History of Nova Scotia
with special attention given to
Transportation and Communications

Chapter 13
1 January 1890   to   31 December 1893

Social and cultural historians — who do not always pay as much attention as they might to technology — could profitably look more closely at the influence on people's lives of technical change ... A grasp of technical detail in some degree is essential if we are to appreciate the wider significance of technical change...
Technical Change and Railway Systems, 1996, by Colin Divall, Professor of Railway Studies in the University of York and Head of the Institute of Railway Studies, and Head of Research at the National Railway Museum, York, England.

1890 February 28

Town of Digby

On this day, Digby was incorporated as a town.
[Halifax Daily News, 28 February 2000]

1890 April 16

Passenger Service Between Halifax and Boston

Canada Atlantic Steamship Line
Regular weekly passenger service between Halifax and Boston

[Kentville Western Chronicle, 16 April 1890]

Banner of The Western Chronicle, Kentville, April 1890
The Western Chronicle was a one-sheet (folded to make four pages) newspaper published twice each week in Kentville. In September 2000, these items were scanned directly from the original newspapers, generously loaned for this purpose by Mr. Ed Coleman of Kentville. The newspapers were in excellent condition, except along the folds.

1890 April 16

Passenger Service Between Annapolis Valley and Boston

Canada Atlantic Steamship Line
Regular twice-a-week passenger service between Saint John and Boston.
Windsor & Annapolis Railway station agents sold tickets for travel
from any W&AR station by train to/from Digby, across the Bay of Fundy
by ferry to/from Saint John, to connect with this service to/from Boston.
In October 1894 the Windsor & Annapolis Railway merged with
the Western Counties Railway to form the Dominion Atlantic Railway.

[Kentville Western Chronicle, 16 April 1890]

1890 May 21

CPR Buys Shares in Telegraph Company

The Canadian Pacific Railway Company (CPR) has purchased a large block of Commercial Cable Company stock. The effect of this will likely be to give us more trustworthy news from Europe than is at present obtainable.
[Kentville Western Chronicle, 21 May 1890]

1890 May 21

Heavy Debt Burden for Roads in Nova Scotia

Province may download cost of road maintenance to the municipalities

The time will come when the people of Nova Scotia will curse the day that sent the Fielding government to rule over them. The people have not yet begun to pay for the bridges and road-money borrowing policy of the Nova Scotia government. They will realize to the full extent what it means when they see the taxgatherer at their doors, where, as matters are going, he will be in a very short time.

When the policy was begun the government did not avow any intention of going into debt to maintain the ordinary services of the country. The legislature was asked for $500,000 for works of a permanent nature and of provincial importance. It was for permanent bridges — over a certain length the structures to be of iron and stone. The explanation was that some of the bridges were very large, and if built of iron and stone (instead of the usual wood) would cost more money than could be spared from one year's grant. It was argued that it would be better to establish substantial iron bridges once for all and take the interest on that debt out of the road and bridge grant, than to construct cheap wooden bridges that would need to be replaced before long.

The $500,000 was voted and spent, then $250,000 more and then a second $250,000. Gradually the restrictions vanished. In the second year permission was obtained to devote the borrowed money to smaller bridges than at first intended, and before the next election came on the fund had been in part appropriated to wooden bridges, to "approaches" and even to repairs.

The expenditure was so hurried that local bridge companies could not begin to keep up with it. A cool $100,000 and over was sent to bridge manufacturers in Ohio, about the same to Montreal and large sums to Ontario, while there were companies in Nova Scotia which could have done the work as cheaply and as well had a little more time been allowed.

Having incurred an interest charge of $40,000 a year, say a third of the road grant, for these bridges the government took a further step in the same dangerous course. Another election was pending, and the government asked for one and then another $300,000 loan. There was not even the pertence that this money was for the construction of permanent works. It was for repairing the common roads of the province, exactly the same work as had always been done out of the ordinary revenue of the country. A part of the money was spent last year, a greater part is to be spent in this election year. It has been and is at the disposal of members (MLAs) supporting the government, and is therefore in great danger of going for political services as well as services on the roads.

When the $600,000 has been spent the interest charge against the roads and bridges will be $64,000 a year, while the repairs on capital account will have included only a small percentage of the roads in the country.

The end of this programme is easily forseen. The government will have capitalized the road grants of the province and having no more money than enough to pay the interest will throw the maintenance of the roads and bridges on the municipalities. There is no other possible course, unless the province imposes direct taxes, which it is not so likely to do as to make the municipalities do it.

There is no odium — but there is some political profit — in spending public money. Therefore the government keeps that in its hands while the money can be got. There is odium — and political loss — in imposing direct taxes. Therefore this unpleasant business will be imposed on the county councils.

The government organs and Mr. Fielding himself explains that the late immediate expenditure was made necessary by the wretched condition in which the roads and bridges were found when the present ministry took office. This condition, it seems, was reached when the province was spending $100,000 to $150,000 a year in this service. It requires no prophet to say that the condition will be much worse as soon as the government stops borrowing money and throws the whole burden on the county council, unless large direct taxes are imposed [---] toll gates are established such as has been done in Ontario and Quebec.

It is not easy to convince children that they cannot eat their cake and have it, but grown people can sometimes understand it even before the eating is over.

[Kentville Western Chronicle, 21 May 1890]
Transcribed from the original in September 2000. [---] indicates an illegible word or two, lost because of the deteriorated condition of the newsprint at the junction of two folds.

1890 May 21

Kentville Hotel

Nova Scotia: Waverley House hotel ad, 1890

[Kentville Western Chronicle, 21 May 1890]

1890 May 21

Modern Dentistry

Nova Scotia: Dentist's ad, Kentville, 1890

[Kentville Western Chronicle, 21 May 1890]

1890 June 4

Fifteen Seconds
London to New York

New York Times, 5 June 1890
New York Times, 5 June 1890

Perhaps some of our readers may remember having read in the newspapers of the result of last year's (4 June 1890) Derby (horse race) having been sent from Epsom (Epsom Downs Racecourse near London, England) to New York in fifteen seconds, and may be interested to know how it was done.  A telegraph wire was laid from near the winning-post on the racecourse to the cable company's office in London, and a telegraph operator was at the instrument (telegraph key) ready to signal the two or three letters previously arranged upon for each horse immediately the winner had passed the post.  When the race began, the cable company (Commercial Cable) suspended work on all the telegraph lines from London to New York and kept operators at the Irish and Nova Scotian Stations ready to transmit the letters representing the winning horse immediately, and without having the message written out in the usual way.  When the race was finished, the operator at Epsom at once sent the letters representing the winner, and before he had finished the third letter, the operator in London had started the first one to Ireland.  The clerk in Ireland immediately on hearing the first signal from London passed it on to Nova Scotia, from whence it was again passed on to New York.  The result being that the name of the winner was actually known in New York before the horses had pulled up after passing the judge.  It seems almost incredible that such information could be transmitted such a great distance in fifteen seconds, but when we get behind the scenes and see exactly how it is accomplished, and see how the labour and time of signalling can be economised, we can easily realise the fact...
Source:—  Project Gutenberg
Scientific American Supplement, No. 795, March 28, 1891

