southwest of Halifax, Nova Scotia, I am at the site of the most intensive treasure hunt in history, a hunt that has lasted 193 years... Seventy-nine years ago, a young law clerk named Franklin Delano Roosevelt trod this very ground with pick, shovel and high hopes. Admiral Richard Byrd, Errol Flynn and Vincent Astor all at one time or another took an interest...

 George Young (1924-2002) of Queensland, Halifax County Two of George's books were made into film documentaries, one in Plymouth, England, called Who Killed Surcouf, and one in the United States titled Oak Island Treasure. Some of his other books are Bluenose Capers, Over Mulled Rum, Ghosts in Nova Scotia, Bottoms Up, The Short Triangle, and Ancient Peoples and Modern Ghosts. In recent years George had become internationally known for his research and investigations in the study of the ancient Celtic writing known as OGHAM. Many stones bearing this writing have been found in Ireland, Scotland, England, Spain, France, the Middle East, Canada and the United States...

 Oak Island

On Friday morning October 13th, 1307 — the reason for which Friday the 13th has become known as an unlucky day — King Phillip IV together with Avignonese Pope Clement V, ruthlessly suppressed the Order of the Knights Templar throughout Europe, with false accusations, arrests, torture and executions... A large number of Templars escaped that day to an uncertain future, and found refuge abroad. On the eve of the arrests, the entire Templar fleet mysteriously vanished from the port of La Rochelle carrying with it a vast fortune, the fate of which remains a mystery down to this day...

 What's the scoop on the mysterious buried treasure at Oak Island? Despite the loss of at least six lives and the expenditure of millions of dollars, virtually nothing of value has ever been recovered from Oak Island, the setting for one of the most famous and certainly one of the most bungled treasure hunts in history...

 Terra X: (The Curse of Oak Island)
Video documentary by Cochran Entertainment...surprising new evidence...
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 Kespitukik to Port Royal: The living history of Nova Scotia's Western Valley Long before Europeans set foot in Nova Scotia, the Mi'kmaq had named the region Kespitukik.  These stories are fiction, but are based on actual historic events.  Each story is portrayed from a unique point of view.  The narrator for each tale is speaking from his or her own perspective, as it has been shaped by time and circumstance...


Joshua Mauger

"Mauger" is pronounced "mar,"
rhymes with bar, car, far, jar, par, and tar.

 Joshua Mauger biography For eleven years (1749-1760) if anyone in Nova Scotia had something to sell, or something to buy, Joshua Maugher was the man to look up...

 History of Meagher's Beach first granted to Joshua Mauger, July 20, 1752.  Joshua Mauger was a merchant, distiller, etc., who had moved from Louisburg to Halifax, with a stock of goods, when Louisburg was restored to France in 1749... The name, "Meagher's Beach" arose from the identical pronunciation of the names "Mauger" and "Meagher" — both are pronounced "mar" (rhymes with bar, car, far, jar, par, and tar; does not rhyme with ear, oar, or war).

 McNabs Island: An Historical Overview
...Captain Joshua Mauger was one of the most colourful figures in the life of early Halifax. In addition to his involvement in the fishery, Mauger was variously engaged as a merchant, distiller, victualler, slave trader, smuggler and privateer. Between 1749 and 1760 he was also the largest shipowner in Halifax. Mauger was granted the beach on Cornwallis Island (now known as McNab's Island) in 1752 and used it for curing fish, and had buildings erected there for that purpose...
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Captain Joshua Mauger
by Brian Kinsman

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 The Joshua Mauger Papers
in the Gilder Lehrman Collection, formerly located at the Pierpont Morgan Library in New York City, now on deposit at the New-York Historical Society.
The Joshua Mauger Papers (1619-1789, but richest for the years 1763-1785) document the activity of this merchant who built his fortune through transatlantic trade and alcohol distilling in Nova Scotia. The collection of 343 items includes 249 letters to Mauger that deal primarily with his business interests in Nova Scotia and England. Mauger's correspondents also discuss political events, the Stamp Act, and the American Revolution. From Brooks Watson, a founder of Lloyds who served as Mauger's London agent and as Commissary General to Sir Guy Carleton, there are five firsthand accounts written in British-occupied New York late in the Revolution. As the American army prepared to occupy that city, Watson advised Mauger to sell his Nova Scotia lands to the fleeing Loyalists, a suggestion the merchant followed. The collection is unpublished; a photocopy is on deposit at the British Library. A detailed inventory of the Mauger Papers is available.
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Highlights of the Gilder Lehrman Collection
The Joshua Mauger Papers

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 The Journal of a Scottish Knight The Scots arrived in Nova Scotia in 1629.  This is the journal of a Scotsman's adventure across the Atlantic. He explains his decision to leave Scotland and come to Nova Scotia...

 Virtual Tour of Fort Anne Fort Anne is Canada's oldest national historic site.  It was declared a Dominion park in 1917.  The Scots built the first fort on the site in 1629 and the French later followed with four forts.  These forts changed hands several times through the continuous rivalry between the French and the English.  In 1935 the Officers' Quarters, originally constructed in 1797 were extensively rebuilt to form the museum we see today...

                Virtual Tour of the Habitation at Port Royal


Town of Lunenburg
250 years — 1753-2003

 Lunenburg's 250th Nova Scotia

 The Choice of Mirligaiche The place to be chosen would be one on the Atlantic, within (under normal conditions) a day's sail from Halifax, having a harbour to the west of a rising land head, with deep water just off the beach, a place which, at least in part, had been in the past cleared of large trees, which had salt marshes nearby; and which could easily be defended, a peninsula. Mirligaiche, or Lunenburg as it was to be called, qualified on all counts...

