1 January 1770 to 31 December 1775
Map showing the boundary between Nova Scotia and Massachusetts, 1750s-1770s
Source: Memorial University of Newfoundland Digital Archives (map: 11 megabytes)
Title block of the map above, "by Thomas Kitchin, Geographer"
Thomas Kitchin MostlyMaps.com
Thomas Kitchin Wikipedia (in Italian)
In the 1750s through the 1770s, Massachusetts covered a much larger territory|
than it does now. So did Nova Scotia. During the time of the Seven Years War,
1754 - 1763, and continuing through the American Revolution 1776 - 1783,
Massachusetts and Nova Scotia shared a common boundary. In the map above,
the territory lying on the west side of the boundary is marked "County of York
belonging to the Massachusetts Bay Province." The boundary that now
separates Canada and the United States (New Brunswick and Maine) is located
some distance eastward from the line shown here as the boundary between
New England (Massachusetts) and Nova Scotia. At the time this map was drawn,
Nova Scotia and Massachusetts both were colonies of Great Britain. In the
1740s and the 1750s, the governor of Massachusetts was responsible for the
defence of Nova Scotia.
Colonel John Allan kept the area from
One Hundred and Twentieth
The Wayback Machine
Archived: 2002 June 17
Archived: 2004 August 05
For the Expedition purpos'd one Thousand Men
Including Officers four Arm'd Vessels & Eight
Transports. The Men to be Rais'd at the Eastward
The Fleet to be Made up at Machias & Then
Proceed to Windsor Captivate the Torys Make all
The [---] we can & Then Proceed to halifax
If Possible Destroy the Kings Dockyard & Town
If Thought Proper
It May Be undertaken for five thousand Pound [Law?]
and all That can Be procured from the Torys
or Ten Thousand & the one half of what Is
Taken from them. At Windsor we understand
there is abundance of [Goods? food?] which is the Next
Capital town to Halifax. We are Lately Informed
that There is not to Exceed 200 Brittish Troop
[Note: Against these paragraphs in the Corrected Journals is written the word "Secret."]
Note: In this shares list, "do." means "ditto" — that is, in this context, "5 do." means "5 shares", etc.
|Note: The above Rules for the Regulation of the Navy of the United Colonies have little to do with the history of Nova Scotia, other than as a general indication of the life led by seamen in those days. For example, in deciding on the punishment of a seaman, a Commander acting on his own authority was restricted to a maximum of "twelve lashes upon his bare back with a cat of nine tails" and if a heavier punishment was thought to be required a court martial had to be convened.|
Note about these measures:
Once a year, one ell of canvas for every sixteen men...
The "ell" is an ancient measure of length, used mainly (excusively?) for measuring fabrics. The ell is mentioned explicitly in the Magna Charta, reluctantly signed by King John on 15 June 1215. This document contains sixty-three pledges or clauses; the thirty-fifth is the "measurements" pledge. Translated from the medieval Latin into modern English, this clause reads: "Throughout the Kingdom there shall be standard measures of wine, ale, and corn. Also there shall be a standard width of dyed cloth, russet, and haberject; namely a width of two ells within the selvedges. Weights also are to be standardized similarly."
One of the earliest of all tables of English linear mesures, Richard Arnold's Customs of London, c. 1503, contains the following sequence (in which we have substituted Arabic for Roman numerals):
The length of a barley corn 3 times make an ynche [inch] and 12 ynches make a fote [foot] and 3 fote make a yerde [yard] and 5 qaters [quarters] of the yerde make an elle. 5 fote make a pace. 123 pace make a furlong and 8 furlong make an English myle [mile].
There were several legal definitions of the length of an ell:
The Dutch ell was about 22 inches about 56 cm
The Danish ell was about 25 inches about 64 cm
The Flemish ell was about 27 inches about 69 cm
The Scottish ell was 36 inches (one yard) about 91 cm
The English ell was 45 inches (1¼ yard) about 114 cm
The French ell was about 54 inches about 137 cm
The World of Measurements, by H. Arthur Klein, 736 pages, Simon and Schuster, New York, 1974, SBN 671215655
Weights and Measures of the City of Winchester
Plan for Establishing Uniformity in the Coinage, Weights, and Measures of the United States by Thomas Jefferson
Communicated to the House of Representatives July 13, 1790
First Report (1819) of the Commissioners appointed to Consider Weights and Measures
Report (1816) from the Select Committee on the Original Standards of Weights and Measures
There is no doubt that the "ell" which appears in the U.S. Navy's Rules and Regulations, 1775, is the English ell (45 inches 114 cm).
"lb." was the universal short notation meaning "pound" (weight, not money)
1 lb. = 1 pound = 453 grams
"oz." was the universal short notation meaning "ounce", which could be either a measure of liquid volume or a measure of weight.
"Four oz. cheese" is clearly a weight:
16 ounces = 1 pound
4 oz. = 4 ounces = ¼ pound
4 oz. = 113 grams
A pint was a measure of liquid volume.
2 pints = 1 quart
4 quarts = 1 gallon
1 gallon = 8 pints
The definition of a "pint" depends on the definition of the "gallon," and there were many different gallons in use in the 1770s. The gallon that Congress had in mind when it wrote the 1775 Naval Rules and Regulations was the Wine Gallon of 231 cubic inches capacity, which was made official in an order signed by Queen Elizabeth I in 1601. This ancient standard measure of liquid capacity is found in many historical documents, under various names such as "Queen Anne's wine gallon", "Winchester gallon", and "Winchester measure", all being various names for the same set of standards. [In 2011 the standard liquid measure in the United States still is the U.S. Gallon of 231 cubic inches, which is Queen Anne's wine gallon under a new name.] Queen Elizabeth's Winchester standard bushel and gallon — which were based on those of Henry VII (reigned 1485-1509) which came into widespread use during the rule of Edgar the Peaceful (reigned 959-975) — were made official in 1601 and they remained the British reference standards until 1824 when a new Imperial gallon was instituted in Great Britain and her colonies, leaving the United States with the older Queen Anne's gallon — that is, the divergence of the British gallon from the U.S. gallon occurred in 1824.
Taking Congress' 1775 gallon to be equal to 231 cubic inches 3785.4 mL, we find (rounding the results to the nearest mL):
one pint = 1/8th gallon = 473 millilitres
half pint of rum = 237 millilitres
a pint and half of vinegar = 710 millilitres