Note:  Electric telegraph technology of the 1890s was not able to carry a message all the way from London to New York along one continuous circuit.  The distance was too great.  The best they could do was to get a message through the cable under the Atlantic Ocean from Ireland to Nova Scotia, and even this was a challenge.  The normal way to transmit a telegram – anything from a couple of words to several hundred words (longer messages such as government documents and newspaper reports of major events would be split into several parts with each part transmitted as a separate telegram) – from London to New York was to key it in Morse code at London while a listening clerk at the eastern end of the transatlantic cable (in this case at Waterville, Ireland) copied it by writing it on paper.  At Waterville, when the message was complete the paper copy was handed to a typist at a special machine with a keyboard similar to a typewriter keyboard (except that there were no lowercase letters because all telegrams used uppercase only). This machine recorded the entire message in the form of holes punched in a paper tape.  When the paper tape was completed, it was taken to a transmitting machine, which read the tape and produced the series of electrical impulses (Morse code) that went directly into the Ireland end of the transatlantic telegraph cable.  The advantage, of using the paper tape to produce the Morse signals for the transatlantic cable, was that the mechanical tape reader could be adjusted much more accurately than the most skilled operator could accomplish, to produce a high-quality signal with the best possible ratio between the duration of the electrical impulses and the duration of the intervals between them.  This made the best possible use of the cable by transmitting Morse code as fast as the cable could handle it but not so fast that characters were lost or garbled in transmission. At any given time, several typists were kept busy preparing tapes to keep the cable working at its maximum capacity.  At Hazel Hill in Nova Scotia (the North American end of the transatlantic cable used for this special event) a listening clerk copied it again on paper.  When this copy was complete, it was handed to another operator who keyed it into the Commercial Cable Company's undersea cable between Hazel Hill and New York.  This need, to keep the transmission distance for each stage within the limits of the available technology, introduced a series of delays that were cumulative because at each stage the telegram message had to be completed before the next stage could begin.  In this special 1890 demonstration (described above) these cumulative delays were reduced to a minimum by four strategies: (1) by stopping all other message traffic along the system, they eliminated the need for the telegram to include a destination name and address (two or three dozen characters) because there would be only one message in the whole system and everyone in the Commercial Cable Company knew in advance exactly where that one message was to go, (2) by reducing the length of the message to only three characters, (3) by eliminating the written copies at London, Waterville and Hazel Hill – including the Waterville punched tape which for this very special event was bypassed by connecting a high-voltage telegraph key directly to the transatlantic cable, and (4) by starting the retransmission at each stage before the incoming message was completed.  Of course, (3) and (4) were made possible by (1) and (2).
      — ICS, 26 June 2009

Morse Code Keying Standard
Dashes are to be three times as long as dots.  Spacing between
parts within a character to be equal in length to a dot.  Spacing
between characters to be equal in length to a dash.  Spacing
between words to be equal to seven dots.

Source: CQ Radio Amateurs' Journal
January 1954, page 31

1890 June 10

First Issue of the Yarmouth Light

The first issue of the weekly (each Thursday) Yarmouth Light newspaper was published this day.

1890 June 21

Bermuda Cable Landed at Halifax

The north end of a new Canada - Bermuda submarine telegraph cable was brought ashore in Halifax. This cable was laid from Halifax to Bermuda in a couple of weeks by steamship Westmeath, with the final splice being made on 7 July. The cable was about 800 miles 1300 kilometres long.

1890 July

Yarmouth Amalgamated Telephone Company

The Yarmouth Amalgamated Telephone Company was organized, with E.F. Clements, Manager; Charles F. Brown, Superintendent; and Jacob Bingay, R.S. Eakins, B.W. Chipman, and C.F. Fraser of Halifax, Directors.

1890 July 12

Halifax - Bermuda Cable Officially Opened for Traffic

On this day, the Governor of Bermuda sent formal telegraph messages over the new submarine cable to Halifax, to Queen Victoria, the Governor-General of Canada, and the President of the United States.

Cable's Decisive Impact — Bermuda's Golden Century

The Halifax Bermuda Submarine Cable Link of 1890 made a decisive impact on Bermuda's tourism and commerce. For the first time in its history, via this communication link, Bermuda was no longer dependent on slow ships to carry messages. The island could communicate almost instantaneously by electric telegraph with the rest of the world's major cities hooked up to Trans-Atlantic cable and overland telegraph systems. More than any other event, this launched Bermuda's Golden Century in economic development and paved the way for Bermuda's unique image in tourism, banking development, legal services, International Business and the latter's support services today (2001).

1890 September 22

First Electric Incandescent Streetlights

The first electric incandescent street lights in Nova Scotia were turned on in Windsor on the evening of 22 September 1890.  This was an initial demonstration, for the public, with 27 lights installed along the streets.  They were supplied with direct current generated by a dynamo driven by a reciprocating steam engine, located in the new generating station at the corner of Victoria and Stannus Streets.  The system went into regular operation a few weeks later, with 55 street lights connected.  The system was built by the Windsor Electric Light & Power Company Limited, under a contract with the Town of Windsor that specified the lights were to be "kept burning until 1:30 o'clock, a.m., for at least 20 nights in each lunar month".

Note:  Electric arc lights had been in use for street lighting in Nova Scotia for several years before 1890, but this was the first use of incandescent electric lights for streets.  By the 1920s incandescent lamps had become the standard for street lighting.

1890 October 18

Official Opening of the ICR Main Line to Sydney

At midnight on this day, the five-car special train of Governor-General Lord Stanley left Halifax, and arrived at Mulgrave in the early morning. The five cars were ferried across the Strait of Canso, and reassembled into a train at Point Tupper, with the Intercolonial Railway Company's locomotive #166 in front. At Iona, Lord Stanley (best remembered as the donor of hockey's Stanley Cup) formally declared the railway to Sydney open for traffic, and then himself drove the train across the Grand Narrows bridge. The official train reached Sydney at 7:10pm, touching off celebrations that lasted well into the night.
[Excerpted from Tracks Across The Landscape, The S&L Commemorative History, (book) by Brian Campbell, University College of Cape Breton Press, 1995.]

Frederick Arthur Stanley, 1st Baron Stanley
Governor general, 1888-1893

The Earl of Derby (Lord Stanley of Preston)
Governor general, 1888-1893

1890 November 24

Cape Breton Railway Opened

On this day, the Cape Breton Railway was officially opened for regular traffic.
[National Post, 24 November 2000]

The Cape Breton Railway ran from St. Peters, Richmond County, to its junction with the main line track of the Intercolonial Railway at Point Tupper, a distance of 31.0 miles 49.9 km.

History of Railway Companies in Nova Scotia

1890 December 22

CVR Begins Operation

On this day, the Cornwallis Valley Railway began operating regular trains between Kentville and Kingsport in Kings County, Nova Scotia.
[Halifax Daily News, 22 December 1999]

History of the Cornwallis Valley Railway


Travels in Nova Scotia
by Charles G.D. Roberts

In 1891, a 378-page book, published by D. Appleton, New York, appeared in bookstores in Canada. The title — very long by today's standards — was

The Canadian Guide Book: The Tourist's and Sportsman's Guide to Eastern Canada and Newfoundland : including full descriptions of routes, cities, points of interest, summer resorts, fishing places, etc. in eastern Ontario, the Muskoka district, the St. Lawrence region, the Lake St. John country, the Maritime provinces, Prince Edward Island, and Newfoundland : with an appendix giving fish and game laws, and official lists of trout and salmon rivers and their lessees.