 Lunenburg Township First Families, 1750-1784 Nova Scotia

 Passenger Lists Between the years 1750 and 1752, over 2000 "Foreign Protestants" arrived in Nova Scotia on ships – shipboard conditions were difficult and voyages were lengthy, yet the majority survived the journey...

 Lunenburg Township Land Grantees and Holders, 1753-1784

 Lunenburg Return of Arms, 26-27 December 1753 Nova Scotia

 Lunenburg The streets of Lunenburg still follow the original town plans from 1754...

 The Hoffman Insurrection, December 1753 The Hoffman Insurrection, a rebellion, lasted but a few days, and was ended in mid-December, 1753, when Monckton with a body of regular troops was send from Halifax to Lunenburg at the request of the local commander... John William Hoffman was tried, convicted and sentenced to a fine of £100 and two years imprisonment...

 Sebastian Zouberbuhler (c.1710-1773)

 1755 Victual List for Lunenburg

 1756 Lunenburg Victualling List

 1757 Lunenburg Victualling List

 Lunenburg Cattle Drive, July 30 to September 3, 1756

 Map of Land Grants This excellent map shows the relative positions of the 30- and 300-acre Land Grants given out in 1753 and 1763, respectively, to the founding families at Lunenburg...

 The Diary of Johann Michael Schmitt The original diary was handwritten in German in a family Bible which Johann Michael brought with him from Leimen, a small town near Heidelberg.  It passed through the hands of Rev. Mr. Bowers, a collector of old Bibles in 1901 in Rochester, Pennsylvania.  Kenneth Burgess tracked him to Philadelphia, contacting his daughter there only to hear it had been distributed to one of many Lutheran seminaries upon Rev. Bower's death.  He then tracked it to Temple University in 1940 where it was returned to Kenneth as a descendant of J.M. Schmitt.  It was restored by Lakeside Press of Chicago in November 1954 and was deposited in the Library of Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois where in 1956 it was available for examination, under the title "The Schmitt-Heckman-Burgess Bible".  The Bible itself was originally printed in Germany in 1664.

 A German handbill circulated by John Dick to recruit settlers c.1750
John Dick's handbill, circa 1750

 Winthrop Pickard Bell (1884-1965)

 Bell's Register of Nova Scotia's Foreign Protestant Families Winthrop Bell received his PhD from the university at Gottingen, Germany in 1914. Because he had traveled extensively there while taking lots of photographs and was still in the country at the outbreak of World War One, he was interned for the duration as a British spy.  Bell's Ph.D. dissertation was Eine kritische Untersuchung der Erkenntnistheorie Josiah Royce's, Gottingen University, Germany, 1922...

 Principaute de Montbeliard 1495 - 1793 431 foreign protestants from the principality of Montbeliard landed in Nova Scotia between 1749 and 1752. Many of these Montbeliardians were among the founding settlers of Lunenburg on June 8, 1753...

 The Montbeliard Settlers
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The Montbeliard Settlers

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 From Montbeliard to a New World Until 1793, Montbeliard was the independent homeland of about 420 French-speaking Protestants brought to Nova Scotia by a Dutch shipping agent named John Dick...

 Nova Scotia's Montbeliard names

 Photographs of the Montbeliard monument Lunenburg

 History of Kleinheubach, Germany many of the original Lunenburg settlers came from Kleinheubach

 European Places of Origin

 The Palatine Project: Nova Scotia The Palatine Project is an attempt to reconstruct the passenger lists of Germans who came to America in the first large wave of emigration in the 18th century...

 The Descendants of Michael Hirtle of Lunenburg, Nova Scotia 1751-2000

 Lunenburg County Names Zinck, Heckman, Bachman, Herman, Seaboyer, Geldert, Young, Conrad, Knickle, Weagle, Oxner, Zwicker, Weinacht, Hauptman, Kappes, Schaffner, Schnare, Morasch, Rafuse, Bolivar, Englehorn, Goetz, Tanner, Keddy, Deuthof, West, Mason

 The Jonah Family Pierre Jeaunne's town lot was in the Creighton Division Section E8 which today would be on Duke Street between Fox Street and Townshend Street, in Lunenburg...

 The Wentzell families of Queens and Lunenburg Counties On May 28, 1753, 1453 German and other European emigrants, including the two Wenzel families, were boarded on 14 transport ships at Halifax and were taken to Lunenburg. They arrived in Lunenburg harbor June 7, 1753...

 Chris' Lunenburg, Nova Scotia Home Page researching all the descendents of the original settlers in the Lunenburg County area of Nova Scotia. These are primarily people of French, German and Swiss background who came to Nova Scotia in the mid 1750s...

 Gail's Genealogy Page genealogical data for over 18,000 individuals, mainly from Lunenburg County, Nova Scotia

 Descendants of Nicholas Reinhardt (1715-1790) of Germany and Nova Scotia

 Dauphinee Genealogy Page The Dauphinee family originated in Montbeliard, France and immigrated to Nova Scotia in 1752. They were original settlers who helped found the town of Lunenburg in 1753...

 Descendants of Johannes Hatt (1737-1808) Johannes Hatt was born 1737 in Switzerland and died April 24, 1808 in New Dublin, Lunenbug County, Nova Scotia. He married Anna Elizabeth Felcher December 09, 1766 in Lunenburg. November 07, 1763, drew lot F2 in 2nd division...