The Canadian Guide Book, by Charles G.D. Roberts, 1891
Source: http://www.canadiana.org/cgi-bin/ECO/mtq?id=73f2010914&display=56228+0011

It was written by Charles G.D. Roberts, Professor of English Literature at King's College, Windsor, Nova Scotia. The items below were excerpted from the Nova Scotia section of Prof. Roberts' book. The whole book is now (2002) available on the Internet at
Early Canadiana Online   http://www.canadiana.org/

Railway Fares Westward from Halifax

       Halifax to Windsor     $1.38
       Halifax to Wolfville   $1.95
       Halifax to Kentville   $2.15
       Halifax to Annapolis   $3.80
       Halifax to Yarmouth    $6.50
       Halifax to St. John    $5.80   (via Annapolis, by steamship)
       Halifax to Boston      $8.20   (via Yarmouth, by steamship)
       Halifax to Bridgewater $4.75
          (via Middleton and the Nova Scotia Central Rwy.)

These fares are believed to be one-way — the source does not say.
Nova Scotia: Halifax to Yarmouth by Rail, by Charles G.D. Roberts, 1891
from pages 247-248 of "The Canadian Guide Book..." by Charles G.D. Roberts, 1891
Source: Early Canadiana Online http://www.canadiana.org/
page 247   http://www.canadiana.org/cgi-bin/ECO/mtq?id=73f2010914&display=56228+0335
page 248   http://www.canadiana.org/cgi-bin/ECO/mtq?id=73f2010914&display=56228+0336

Windsor: Third Largest Ship-Owning Port in Canada

Windsor is a wealthy little town 46 miles 74 km from Halifax, with a population, according to the census of 1881, of 3,019, but now estimated at something over 4,000. Its shipping business is enormous, and it ranks as the third largest ship-owning port in Canada. It is largely interested in the South American trade, and ships great quantities of white and blue plaster (gypsum) from the Wentworth and other quarries to Boston, New York and Philadelphia.
Windsor: Third Largest Ship-Owning Port in Canada, 1891
from page 248 of "The Canadian Guide Book..." by Charles G.D. Roberts, 1891
Source: Early Canadiana Online http://www.canadiana.org/
page 248   http://www.canadiana.org/cgi-bin/ECO/mtq?id=73f2010914&display=56228+0336

Windsor to Parrsboro and St. John by Steamship

The steamships of the St. John and Minas Basin Line run between Windsor and St. John, calling at Hantsport, Kingsport, Parrsboro and Spencer's Island. The times of departure and arrival change daily with the tide, and are announced monthly in the Halifax, Windsor, and St. John newspapers. The fare from Windsor to St. John is $2.75; return $4.00, including meals. The fare from Windsor to Parrsboro is $1.50, return $3.00.
Windsor to Parrsboro and St. John by Steamship, 1891
from page 250 of "The Canadian Guide Book..." by Charles G.D. Roberts, 1891
Source: Early Canadiana Online http://www.canadiana.org/
page 250   http://www.canadiana.org/cgi-bin/ECO/mtq?id=73f2010914&display=56228+0338

Middleton: Rich Copper and Iron Mines

Middleton is 102 miles 164 km from Halifax. This is a town growing rapidly in importance and population. It has rich copper and iron mines in its vicinity, and is the northwestern terminus of the Nova Scotia Central railway ... The trains of the Nova Scotia Central run through fine and varied scenery. They leave Middleton at 2:30pm, and reach Springfield at 3:57, New Germany at 4:30, Bridgewater at 5:35, and Lunenburg at 6:30.
Middleton, 1891
from page 258 of "The Canadian Guide Book..." by Charles G.D. Roberts, 1891
Source: Early Canadiana Online http://www.canadiana.org/
page 258   http://www.canadiana.org/cgi-bin/ECO/mtq?id=73f2010914&display=56228+0350


New Glasgow, Iron, Coal and Railway Company

The New Glasgow, Iron, Coal and Railway Company issued $500,000 of preferred first preference shares, and in April 1891, it was announced that four-fifths of the issue had been taken up.  The whole issue of ordinary shares of $500,000, were held by the founders of the Company.  The directors were: John F. Stairs, M.P. , President; Graham Fraser, Vice-President; the former from Halifax, the latter from New Glasgow; William Jacks, Glasgow, Scotland; J. Walter Allison, Halifax; and Harvey Graham, New Glasgow.
Source: History of Eureka and Ferrona, Pictou County

1891 February 21

129 Miners Killed at Springhill

On this day, an explosion in a coal mine at Springhill, Cumberland County, killed 129 miners.

Volunteers entered the pits hourly, and it was only during Sunday forenoon, the day after the disaster, that the appalling extent of the direful calamity became known. Including two, who died from injuries, the dead numbered 123, and with two, who have died since, the number of killed is 125. A complete list of the killed, together with those who died from injuries (marked *), compiled from official sources, giving the ages, is as follows:
  1. Anderson, Arthur   17
  2. Armishaw, Jesse, Jr.   21
  3. Armishaw, Herber   18
  4. Boyd, John   27
  5. Bentliffe, John   39
  6. Brown, William   19
  7. Bunt, Andrew   19
  8. Bunt, Alexander   15
  9. Bond, George   18
  10. Birchell, William   22
  11. Budd, Alonzo   27
  12. Bainbridge, Ernest   20
  13. Chandler, Ernest   16
  14. Campbell, Donald   47
  15. Campbell, Alexander   30
  16. Campbell, John D.   23
  17. Carter, Reid   50
  18. Carter, Clarence   23
  19. Carter Willard   13
  20. Crawford, John   20
  21. Casey, Jude   21
  22. Carmichael, Andrew   32
  23. Carmichael, William   21
  24. Carmichael, John   36
  25. Clark, Robert   37
  26. Conway, James   24
  27. Connerton, John   30
  28. Carrigan, William   27
  29. Collins, Matthew   35
  30. Dawson, Richard   45
  31. Dawson, Samuel   20
  32. Dillon, Fred   17
  33. Dupee, Joseph   12
  34. Dunn, John   13
  35. Davis, Thomas   15
  36. Ernest, Roger   15
  37. Furbow, Samuel   17
  38. Francis, John   35
  39. Fife, Hiram   37
  40. Fletcher, Thomas   35
  41. Fincilayson, Daniel   38
  42. Guthro, Lazarus   56
  43. Gallagher, Peter   35
  44. Gillis, John   24
  45. Hallet, Thomas   25
  46. Hannigar, Peter   25
  47. Hayden, John   23
  48. Hunter, John   33
  49. Hyde, William   35
  50. Johnson, James   16
  51. Kent, William   40
  52. Legere, Samuel   23
  53. Letcher, Frank   22
  54. Livingston, Henry   24
  55. Lockhart, Dan   24
  56. Maiden, Wm. J.   22
  57. Martin, George   14
  58. Morrison, Thomas   18
  59. Muckle, Samuel   21
  60. Morris, James   50
  61. Murphy, Richard   21
  62. Murphy, Jeremiah   37
  63. Miller, James, Sr.   50
  64. Mitchell, John   38
  65. Mott, Ernest   26
  66. McKinnon, Allan   35
  67. McKinnon, Angus 2nd   51
  68. McKinnon, John 1st   26
  69. McKinnon, Laughlin   23
  70. McEachran, John D.   22
  71. McKay, A. J.   25
  72. McKay, Donald 2nd   50
  73. McGilvery, William 2nd   25
  74. McKee, William   45
  75. McDonald, John J.   42
  76. McDonald, Rory B.   40
  77. McFadden, Robert   28
  78. McPhee, Neil   28
  79. McNutt, Charles   24
  80. McLeod, Neil   23
  81. McLeod, Henry   18
  82. McLeod, Rory   32
  83. McLeod, Norman   29
  84. McNeil, John F.   32
  85. McNeil, Rod. C.   25
  86. *McNeil, Joshua   21
  87. *McNeil, Neil S.   23
  88. McVey, David   16
  89. McVey, James   14
  90. Nash, Charles   27
  91. *Nash, Henry   24
  92. Nairn, John   50
  93. Nairn, James   20
  94. Nairn, Malcolm   21
  95. Noiles, Roger   33
  96. Nicholson, Malcolm   42
  97. Overs, James   25
  98. Pitt, Joseph   20
  99. Pequinot, James   15
  100. Ryan, Bruce   14
  101. Ross, Philip   14
  102. Ross, Murdoch   16
  103. Reid, Peter   13
  104. Ripley, Clifford   21
  105. Rogers, Thomas   21
  106. Robbins, James   31
  107. Rushton, Stephen   31
  108. Robinson, Hugh   39
  109. Swift, Henry   42
  110. Sherlock, Robert A.   45
  111. Shipley, Archibald   35
  112. Sharples, James   36
  113. Simmonds, Howard   17
  114. Smith, Edward   14
  115. Taylor, Doug1as   16
  116. Turner, William H.   64
  117. Tatterstal, Joseph   45
  118. Vance, Alexander   35
  119. Watt, David   17
  120. Wood, George   21
  121. Wry, Henry   18
  122. Wry, Edgar   22
  123. White, Philip B.   30
  124. Williams, John   40
  125. Wilson, Thomas   40
*Died from injuries

Source: The Great Colliery Explosion 21 February 1891

The Wayback Machine has archived copies of this document:
The Great Colliery Explosion at Springhill, 1891

Archived: 2001 February 19

Archived: 2001 July 14

1891 May 19

Incorporation of the Torbrook Iron Company Limited

Passed 19 May 1891: Hon. Alexander Macfarlane of Wallace, J. Medley Townshend of Amherst, Charles Annand and Charles E. Stayner of Halifax, and Robert G. Leckie of Londonderry, general manager of the Londonderry Iron Company, their associates, successors, and assigns, are hereby constituted a body corporate by the name of the Torbrook Iron Company... The capital stock of the said company shall be $100,000, divided into ten thousand shares of ten dollars each... The company was incorporated to search for and develop iron and coal deposits within Nova Scotia.

Act to Incorporate the Torbrook Iron Company Limited
Nova Scotia Archives and Records Management

A History of Mining Activity in Nova Scotia, 1720-1992
Nova Scotia Archives and Records Management

1891 July 27

Completion of the Missing Link

On this day, the first through train ran between Digby and Annapolis, over the last section of the Halifax - Yarmouth railway to be completed. This final length of track had become popularly known as the Missing Link; it had been delayed several times because of the exceptional expense of the two large bridges required. There now was a continuous railway track between Sydney and Yarmouth. This track was owned and operated by various companies, but the daily passenger trains ran on connecting schedules.

98 years and 7 months

There was daily — six days a week and sometimes seven —
railway passenger service all the way between Sydney
and Yarmouth from 27 July 1891 until 15 January 1990.

You could not travel all the way from/to Sydney
to/from Yarmouth in a single day, but each day you could
catch a passenger train at Yarmouth or Sydney (or other
stations along the way) which would get you to Sydney
or Yarmouth (or other stations along the way) the next day
by reliable connecting trains. From 1891 into the 1950s,
this service was by far the best — most comfortable,
most reliable, lowest cost — way to travel in Nova Scotia.

There were two east-west routes in western Nova Scotia, between
Truro and Yarmouth: one via the Dominion Atlantic Railway
through the Annapolis Valley, and the other via the
Halifax & South Western Railway along the South Shore.
Here's a sample of the passenger service in 1949, by the Annapolis Valley route:
1949 CNR-DAR Connecting Passenger Train Schedule
  Sydney - Antigonish - Truro - Kennetcook - Windsor - Kentville - Yarmouth



Barquentine Bahama

The barquentine Bahama was launched at Canning in 1892 by John E. Bigelow. Her original owners were Alfred Potter, Stephen Sheffield, Emerson and Samuel Bigelow, Charles Borden, Judson Melvin, George Coffin, Joseph Tooker, and Edward Beckwith, all of Canning, and Robert and Clement Dickey of Canard. The vessel flirted with disaster all her life. She was wrecked on the Nova Scotia coast in 1902, and salved. In 1903 she went ashore at Brunswick, Georgia. Again salved, she was renamed Rescue. In 1913 she was wrecked off Cuba and this was her end. During her career she was rigged as a barquentine (a vessel having the foremast square rigged, and the main and mizzen masts fore-and-aft rigged), topsail schooner (fore-and-aft rigged), and a tern (three-masted schooner).
[Adapted from The Canning Gazette, Issue #127, July 1998, historical information supplied by Stanley Spicer.]

1892 July 1

East River Railway begins operation

In June, the Grand Opening of the East River Railroad was announced to take place on July 1, 1892. There was also to be a big Picnic in connection with it. Four round trips would be run from Ferrona Junction to Black Rock, leaving the Junction at 9 a.m.; 1:30 p.m.; 3:30 p.m.; and at 8:30 p.m.  Return fares from Ferrona Junction or Ferrona to Springville, Bridgeville or Charcoal would be 25 cents.  The number of excursionists proved to be much larger than was anticipated.  Joseph S. McKay, of Stellarton, was the Conductor on the train between Ferrona Junction and Black Rock.  Four trips, daily, excluding Sundays, would continue to be run.
Source: History of Eureka and Ferrona, Pictou County

The East River Railway ran along the valley of the East Branch of East River, from Ferrona Junction through Eureka, Springville, Bridgeville and Black Rock to Sunnybrae, in Pictou County.  The trains hauled iron ore from four mines to a smelter located at mile one near Eureka.  Known as the Sunny Brae Subdivision, the railway was acquired by the Intercolonial Railway (ICR) in 1911.  In 1923 the Canadian National Railway (CNR) took over the management and operation of the Intercolonial Railway.

Sunnybrae Subdivision

(above) East River Railway, a.k.a. the Sunnybrae Subdivision

(below) Ferrona Junction, where the Sunnybrae Subdivision connects with the ICR main line

Ferrona Junction, Pictou County

1892 July 12

Death of C.W. Field

Cyrus West Field died on this day, in New York City. He was one of the founding shareholders of the New York, Newfoundland, and London Telegraph Company, and was deeply involved in the laying of the first three transatlantic submarine (underwater) telegraph cables.
Cyrus W. Field
Cyrus W. Field

Cyrus West Field Wikipedia
Several good photographs of C.W. Field

Cyrus W. Field — Paper Merchant

Atlantic Cables of 1857-58, 1865-66

New York, Newfoundland, and London Telegraph Company

1892 August 6

First Electric Streetcar Line

The first electric streetcar line in the Maritime Provinces, and the third in Canada, began regular operation in the evening of 6 August 1892, in Yarmouth. (The first electric streetcar line in Montreal, the Belt Line, began regular operation on 22 September 1892.) It was built and operated by the Yarmouth Street Railway Company.