 Genealogy of the Nova Scotia Jost Family Descendents of Johann Georg Jost (1727-1775) who came to Halifax and Lunenburg from Strasbourg (then Germany, now France), in 1752 on the Betty

 Lunenburg History Lunenburg was named in honour of the Duke of Braunschweig-Luneburg, King of England in 1727...

 Consolidated Index to Lunenburg County Probated Wills, 1770-1996 Nova Scotia

 Consolidated Index to Lunenburg County Family Names a list of all the family names that have ever appeared in Lunenburg County, Nova Scotia

 The Publicover Family of Nova Scotia John Peter Bubickhoffer, the ancestor of all Nova Scotian Publicovers...

 Marjorie Veinotte's Place researching Veinot, Veinotte, Veino...

 The Hirtle Family from Leimen, Germany

 Lunenburg County Cemeteries

 Arms of Nova Scotia
Granted by King Charles I in 1625, 24 years before the unpleasantness of 30 January 1649 O.S.  Older medieval heraldry in Scotland is extensive, but poorly documented, which is hardly surprising given the course of Scottish history.  Certainly, it can be shown that heraldry existed by the last quarter of the twelfth century, but records of heraldry from the time before the War of Independence went south with King Edward and were like as not lost.  The original records of the Ancient Arms of Nova Scotia disappeared with the loss of the early Lyon Register during the English Civil War, 1642-1651.  The Lyon Register is the Official Registry of Armorial Bearings and Pedigrees for Scotland, located at: Court of the Lord Lyon, HM New Register House, Edinburgh EH1 3YT, Scotland.  The Lyon Register re-entered the Nova Scotia Arms about 1805.
Also see:
Scottish Heraldry

 Horatio C. Crowell's tribute to Nova Scotia "...this little sea-girt peninsula..."
        Oswald Schenk's 1931 design
        Crowell's text

 Scots in New Scotland

Jess Coffill: Shark Infested Waters

During the years between 1869 and 1897, Jessie Coffill worked as a carpenter in the shipyards in Canning, Kings County.  He would sign on as ships carpenter during lax periods when no ships were being built.

One such trip in 1899, when he was 46 years old, he signed on a Saint John registered ship named the Caribbean, his oldest son William who had just turned sixteen, joined the same ship as a deck hand.

On their return trip from Havana, Cuba with a part load of sugar and part load of mahogany they ran into a storm just North of Grand Bahama Island, the storm caused quite a bit of damage, including the mainstay portion of the mainmast. The Captain of the ship normally got drunk during storms, and this storm was no exception.

After the storm had passed, Jessie climbed the rigging and was making repairs to the mainstay when a heavy squall hit the ship, Jessie lost his balance and was blown into the sea. William who was on deck, had seen what happened to his father and was about to throw him a life line when the drunken captain emerged from his cabin and hit William over the head with a marlinespike. "Apparently the Captain did not know that a man was overboard, and seeing the young deckhand throwing something overboard, became enraged and grabbed the nearest object available."

The ship continued on to the Bay of Fundy and detoured to Kingsport, Nova Scotia which is about five miles from Jessie's homestead in Canning. The crew dumped William on the dock with a note attached stating that Jess had accidentally drowned at sea. The ship immediately sailed on to its destination, Saint John, New Brunswick.

Jessie was lost in Shark infested waters, William went insane from the blow to the head and died in an asylum in Halifax a few years later.
The Wayback Machine has archived copies of this document:
Jess Coffill: Shark Infested Waters

Archived: 1999 October 8

Archived: 2001 January 24

Archived: 2001 June 27

Archived: 2001 August 3

Archived: 2001 November 2

 British North America Act adopted 27 March 1867
Whereas the provinces of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick have expressed their desire...
British North America Act, 1867
British North America Act, 1886 Electronic Frontier Canada
British North America Act, 1915 Electronic Frontier Canada
British North America Act, 1951 William F. Maton

 The Act for the Union of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick... page 13 of 39

 Historic Maps of Cape Breton

 History of the Photographic Guild of Nova Scotia

 Saint Croix Island International Historic Site United States National Park Service
In 1604, a group of 79 French colonists, led by Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Mons, and cartographer, Samuel Champlain, built a tiny settlement and overwintered on the island. The results were disastrous, with nearly half the colonists dying of scurvy. However, the effort, together with the subsequent relocation of the settlement at Port Royal, Nova Scotia, marked the beginning of a continuous French presence in North America...

 Map: Exploration in the New Amsterdam to Port Royal area 1497-1650

Table: Journeys of Exploration 1497-1650 — The Atlantic Coast, Saint Lawrence River, and Eastern Great Lakes.  Only those routes which revealed new geographic information are shown.
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Journeys of Exploration 1497-1650

Archived: 1998 February 16

Archived: 1999 February 18

Archived: 2000 August 17

Archived: 2001 February 8

 Council of Nova Scotia Archives There are now over 70 members...

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Council of Nova Scotia Archives

Archived: 1999 February 25

Archived: 2000 August 17

Archived: 2001 May 15

Archived: 2001 October 29

Archived: 2002 July 23

Archived: 2003 June 22

 Samuel Cunard and the Cunard Steamship Company chronology
        The Cunard Line, now (2005) owned by a consortium headed by the giant Carnival group, has a fleet of five of the world's top twelve rated cruise ships, including Queen Mary 2, the largest passenger ship ever built.
Cunard Webpages

On 29 June 1998, the following notice appeared at
Cunard webpages are temporarily unavailable
Records of the Cunard Steamship Company, c1840-1976
We [the University of Liverpool] regret we are unable to provide
an enquiry service at the present time.

The following links, which previously led to a lot of Cunard history,
are no longer valid.  They are kept on record here, in the hope
that this Cunard archive will become available again.
Cunard Archives, University of Liverpool
List of All Cunard Ships

(The following was discovered on 8 August 2002)

The Wayback Machine has archived copies of this document:
Cunard Archives – Index of Ships

Archived: 1997 February 18

Archived: 1997 July 25

Archived: 1997 November 15

Archived: 1999 January 28

The Wayback Machine has archived copies of this document:
The Cunard Line: A Brief Chronology

Archived: 1998 July 1

Archived: 1998 December 2

Archived: 1999 May 8

Archived: 1999 October 13

 Complete text of the Contract signed on 14 December 1841 by John Howe, Deputy Post Master General in Halifax, and Samuel Cunard, to establish and operate a fast stage coach service between Halifax and Pictou through Truro.  This stage line was an essential link in the British Admiralty's new arrangements to carry the Royal Mail quickly, regularly, and reliably, between London and Quebec.  The contract required each trip to be completed within seventeen hours, one way, which was tight scheduling in those days.  Cunard was required to provide four horses to draw each coach.  Passengers were to be carried at a fare of £2 10s.  Cunard was to set up and operate this service for eight years, and was given a government subsidy of £1550 sterling annually.  The contract specified three round trips each week during the months May through October, and twice a week November through April.  The stage coach trips were scheduled by the Post Office, to connect at Pictou with the steam packet boats running between Pictou and Quebec, and at Halifax with the steam packet boats running between England and Halifax.

 Number 2 Construction Battalion 1916 - 1920

 106th Overseas Battalion C.E.F.: Nova Scotia Rifles 1915 - 1920

 Decorated WWII Airmen of Pictou County
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Decorated WWII Airmen of Pictou County
by East Pictou Rural High School

Archived: 1997 March 30

Archived: 1998 May 5

Archived: 1999 April 27

Archived: 2000 August 17

 Chapter IV: Nova Scotia 1760-61 Recollections of an Old Soldier: The Life of Captain David Perry, a Soldier of the French and Revolutionary Wars, published 1822 at Windsor, Vermont

100 Stories from Nova Scotia's Past

  (1) The Pubnicos: Oldest Region Still Acadian
  (2) The Hills at Argyle Head
  (3) His Father Was His Uncle
  (4) Port Lomeron or Chebogue
  (5) Hanging of Two Acadians and Three Indians in Boston
  (6) Hush-Hush Money
  (7) Widow at 13, Millionaire at 34
  (8) He Sawed Off a Leg of One of His Men But They Pickled His Head
  (9) Wedgeport A Hundred Years Ago and Beyond
(10) Baptiste, the Rascal
(11) Baptiste Was Said to Have a Wife in Every Port
(12) She Presided Over Councils of War Against Her Kindred
(13) Napoleon Bucksaw
(14) The "Casket" Woman
(15) He Jumped Bail
(16) They Cut Off the Finger That Tipped the Scale and Some More
(17) They Tied Themselves to the Mast and Steering Wheel So Not to Be Washed Overboard
(18) Wilson Island
(19) Witchcraft, Sorcerers and Spells
(20) Were the Vikings Here?
(21) The First "Canadian" Child With "European" Blood Outside Newfoundland Was Born At Our Doorstep
(22) First Nun in North America Was Born at Our Doorstep
(23) The WRAYTON-MacDonnell Family: Its Tragedies and Wealth
(24) She Was Forced to Watch Him Hang 40 of Her Men With a Lasso Around Her Neck
(25) A Confession By Proxy
(26) He Prayed and His Life Was Spared
(27) The Acadian Participation in the War of Independence of the U.S.
(28) They Intended to Make Nova Scotia the 14th State of the Union
(29) "It's the Best Gang of Greenies I've Ever Seen"
(30) The Bridge Spanning Indian Sluice
(31) The First Expulsion of the Acadians
(32) The Second Expulsion of the Acadians
(33) The Third Expulsion of the Acadians
(34) The Return From Exile in 1766 of Some of the Acadians of Yarmouth County
(35) The Log Cabins of West Pubnico
(36) Two Acadian Martyrs
(37) French People Who Settled in Yarmouth County During the French Revolution [1789] and the Napoleon Wars
(38) French People Who Settled in Digby County During the French Revolution and Napoleon Wars
(39) The First Canadian to Become an American Citizen
(40) The Golden Age of the Old Time Acadians
(41) The 25th Anniversary of the Acadian Flag
(42) The Old Shelburne Road
(43) Fort Saint Louis
(44) 465th Anniversary of the Name "Acadie"
(45) Sentenced to Be Hanged as a Pirate, He Died a Gentleman, Respected by Friends and Neighbours
(46) The Rise and Fall of Louis A. Surette
(47) The "French Cross" at Morden, N.S.
(48) Sentenced To Be Whipped With the Cat-o-Nine-Tails
(49) Capt. Pierre Doucet, Esq. (1750-1792)
(50) Amable Doucet, Esq. (1737-1806)
(51) The First Christmas in North America
(52) Ducking and Keel-Hauling
(53) The Vow of the Mariners
(54) The Escape of Francois L. Bourneuf
(55) Pubnico is Something to Brag About
(56) The Seizure of "The Pembrook" By the Acadians
(57) Marie Babin of Surette's Island Was Not the Last of the Deported
(58) The Story of the Acadian Bells: Those of Port Royal
(59) The Story of the Acadian Bells: Those of Fortress Louisbourg
(60) The Story of the Acadian Bells: The Others of Cape Breton
(61) The Story of the Acadian Bells: Those of Minas and the Isthmus of Chignecto
(62) The Story of the Acadian Bells: Those of Prince Edward Island
(63) The Story of the Acadian Bells: Those on the Saint John River, N.B.
(64) The Story of the Acadian Bells: Maine, St.Pierre et Miquelon, and California
(65) The Story of the Acadian Bells: in Pubnico
(66) The Sinking of the DUKE WILLIAM and of the VIOLET Taking the Acadians into Exile
(67) Holy Week A Couple Of Generations Ago
(68)The Conflagration of 1820 in Clare
(69) Vengeance of the Micmacs Mocked in Their Religious Beliefs
(70) Came to Canada to Find its Longitude; Went to South America and Discovered that the World is Flat
(71) The Escape of the Acadians From Fort Lawrence at the Time of the Expulsion
(72) The Escape of the Acadians From Fort Beausejour at the Time of the Expulsion
(73) The First Mass in Canada Celebrated on the South Shore of Nova Scotia
(74) Jean Campagna, the Sorcerer
(75) Variations in French Family Names in South West Nova Scotia
(76) The Big Storms of the Centuries in South-Western Nova Scotia
(77) The Adventure of Benoni d'Entremont With the "Bonaventure"
(78) Simon "Squire" d'Entremont
(79) An Account of the Flight of the Acadians at the Time of the Expulsion
(80) The Wreck of the TIBEL
(81) Pubnico Natal Day - July 17
(82) Cape Sable Might Have Been the See of the First Canadian Bishop
(83) The "Klondike"
(84) The Railroad Era
(85) The Acadian Symbols
(86) A Voyage to Nova Scotia Made in 1731 By Robert Hale of Beverley
(87) Restrictions and Penalties in Days of Yore
(88) My First Entrance to College
(89) Hidden Treasures in Tusket Islands
(90) A Father Assails His Son in Combat
(91) Was to Be Sent Back to Nova Scotia From Exile
(92) Dropping the King's Name for Shame
(93) An Encounter With a German U-Boat off Our Shores
(94) Betrayed in His Love, He Died of a Broken Heart
(95) The Acadians at Horse-Shoe Cove Prior to the Expulsion
(96) The Ghost Ship "Yarmouth"
(97) Lobster Bay: Its Place Names of Yesteryear
(98) Place Names in West Pubnico Region
(99) The Place Names of Quinan
(100) 100th Anniversary of St. Peter's Church in West Pubnico
FINAL LETTER to Father Clarence