The route followed Main Street from the southern town limit to the northern town limit, about three miles five kilometres. It was a single-track line, except for a short double-track section past the car barn at King Street. From April 15th to November 15th, cars ran every 15 minutes, beginning from the south end at 6:45am and continuing until 10:45pm. From November 15th to April 15th they ran every 20 minutes, beginning at the south end at 6:40am and continuing until 10:40pm. The fare was five cents cash, or four cents if you bought a book of 25 tickets for $1.

Several years later, the track was extended in a northward direction, about one mile, along the shore of Lake Milo to Murphy's Bridge, near Lakeside Park; an open car operated along this line during the summer, connecting with the regular Main Street cars near the Pumping Station at the northern town limit. The Yarmouth streetcars continued running until operations ceased in October 1928.

Yarmouth Street Railway Company


Nova Scotia Newspapers

61 Newspapers published regularly in Nova Scotia in 1893

61 newspapers published in Nova Scotia in 1893
Source: Belcher's Farmer's Almanack, 1893, page 55
Belcher's Almanack for 1893


First Steel-Hull Vessel Launched

The first vessel with a steel hull, to be launched in Nova Scotia, was the SS Mulgrave, built at New Glasgow by the J.W. Carmichael Company Limited to the order of the Dominion Government for the Intercolonial Railway (ICR) ferry service across Canso Strait. SS Mulgrave was 485 tons, 115 feet 35 metres long; she carried passengers, and towed a barge carrying railway cars.

James William Carmichael
Acadia Iron Foundry
Nova Scotia Steel Company

People prominent in Nova Scotia hstory


Western Union Telegraph Company
82 offices in Nova Scotia

Western Union Telegraph ad, 1893

Proprietors and Lessees of all the Telegraph Lines in the United States and the Maritime Provinces, from Port Hood, Nova Scotia, to San Francisco, and connecting via Atlantic Cable and Northern line with all the Telegraphs in the world.
Head Office: 145 Broadway, New York
82 Western Union Telegraph offices in Nova Scotia in 1893
Source: Belcher's Farmer's Almanack, 1893, page 28

Note: The 82 Nova Scotia telegraph offices listed in this advertisement were operated by the Western Union Telegraph Company. Anyone who wanted to send a telegram could go to any of these Western Union offices, or to any railway station in Nova Scotia and give the telegram to the railway telegrapher. For example, from 1905 to the late 1940s there were two telegraph offices in Chester, the Western Union office in downtown Chester, and the railway telegraph office at the H&SW Railway station on North Street.


Railway Stations in Nova Scotia

Intercolonial Railway
Main Line
Halifax - Truro - Amherst

note 1
Station miles
note 2
0 Halifax 0.0 0.0
4 Rockingham 4.1 6.6
9 Bedford 8.7 14.0
11 Rocky Lake 11.4 18.4
13 Windsor Junction 13.9 22.4
21 Wellington 21.3 34.3
23 Grand Lake 23.1 37.2
24 Oakfield 24.3 39.1
28 Enfield 27.7 44.6
30 Elmsdale 30.1 48.5
36 Milford 36.4 58.6
40 Shubenacadie 40.1 64.6
45 Stewiacke 44.6 71.8
49 Alton 49.1 79.1
54 Brookfield 53.8 86.6
57 Johnston (Hilden) 57.4 92.4
62 Truro 61.8 99.5
70 Belmont 69.3 111.6
73 Debert 72.9 117.4
75 East Mines 75.2 121.1
79 Londonderry 78.8 126.9
87 Folleigh Lake 86.3 138.9
91 Wentworth 90.9 146.3
96 Westchester 95.4 153.6
97 Greenville 96.8 155.8
104 Thomson 104.1 167.6
108 Oxford Junction 108.2 174.2
111 River Philip 110.4 177.7
115 Salt Springs 114.4 184.2
121 Springhill Junction 120.9 194.6
127 Athol 126.4 203.5
130 Maccan 130.0 209.3
134 Nappan 133.5 214.9
138 Amherst 138.0 222.2
144 Aulac, N.B. 144 232
147 Sackville, N.B. 148 238
187 Moncton, N.B. 186 299
846 Montreal, P.Q. 837 1348
Note 1:   Belcher's Almanack, 1893, (page 161)
Note 2:   Altitudes in the Dominion of Canada, 1915
(pages 283-284) by James White, F.R.S.C., F.R.G.S.
Deputy Head of the Commission of Conservation

Intercolonial Railway
New Glasgow Branch line
Truro - New Glasgow

note 1
Station miles
note 2
0 Truro 0.0 0.0
5 Valley 4.4 7.1
9 Union 8.5 13.7
13 Riversdale 12.6 20.3
21 West River 20.5 33.0
26 Lansdowne 25.3 40.7
29 Glengarry 28.2 45.4
35 Hopewell 34.7 55.9
41 Stellarton 40.5 65.2
43 New Glasgow 42.4 68.3
Note 1:   Belcher's Almanack, 1893, (page 162)
Note 2:   Altitudes in the Dominion of Canada, 1915
(page 289) by James White, F.R.S.C., F.R.G.S.
Deputy Head of the Commission of Conservation

Intercolonial Railway
Pictou Town Branch
Stellarton - Westville - Pictou

note 1
Station miles
note 2
0 Stellarton 0.0 0.0
3 Westville 3.0 4.8
8 Sylvester 7.5 12.1
11 Lochbroom 10.5 16.9
14 Pictou 13.5 21.7
Note 1:   Belcher's Almanack, 1893, (page 162)
Note 2:   Altitudes in the Dominion of Canada, 1915
(page 291) by James White, F.R.S.C., F.R.G.S.
Deputy Head of the Commission of Conservation
Note 3: The Pictou Town Branch of the ICR ran between Stellarton and the Town of Pictou. The Pictou Landing Branch of the ICR ran from Trenton to Pictou Landing in Pictou County.

Intercolonial Railway
Port Mulgrave Branch
New Glasgow - Mulgrave

note 1
Station miles
note 2
0 New Glasgow 0.0 0.0
6 Glenfalloch
5.8 9.4
10 Merigomish
(West Merigomish)
10.1 16.3
13 French River
13.5 21.8
18 Piedmont 18.3 29.5
22 Avondale 22.1 35.6
24 Barney's River 24.1 38.8
27 Marshy Hope 28.0 45.1
32 James River 31.9 51.3
36 Brierly Brook 36.0 57.9
41 Antigonish 41.4 66.6
46 South River 46.5 74.8
48 Taylor's Road 49.3 79.4
51 Pomquet 51.3 82.5
53 Heatherton 53.5 86.2
56 Bayfield Road 55.9 89.9
57 Afton 57.3 92.3
61 Tracadie 61.4 98.9
62 Girroirs
62.6 100.8
66 Little Tracadie
66.1 106.4
70 Harbor au Bouche 70.1 112.9
74 Cape Porcupine 74.3 119.7
79 Pirate Harbor - -
80 Mulgrave 79.7 128.4
Note 1:   Belcher's Almanack, 1893, (page 162)
Note 2:   Altitudes in the Dominion of Canada, 1915
(page 289) by James White, F.R.S.C., F.R.G.S.
Deputy Head of the Commission of Conservation
Note 3:   In May 1955 the track between Linwood and Mulgrave suddenly lost almost all of its traffic, because all railway traffic to and from Cape Breton Island was diverted to the newly-completed Canso Causeway. The remainder of the "Port Mulgrave Branch" remained in use as the main line between Truro and Sydney, and in 2012 — owned now by the Cape Breton and Central Nova Scotia Railway — continues to carry trains daily.