The Saxby Gale

4-5 October 1869

 A Scientific Study of The Saxby Gale:
an October 4-5, 1869 hybrid hurricane and record storm surge
...How do we know that there was a tropical cyclone perhaps as serious as a Category 2 hurricane, on the Saffir-Simpson Scale, on the evening of October 4-5, 1869?  Well, in fact there were any number of observers on the ground, and out at sea, in the path of the storm and along its edges.  And there were at least 50 daily and weekly newspapers reporting along the track of the storm in the eastern United States, in New England, Maine, and in the Maritime Provinces of Canada...

The Wayback Machine has archived copies of this document:
A Scientific Study of The Saxby Gale:
an October 1869, hybrid hurricane and record storm surge

Archived: 2004 February 28

Archived: 2004 April 09

 In Silent Amazement: The 130th Anniversary Of The Saxby Gale by Bill Hamilton
...One of the worst storms to affect the Tantramar was the Saxby Gale of Oct. 4-5, 1869. Although formal weather forecasts weren't available 130 years ago, the infamous Saxby Gale was predicted well in advance. Almost a year earlier, in December 1868, an amateur astronomer serving in the Royal Navy, Lieutenant S. M. Saxby, wrote a letter to all major London newspapers. He suggested that there would be "a storm of immense and devastating force" on Oct. 4-5 1869. At the time, Saxby's prediction was widely publicized. However, most people dismissed his warning. It was widely believed that no one could predict such an event nearly a year in advance......
Tantramar Flashback column, Sackville Tribune-Post, 6 October 1999

 The Saxby Gale of 1869 in the Canadian Maritimes – a Case Study of flooding potential in the Bay of Fundy
...The “Saxby Gale” of October 4-5, 1869 is a definitive storm in the Canadian Maritimes.  The storm was a hurricane that transformed into a deep extratropical depression that caused dozens of fatalities, set rainfall records in New England that still stand today, and was responsible for the world's largest known "tidal" excursion at the head of the Bay of Fundy... Maximum water levels in the Bay of Fundy are achieved when large storm surges are coincident with perigean spring tides; but these circumstances are rare.  The Saxby Tide was such an event...

 The Transition of the “Saxby Gale” into an Extratropical Storm
...The strong winds, heavy rains, storm surge and high surf are seldom as intense as when the tropical cyclone was further south. Nevertheless, there remains a risk unique to the middle latitudes — that of a rapid re-intensification as a result of the interaction with a baroclinic system. Indeed, “Hazel” was such a hybrid storm, with extremely heavy rainfalls of over 200mm in less than one day that caused severe flooding. As it turns out, our examination of the meteorological situation from a forensic study of the “Saxby Gale” suggests that it too was a hybrid re-intensification like “Hazel”....

 From telegraph to Internet: Canada's weather service, since 1871
As rain began to fall on August 25, 1873, residents of the outports and farms on Cape Breton Island secured their doors and shutters against a rising wind.  Few people on this rugged island expected anything more than a late summer gale.  But that night, after gathering strength for a week in the mid-Atlantic, a hurricane spiralled up the coast of the United States and smashed headlong into Cape Breton's east shore.  By mid-afternoon the next day, the Great Nova Scotian Cyclone had laid waste to a large swath of Cape Breton.  Newspapers were filled with accounts of steamers driven aground and bridges washed away in the deluge that accompanied the high winds.  The storm's final toll: almost 1,000 people dead, some 1,200 ships sunk or smashed, hundreds of homes and bridges destroyed.  Tragically, meteorologists in Toronto knew a day in advance that the hurricane would make landfall in the Maritimes, but no alarm was raised because the telegraph lines to Halifax were down...


Bernard J. Hibbitts

         Bernard J. Hibbitts currently Associate Dean for Communications & Information Technology and Professor of Law at the University of Pittsburgh School of Law, Hibbitts attended Queen Elizabeth High School in Halifax, and was a member of the QEHS "Reach for the Top" CBC-TV high-school quiz show team that won the Canadian national championship in 1975...

         Last Writes? Re-assessing the Law Review in the Age of Cyberspace  by Bernard J. Hibbitts academic circumstances...and new computer-mediated communications technologies (e.g. on-line services and the Internet) are coming together in a way that may soon lead to the demise of the familiar law review...

         E-Journals, Archives, and Knowledge Networks: A Commentary on Archie Zariski's Defense of Electronic Law Journals  by Bernard J. Hibbitts
...In the 1660s, the first scholarly journals collected the latest letters and printed them for the convenience of a "mass" academic audience; ultimately, the journals evolved into collections of articles which retained little of their initial epistolary nature. If print facilitated the creation of the journal format, why should we presume that the Internet, now beginning to challenge print as the academic medium of choice, will not facilitate the creation of another format of scholarly publishing which is as different from the journal as the journal was from the scholarly letter?...

         Yesterday Once More: Skeptics, Scribes and the Demise of Law Reviews  by Bernard J. Hibbitts
...The printing press and the remarkable publishing opportunities it offered European scholars from the mid-fifteenth century onwards were not universally acclaimed.  In some quarters, fear, shortsightedness and misapprehension prompted outright attacks either on the new technology or on its more adventuresome applications.  More than a few academics believed there was nothing to be gained by handing scholarly publishing over to ordinary entrepreneurs like Johann Gutenberg... One late fifteenth century Dominican friar, Filippo di Strata, actually said that "the world has got along perfectly well for six thousand years without printing, and has no need to change now"...

Her Majesty's Yankees: American Authority in the Supreme Court of Nova Scotia, 1837–1901 This paper, by Bernard J. Hibbitts, examines the use of American case law and legal literature in the Supreme Court of Nova Scotia during the Victorian period, 1837-1901... (Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Society for Legal History, Richmond, VA, October 1996; previously presented to the Atlantic Canadian Legal History Conference, Halifax, Nova Scotia, March 1995.)

In his paper “Her Majesty's Yankees: American Authority in the Supreme Court of Nova Scotia, 1837-1901,” Bernard Hibbitts (University of Pittsburgh School of Law) examined the phenomenon of the relatively frequent appeal to U.S. decisions in the jurisprudence of the Nova Scotia Supreme Court up to 1875, and then its fading through the rest of the century.  In a study which considers every reported case between 1837 and 1901, Hibbitts has considered the factors which in the first period made American law an attractive repository of ideas for the judges of this maritime colony and province.  Some of the reasons have to do with the relative sparsity of English and Nova Scotian authority and text book writings on a range of legal matters, as well as the fact that, particularly in the realm of legislation, inspiration to legislators in Halifax had often come from south of the border, and so it was natural enough to see what courts in states with similar enactments had done.  More intriguing as a reason, because less obvious, was the attachment that Nova Scotian judges from the first half of the 19th century felt to New England culture, including its law.  It is easy, suggested the author, to forget that the foundation of this colony preceded the American Revolution, was partially settled by New Englanders and that its people, including those in the elite, had family and commercial contacts with the northeastern states...
—Source: ASLH (American Society for Legal History) Newsletter, v27 n2, Winter 1997


Grand Banks

18 November 1929
5:02pm NST   4:32pm AST

The worst death toll due to a tsunami in Canada
in the twentieth century

 The Grand Banks earthquake, 18 November 1929
Magnitude 7.2. On land, damage due to earthquake vibrations was limited to Cape Breton Island where chimneys were overthrown or cracked and where some highways were blocked by minor landslides. The earthquake triggered a large submarine slump which ruptured 12 transatlantic cables and generated a tsunami (a large induced sea wave).

 Maritime Provinces and Newfoundland Earthquake, 18 November 1929
Recollections of Capt. Raymond P. "Robbie" Robertson, as narrated to Charles H. Rafuse, Liverpool.

 The November 18, 1929 offshore earthquake, slump and tsunami:
Canada's most tragic historic seismic event

...Two-and-a-half hours after the event, three main pulses of a tsunami arrived along the coast of the Burin Peninsula with amplitudes of 2 to 7m, and a runup that rose to as much as 13m above sealevel. Twenty-seven persons lost their lives, and the fishing capability of the coastal communities was devastated...The tsunami was seen in Cape Breton Island of Nova Scotia, where it did minor damage; it was physically seen as far southwest as Lunenburg, Nova Scotia, and in Bermuda. It was recorded on tide gauges as far south as Charleston in the United States, in the Azores, and in Portugal...The underwater slump that caused the tsunami is believed to have mobilized up to 200 cubic kilometres of material...