Intercolonial Railway
Cape Breton Branch
Point Tupper - Iona - Sydney

note 1
Station miles
note 2
0 Point Tupper 0.0 0.0
4 Mines Road 4.4 7.1
7 McIntyres Lake 7.3 11.8
14 West Bay Road 13.9 22.4
21 River Denys 21.2 34.1
29 Orangedale 29.1 46.9
40 McKinnon's Harbor 39.9 64.2
45 Iona 45.4 73.1
46 Grand Narrows 46.2 74.4
55 Shenacadie 54.8 88.2
64 Boisdale 63.5 102.2
75 George's River 74.5 119.9
79 North Sydney Junction 78.2 125.9
81 Leitches Creek 80.8 130.1
91 Sydney 91.1 146.7
Note 1:   Belcher's Almanack, 1893, (page 162)
Note 2:   Altitudes in the Dominion of Canada, 1915
(pages 289, 290) by James White, F.R.S.C., F.R.G.S.
Deputy Head of the Commission of Conservation
Note 3:   In the 1880s and 1890s the ICR main line track between Point Tupper and Sydney was located along the same route it occupies in 2001 (now as the main line of the Cape Breton & Central Nova Scotia Railway), except between Georges River and Leitches Creek, which was relocated (about 1920) to eliminate the steep grades in this section of the original track. This relocation altered the track distances and station locations (mileages) beyond Georges River.

Intercolonial Railway
The Short Line
Pictou - Tatamagouche - Oxford

note 1
Station miles
note 2
0 Pictou 0.0 0.0
2 Brown's Point 1.6 2.6
4 Scotch Hill
(Lyons Brook)
4.3 6.9
9 Scotsburn 8.8 14.2
14 Meadowville 13.9 22.3
22 River John 21.9 35.2
27 Denmark 27.4 44.0
34 Tatamagouche 34.0 54.8
46 Wallace 46.1 74.2
54 Pugwash Junction 53.7 86.4
58 Conn's Mills 58.0 93.4
66 Oxford 66.5 107.0
69 Oxford Junction 69.4 111.7
Note 1:   Belcher's Almanack, 1893, (page 162)
Note 2:   Altitudes in the Dominion of Canada, 1915
(page 291) by James White, F.R.S.C., F.R.G.S.
Deputy Head of the Commission of Conservation
Note 3:   This railway line, between Oxford Junction in Cumberland County and Brown's Point in Pictou County, was known as the "Short Line" from the earliest days of construction in the late 1880s until the last train ran in October 1994. The reason for this name was simple: the line was promoted and surveyed, and the initial construction contracts were let, first by the Great European & North American Short Line Railway Company, and later on by the Montreal & European Short Line Railway Company.

Joggins Railway
Joggins Coal & Railway Co.
Maccan - Joggins

note 1
Station miles
note 2
- Maccan 0.0 0.0
- River Hebert 7.2 11.6
- Joggin Mines
11.6 18.7
Note 1:   Belcher's Almanack, 1893, (page 163)
For this line, the Alamanack gives the names of
the stations but not the locations (mileages).
Note 2:   Altitudes in the Dominion of Canada, 1915
(page 304) by James White, F.R.S.C., F.R.G.S.
Deputy Head of the Commission of Conservation
Note 3:   In 1915 this railway was owned and operated by the Maritime Coal, Railway and Power Company.

Spring Hill & Parrsboro


note 1
Station miles
note 2
0 Spring Hill Junction 0.0 0.0
5 Spring Hill Mines
4.0 6.4
13 Maccan River
(East Southampton)
12.3 19.8
16 Southampton 15.2 24.5
19 West Brook 18.0 29.0
22 Halfway Lake
20.9 33.6
28 Lakeland 24.6 39.6
32 Parrsborough 30.2 48.6
Note 1:   Belcher's Almanack, 1893, (page 163)
Note 2:   Altitudes in the Dominion of Canada, 1915
(page 305) by James White, F.R.S.C., F.R.G.S.
Deputy Head of the Commission of Conservation
Note 3:   The 1893 Almanack uses the spelling "Parrsborough" both for the town and the railway, but the railway spelling as specified in the 1872 Act of Incorporation was the "Spring Hill & Parrsboro Coal & Railway Co. Ltd." "Altitudes in the Dominion of Canada", published in 1915, uses the spelling "Parrsboro" for the town, and the railway was then the Cumberland Railway and Coal Company.

Windsor & Annapolis


note 1
Station miles
note 2
0 Halifax (notes 3, 4) 0.0 0.0
4 Rockingham (note 3) 4.1 6.6
9 Bedford (note 3) 8.7 14.0
12 Rocky Lake (note 3) 11.4 18.4
14 Windsor Junction 13.9 22.4
17 Beaver Bank 16.8 27.0
27 Mount Uniacke 26.8 43.1
34 Stillwater 33.4 53.8
37 Ellershouse 36.8 59.2
40 Newport 39.8 64.1
43 Three Mile Plains 42.7 68.7
46 Windsor 45.6 73.4
48 Falmouth 46.9 75.5
51 Mount Denson - -
53 Hantsport 52.5 84.5
58 Avonport 57.0 91.8
60 Horton Landing 59.4 95.6
61 Grand Pre 60.6 97.6
64 Wolfville 63.6 102.4
66 Port Williams 65.4 105.3
71 Kentville 70.6 113.7
76 Coldbrook 75.0 120.8
78 Cambridge 77.6 124.9
80 Waterville 79.8 128.5
83 Berwick 82.7 133.1
88 Aylesford 88.0 141.7
90 Auburn 89.6 144.3
95 Kingston 96.1 154.7
98 Wilmot 97.6 157.1
102 Middleton 101.2 162.9
108 Lawrencetown 107.6 173.2
111 Paradise 110.4 177.7
116 Bridgetown 115.2 185.5
120 Tupperville - -
124 Round Hill 122.9 197.9
130 Annapolis Royal 129.1 207.9
Note 1:   Belcher's Almanack, 1893, (page 164)
Note 2:   Altitudes in the Dominion of Canada, 1915
(pages 19, 283) by James White, F.R.S.C., F.R.G.S.
Deputy Head of the Commission of Conservation
Note 3:   The W&AR did not own any track east of Windsor.  Between Windsor and Windsor Junction the W&AR operated trains over track — the notorious "Windsor Branch" — owned by the ICR, but operated and maintained under a long-term lease by the W&AR.  Between Windsor Junction and Halifax, the W&AR operated trains over track owned, operated and maintained by the ICR.  Published information about station locations and train schedules showed all stations through to the end of the line at Halifax station, regardless of what company owned which stations or tracks.  (Passengers cared little about the legal details of who owned what track; they were interested in getting from one place to another.)  Belcher's 1893 Almanack showed distances through the Annapolis Valley measured from the Halifax station at North Street, where W&AR passenger trains began their westbound and ended their eastbound trips.
Note 4:   In the 1893 Almanack, station locations along the Windsor & Annapolis Railway were reported as measured beginning from Halifax station, in northern Halifax on the east side of Barrington Street, immediately north of North Street (about where, in 2012, the west Cable Anchor Block of the Angus L. Macdonald Bridge is located).  The Halifax station building (now usually known as Old North Station) was accidentally demolished at 9:04am on 6 December 1917 and was not rebuilt; it was replaced by a new railway station in southern Halifax, on the east side of Hollis Street at South Street (which in 2012 remains in operation as Halifax's railway station.)