 The November 18, 1929 'tidal wave': Canada's most tragic earthquake
...Offshore on the ocean floor part of the Laurentian Slope was shaken loose and began an underwater landslide that went on for hours and flowed 1500 km out onto the floor of the Sohm Abyssal Plain. It was 19 years before scientists recognized the landslide and its great importance as a dominant ocean process. The 1929 'turbidity current' cut twelve trans-Atlantic telegraph cables and repairs stretched well into 1930. The submarine slump spawned a 'tsunami' that travelled at about 500 km/ was seen on tide gauges as far afield as Charleston, South Carolina, in the Azores and on the coast of Portugal...

 A compilation of eastern Canadian historic tsunamis
...The Bay of Fundy area, southwest of Nova Scotia, northern Cape Breton Island and the Gulf of St. Lawrence have all experienced tsunamis...

 Tsunami deposits from the 1929 Grand Banks earthquake...
...On November 18th, 1929, Canada was struck by its worst earthquake-related disaster. The magnitude 7.2 Grand Banks earthquake released an offshore landslide, best known for the turbidity current that it evolved into as it progressed down the continental slope to the abyssal plain, cutting trans-Atlantic telegraph cables along the way...

 Tsunamis in Canada
...In the twentieth century the following is a partial chronological list of tsunamis in Canada.
1.December 6th, 1917: Large tsunami in Halifax Harbor due to an explosion.
2.November 18th, 1929: Large tsunami in Burin Inlet due to an earthquake off the coast of Newfoundland...

 The sequence of events around the epicentre of the 1929 Grand Banks earthquake:
initiation of debris flows and turbidity current...

...a turbidity current with sustained flow over many hours...

 Earthquakes hazards to Canada's coastal communities
...Tsunamis have hit both coasts, with the worst death toll in the 20th Century being from the 1929 Grand Banks tsunami, and the worst death toll ever probably resulting from the 1700 Cascadia earthquake...

 Golden Horse Fountain, 1894, at Milton Corner A designated historic site
The Wayback Machine has archived copies of this webpage:
The Golden Horse Fountain, Yarmouth

Archived: 1997 February 1

Archived: 1997 October 18

Archived: 1998 June 30

Lewis Fountain, 1895, Yarmouth

 Nova Scotia Liquor Permit 1965

 Charles Fenerty Monument

 Reproduction (image) of an invoice for software, November 1983
for Commodore PET computers at the Bridgewater High School
                   Invoice Date  23 11 83

          Code            Title             Price
      1   F0M100   MERL PHYS 1 DISK PET     110.00
      1   F0M190   WAV VIBRTON DISK PET     138.00
      1   F0M390   LAB SIMLATN DISK PET      99.00
      1   F0M559   MATH SCI SRS 12PR PE     207.00
      1   F0M737   ELEC 16 SERIES PET       275.00
      1   F2M190   CM NMN SR PET-64 DSK      66.00
      1   F5M211   CLS MGR 2 PET-64 DSK      95.00

Supreme Court of Canada:
New Brunswick Broadcasting Co. versus Nova Scotia (Speaker of the House of Assembly), [1993] — Arthur Donahoe in his capacity as the Speaker of the Nova Scotia House of Assembly, Appellant, versus Canadian Broadcasting Corporation Respondent, et al...

Constitutional law — Charter of Rights — Application of Charter — Provincial legislatures — Parliamentary privileges — Nova Scotia House of Assembly refusing media access to public gallery to film proceedings with their own cameras — Whether Charter applicable to a legislative assembly — Whether exercise of privileges by members of a legislative assembly subject to Charter review — Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms...  The Edinburgh University Library holds in its collection two original pamphlets advocating settlement in Nova Scotia, An encouragement to colonies, by Sir William Alexander, Earl of Stirling (London, 1624) and Encouragements, for such as shall have intention to bee under-takers in the new plantation of Cape Briton... by Sir Robert Gordon of Lochinvar (Edinburgh, 1625).
Scottish Confederation of University and Research Libraries (SCURL)

 Chronology of Events in the History of Canadian Coins including the conversion to decimal currency... (defines "Canadian" as Upper and Lower Canada only — excludes Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, PEI and Newfoundland)

 Prologues and Epilogues as Performed on English Canadian Stages
...The use of a prologue and epilogue as the proper framework for a dramatic performance became an established tradition in English Canadian theatre beginning with a performance at Annapolis Royal during the winter of 1743-44. This site makes available the texts of the ninety-three surviving English-language prologues and epilogues (twenty-four from Halifax; twenty from Quebec City; ten from Montreal; six from Saint John, N.B.; six from the North West Territories; five from Kingston; four from Fredericton; three from Charlottetown; three from Ottawa; three from Toronto; two from Cornwall; and one from each of Annapolis Royal, Hamilton, London, Regina, Victoria, and Castine, Maine [when it was in the possession of the British], and one written on board a ship bound for British Columbia).


Brief History of Scots Law

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Brief History of Scots Law

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Archived: 2001 June 11

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Archived: 2003 October 04

Archived: 2004 August 12


Assorted Historic Documents
related to the history of Nova Scotia

 Patent Granted by King Henry VII to John Cabot and his Sons, March 1496   The King, to all to whom, etc. Greeting: Be it known and made manifest that we have given and granted as by these presents we give and grant, for us and our heirs, to our well beloved John Cabot, citizen of Venice, and to Lewis, Sebastian and Sancio, sons of the said John, and to the heirs and deputies of them, and of any one of them, full and free authority, faculty and power to sail to all parts, regions and coasts of the eastern, western and northern sea, under our banners, flags and ensigns, with five ships or vessels of whatsoever burden and quality they may be... Witness ourself at Westminster on the fifth day of March [5 March 1496 (old style) — 16 March 1497 in our modern calendar]. By the King himself, etc.

Next Above: Modern English translation

Nova Scotia Monument
John Cabot
Giovanni Caboto
June 1497

“a Venetian citizen
bearing letters patent
from Henry VII”

Nova Scotia: detail of historic plaque commemorating John Cabot, a.k.a. Giovanni Caboto “a Venetian citizen bearing letters patent from Henry VII”
Detail of Nova Scotia historic plaque commemorating
John Cabot (Giovanni Caboto)
“a Venetian citizen bearing letters patent from Henry VII”

Next Below: Contemporary English translation

 Letters Patents of King Henry the Seventh Granted unto Iohn Cabot and his Three Sonnes, Lewis, Sebastian and Sancius for the the Discouerie of New and Unknowen Lands – 1496/97   ...Henry, by the grace of God, king of England and France, and lord of Ireland, to all to whom these presents shall come, Greeting. Be it knowen that we haue giuen and granted, and by these presents do giue and grant for vs and our heiress to our welbeloued Iohn Cabot citizen of Venice, to Lewis, Sebastian, and Santius, sonnes of the sayd Iohn, and to the heires of them, and euery of them, and their deputies, full and free authority, leaue, and power to saile to all parts, countreys, and seas of the East, of the West, and of the North, vnder our banners and ensignes, with fine ships of what burthen or quantity soeuer they be, and as many mariners or men as they will haue with them in the sayd ships, vpon their owne proper costs and charges, to seeke out, discouer, and finde whatsoever isles, countreys, regions or prouinces of the heathen and infidels whatsoeuer they be, and in what part of the world soeuer they be, which before this time haue bene vnknowen to all Christians: we haue granted to them, and also to euery of them, the heires of them, and euery of them, and their deputies, and haue giuen them licence to set vp our banners and ensignes in euery village, towns, castle, isle, or maine land of them newly found. And that the aforesayd Iohn and his sonnes, or their heires and assignee may subdue, occupy and possesse all such townes, cities, castles and isles of them found, which they can subdue, occupy and possesse, as our vassals, and lieutenants, getting vnto vs the rule, title, and jurisdiction of the same villages, townes, castles, & firme land so found.  Yet so that the aforesayd Iohn, and his sonnes and heires, and their deputies, be holden and bounder of all the fruits, profits, gaines, and commodities growing of such navigation, for euery their voyage, as often as they shall arrine at our port of Bristoll (at the which port they shall be bound and holden onely to arrine) all maner of necessary costs and charges by them made, being deducted, to pay vnto vs in wares or money the lift part of the capitall gaine so gotten.  We gluing and granting vnto them and to their heires and deputies, that they shall be free from all paying of customer of all and singular such merchandise as they shall be free from all paying of customes of all and singular they shall bring with them from those places so newlie found... Witnesse our selfe at Westminister, the fift day of March, In the eleventh yeere of our reigne [5 March 1496 (old style) — 16 March 1497 in our modern calendar]...

 Grant of the Province of Maine – 1674   CHARLES the Second by the Grace of God King of England France and Ireland Defender of the Faith &c. To all to whom these presents shall come Greeting: Know yee that wee for divers good causes and consideracons have of our especiall grace certaine knowledge and meer motion given and granted and by these presents for us our heirs and successors do give and graunt unto our dearest brother James Duke of Yorke his heires and assigns All that part of the main land of New England, beginning at a certaine place called or known by the name of St. Croix nexe adjoining to New Scotland in America and from thence extending along the seacoast unto a certaine place called Petuaquine or Pemaquid and so up the river thereof to the furthest head of the same as it windeth northward and extending from the river of Kinebeque and so upwards by the shortest course to the river Canada northwards...

 Explanatory Charter of Massachusetts Bay – 1725   ...Our late Royal Predecessors William and Mary  King and Queen of England &c Did by their letters Patents under their Great Seal of England bearing Date at Westminster the Seventh day of October in the Third year of their Reign [7 October 1691 (old style) — 19 October 1691 in our modern calendar] for themselves their Heires and Successors Vnite Erect and Incorporate the Territories and Colonies commonly called or known by the Names of the Colony of the Massachusetts Bay and Colony of New Plymouth the Province of Main the Territory called Accada or Nova Scotia and all that Tract of land lying between the said Territorys of Nova Scotia and the said Province of Main into One Reall Province by the Name of Our Province of the Massachusetts Bay in New England And Whereas their said late Majesties King William and Queen Mary did by the said recited letters Patents (amongst other things therein contained) for themselves their Heires and Successors Ordain and Grant that there should and might be Convened held and kept by the Governor for the time being upon every last Wednesday in the Month of May every year forever and at all such other times as the Governor of their said Province should think fitt and Appoint a Great and Generall Court or Assembly... In witness whereof Wee have Caused these Our letters to be made Patents Witness William Archbishop of Canterbury and the rest of the Guardians and Justices of the Kingdom at Westminster the Six and twentieth day of August in the twelfth year of Our Reign [26 August 1725 (old style) — 8 September 1725 in our modern calendar].

Reference: The Avalon Project: Colonial Charters,
Grants and Related Documents

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