Cornwallis Valley Railway
Kingsport - Canning - Kentville

note 1
Station miles
note 2
- Kentville 0.0 0.0
- Steam Mill Village 2.9 4.7
- Centreville 4.8 7.7
- Canard
(Sheffield Mills)
7.3 11.8
- Canning 10.8 17.4
- Kingsport 13.8 22.2
Note 1:   Belcher's Almanack, 1893, (page 164)
For this line, the Alamanack gives the names of
the stations but not the locations (mileages).
Note 2:   Altitudes in the Dominion of Canada, 1915
(page 20) by James White, F.R.S.C., F.R.G.S.
Deputy Head of the Commission of Conservation

Nova Scotia Central Railway
Lunenburg - Bridgewater - Middleton

note 1
Station miles
note 2
0 Lunenburg 0.0 0.0
7 Mahone Bay (note 3) 6.5 10.5
9 Blockhouse 8.2 13.2
18 Bridgewater 17.9 28.8
25 Northfield 25.2 40.6
29 Riversdale 27.8 44.8
34 New Germany 33.3 53.6
41 Cherryfield 40.0 64.4
45 Springfield 44.0 70.8
52 Dalhousie 50.8 81.8
62 Albany 61.6 99.2
64 Alpena 63.6 102.4
68 Cleveland - -
70 Nictaux 68.9 110.9
74 Middleton 73.9 119.0
Note 1:   Belcher's Almanack, 1893, (page 164)
Note 2:   Altitudes in the Dominion of Canada, 1915
(page 203) by James White, F.R.S.C., F.R.G.S.
Deputy Head of the Commission of Conservation
Note 3: In 1893 the NSCR Mahone Bay station was located on Station Street, about one km from the better-known H&SWR station built about 1904.

Western Counties Railway
Annapolis - Digby - Yarmouth

note 1
Station miles
note 2
0 Annapolis Royal 0.0 0.0
4 Potters - -
8 Clementsport 7.7 12.4
11 Deep Brook - -
14 Bear River 13.9 22.4
17 Smith's Cove 17.3 27.9
20 Digby 20.4 32.8
24 Jordan Town 24.6 39.6
29 Bloomfield 28.6 46.0
x North Range 30.8 49.6
- Plympton 33.8 54.4
x Port Gilbert - -
x Weymouth 41.6 67.0
x Belliveau 46.2 74.4
x Church Point 50.4 81.1
x Little Brook 51.6 83.1
x Saulnierville 54.2 87.3
x Meteghan 57.4 92.4
x Hectanooga 66.6 107.2
- Norwood - -
74 Brazil Lake 73.9 119.0
77 Pitman Road 77.9 125.4
80 Ohio 80.2 129.1
82 Hebron 82.6 133.0
87 Yarmouth 86.3 138.9
Note 1:   Belcher's Almanack, 1893, (page 165)
(Station locations shown as "x" have been omitted
because the Almanack's numbers are clearly mistakes.)
Note 2:   Altitudes in the Dominion of Canada, 1915
(page 20) by James White, F.R.S.C., F.R.G.S.
Deputy Head of the Commission of Conservation


Stage Coach Routes in Nova Scotia

Stage Coach Routes Connecting with
the Intercolonial Railway

The trains of the Intercolonial Railway connect
at Shubenacadie daily with conveyance to Maitland and to Middle and Upper Musquodoboit;
at Brookfield daily with conveyance to Upper Stewiacke;
at Truro tri-weekly with conveyance to Earltown, and tri-weekly with conveyance to Onslow;
at DeBert tri-weekly with conveyance to Mass Town;
at East Mines daily with conveyance to Folly Village;
at Londonderry Station daily with coaches to Acadia Iron Mines and Great Village, and thence to Economy and Five Islands;
at Wentworth Station daily with coaches to Tatamagouche;
at Greenville Station daily with coach to Wallace;
at Thomson's Station daily with coach to Pugwash;
at Oxford Junction with train to Oxford, Pugwash, etc.;
at Spring Hill Junction daily with train to Parrsboro', and there daily with coach to Advocate Harbor;
at Maccan daily with train to River Hebert and Joggins Mines;
at Amherst tri-weekly with coach to Linden.

Mail coaches run tri-weekly between Upper Musquodoboit and Sheet Harbor, connecting at Upper Musquodoboit with coaches to and from Shubenacadie, and at Sheet Harbor with coaches to and from Salmon River, Marie Joseph, Sherbrooke, etc.

The trains of the Pictou branch [Truro - New Glasgow] connect
at West River Station tri-weekly with conveyances to West River, Durham and Pictou;
at Hopewell with coaches running daily to Sunnybrae and tri-weekly to Caledonia and Melrose.

Connections are made with the trains of the Port Mulgrave branch as follows:
Mail coaches run from Antigonish to Sherbrooke daily; through tickets issued at the Railway Depot, Halifax. This route is in direct communication with the Gold Diggings at Sherbrooke, Goldenville and other districts.

Connections are made at Melrose semi-weekly with coaches to Glenelg and Caledonia.

The coach for Guysboro' leaves Heatherton daily on arrival of the mail from New Glasgow, and connects with coaches running daily between Guysboro' and Cape Canso.

Morrison's Mail Coaches leave Port Hawkesbury daily on arrival of the mail from Port Mulgrave for St. Peter's and Sydney.

Archibald's mail coaches leave Port Hastings daily for Port Hood, Mabou, Orangedale, Whycocomagh, Baddeck, Margaree Forks, and Eastern Harbor.

Connections are also made
at Grandance daily with conveyance to Grandique Ferry and Arichat;
at River Inhabitants' Bridge daily with conveyance to West Bay; and
at Sydney with coaches daily to Bridgeport, Little Glace Bay, Cow Bay, Lingan and Louisburg.

Coaches run tri-weekly between North Sydney, Little Bras D'Or, Big Bras D'Or, New Campbelltown, Englishtown, Baddeck; and semi-weekly between Big Bras D'Or, Boularderie, and Baddeck.

Source: Belcher's Farmers' Almanack, 1893, pages 162-163
Spellings above follow those in the almanack.
Belcher's Almanack, 1893, page 163

Stage Coach Routes Connecting with
the Windsor & Annapolis Railway

The trains of the W&A Railway Company make connections
at Newport Station semi-daily with coach to Newport;
at Windsor semi-weekly with coach to Chester;
at Port Williams Station going West and at Kentville going East daily with coaches to Cornwallis and Canning;
at Kentville daily with train to Canning and Kingsport;
at Kentville semi-weekly with coaches to New Ross and Chester;
at Middleton with trains for Bridgewater and Lunenburg.

Coaches (carrying H.M. Mails) run daily between Annapolis and Liverpool. Leave Annapolis at 3 p.m. and arrive at Liverpool on the following day in time to connect with Stages to Halifax and Shelburne. Leave Liverpool at 3 p.m. and arrive at Annapolis on the following day in time to connect with train for Halifax.

Source: Belcher's Farmers' Almanack, 1893, page 164

Western Shore Stage Route
Halifax to Yarmouth

Blair's Coaches carrying H.M. mails, leave Halifax daily at 6:30 o'clock a.m. for Head of St. Margaret's Bay, Chester, and Mahone Bay. Returning, leave Mahone Bay daily at 3:30 a.m. Connections are made daily at Mahone Bay with trains to Lunenburg and Bridgewater; and at Head of St. Margaret's Bay with a coach to French Village, Glen Margaret and Peggy's Cove.

Coaches carrying H.M. mails, leave Bridgewater for Mill Village, Liverpool, Lockeport, Shelburne, daily at 8 p.m. or after arrival of train from Middleton. Returning, leave Shelburne daily at noon. Connections are made daily at Liverpool with coaches to and from Milton and Port Medway.

Coaches (carrying H.M. mails) leave Shelburne for Barrington, Tusket, Yarmouth, &c, daily at 4 p.m., arriving at Yarmouth in time to connect with the morning train for Digby. Returning, leaves Yarmouth daily after arrival of train from Digby. Connections are made at Clyde River and at Barrington with conveyances to various shore settlements.
       Halifax........................  0
       Head of St. Margaret's Bay..... 21
       McLean's....................... 11
       Chester (45)................... 13
       Mahone Bay (62)................ 17
       Bridgewater....................  9
       Mill Village................... 18
       Liverpool (99)................. 10
       Port Mouton.................... 10
       Port Joli......................  4
       Sable River.................... 11
       Lockeport...................... 14
       Jordan River................... 12
       Shelburne (157)................  7
       Barrington..................... 23
       Yarmouth....................... 48

Eastern Shore Stage Route
Halifax to Sheet Harbor

Quinn's Stage (carrying H.M. mails) leaves Halifax for Musquodoboit Harbor, Jeddore, Ship Harbor, Tangier, and Sheet Harbor, every Monday, Wednesday and Friday morning at 6 o'clock; returning the intervening days.
       Halifax........................  0
       Innis', Porter's Lake.......... 18
       Ormon's, Chezetcook Road.......  2
       Musquodoboit Harbor............ 11
       Webber's, Lakeville............ 12
       Ship Harbor....................  6
       Tangier........................ 14
       Sheet Harbor................... 17

Sheet Harbor to Sherbrooke

A Stage (carrying H.M. mails) leaves Sheet Harbour daily for Salmon River and Moser's River, and on Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday for Marie Joseph and Sherbrooke, returning the intervening days.
       Sheet Harbor...................  0
       Salmon River................... 16
       Mosers River...................  9
       Marie Joseph................... 10
       Liscomb........................ 15
       Sherbrooke..................... 11
Source: Belcher's Farmers' Almanack, 1893, pages 165-166
The 1893 almanack stated distances in miles (above).
To convert to kilometres, multiply by 1.61 and round off to the nearest whole number.


Steam Ship Routes to/from Nova Scotia

Great Britain
Steamers of the Allan Line leave Liverpool, Engalnd, via Queenstown, Ireland, for Halifax every alternate Tuesday, calling at St. John's, Newfoundland.
S. Cunard & Co, agents
The packets of the Allan and Dominion Lines which carry the weekly mails between Canada and the United Kingdom, call at Halifax during the winter months.

Canada Atlantic Line
The steamer Halifax leaves Halifax for Boston every Wednesday at 8 a.m.; returning arrives at Halifax Sunday evening.
H.L. Chipman, agent

North Atlantic Steam Ship Company
The steamers Carroll, Britannia, and Worcester, run weekly between Boston, Halifax, and Charlottetown.
J.F. Phelan & Son, agent

Red Cross Line
Steamers of this line make regular trips between New York, Halifax, and Newfoundland.
F.D. Corbett & Co., agent

West Coast of Newfoundland
The steamer Harlow makes fortnightly trips between Halifax and ports on the West Coast of Newfoundland.
Pickford & Black, agent

Halifax, Jamaica, and Turk's Island, via Bermuda
The steamers Beta or Alpha leave Halifax the 15th of every month.
Pickford & Black, agent

Halifax to Demerara via Bermuda and West India Islands
The steamers Duart Castle and Taymouth Castle leave Halifax once every three weeks.
Pickford & Black, agent

St. Pierre et Miquelon
The mail steamer St. Pierre runs fortnightly between Halifax and St. Pierre et Miquelon, calling at North Sydney, leaving Halifax every alternate Monday, except during the months of January, February, March and April, when she awaits the arrival of the English Mails.
F.D. Corbett & Co., agent

Magdalen Islands
The steamer St. Olaf, carrying H.M. Mails, runs weekly between Pictou and the Magdalen Islands, via Georgetown and Souris, P.E.I., leaving Pictou every Monday. On every fourth Monday the steamer's trip is extended beyond the Magdalen Islands to Gaspe Basin or Perce and back.

Halifax and Yarmouth
The steamer City of St. John runs weekly from Halifax to Yarmouth, touching at Lunenburg, Liverpool, Shelburne, Lockeport, and Barrington. Connects at Yarmouth with mail steamers for St. John and Boston.
Pickford & Black, agent

Halifax and Lunenburg
The steamer Lunenburg runs twice a week each way between Halifax and Lunenburg.
Black Bros., agent

Halifax and Mahone Bay
The steamer Weymouth leaves Halifax every Monday and Thursday, returning on Wednesday and Friday.
Jos. Wood, agent, Halifax

Halifax and Bridgewater
The steamer Bridgewater makes semi-weekly trips between Halifax and Bridgewater.
Jos. Wood, agent

Halifax and Port Hawkesbury
The steamer City of Ghent leaves Halifax every Thursday at 8 p.m. calling at intermediate ports.
Pickford & Black, agent, Halifax

Yarmouth and Boston
The mail steamers Yarmouth and Boston, make four trips per week between Yarmouth and Boston.
W.A. Chase, agent, Yarmouth

Annapolis, Digby, and St. John
The mail steamer City of Monticello in connection with the Windsor and Annapolis Railway, runs between Annapolis, Digby, and St. John, daily during the summer and tri-weekly during the remainder of the year.

Halifax and Charlottetown
The steamer Fastnet runs weekly from Halifax to Charlottetown, calling at Canso, Arichat, Port Hawkesbury and Souris. Leaves Halifax on Monday evenings, and P.E.I. on Thursdays.
Pickford & Black, agent

Minas Basin and St. John
Steamers of this route make regular trips between Windsor, Hantsport, Wolfville, Kingsport, Parrsboro' village, Maitland, and St. John.
Proprietors: Churchill & Sons, Hantsport

Bras D'Or Steam Navigation Company
The steamers Marion, Neptune, and Magnolia, carrying H.M. Mails, run regularly on the Bras D'Or Lake, touching at chief points in the interior of Cape Breton.

Halifax and Charlottetown via Eastern Shore Ports
The steamer Premier leaves Halifax every Monday at 6 p.m. for Sheet Harbor, Isaac's Harbor, Guysborough, Canso, Port Hawkesbury, and Port Hastings.
Jos. Wood, agent

Port Mulgrave, Arichat, Canso, Guysboro', Port Hood and Mabou
The steamer Rimouski, carrying H.M. Mails, leaves Port Mulgrave for Canso, via Arichat, on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays, for Guysboro' on Saturdays, and for Port Hood and Mabou on Tuesdays and Thursdays, after arrival of mail train from New Glasgow, and returns in time to connect with morning trains for New Glasgow on following mornings.

Pictou, Port Hood and Mabou
The steamer St. Olaf runs weekly between Pictou, Port Hood, Mabou, Margaree and Cheticamp, leaving Pictou on Wednesdays after arrival of last train from Halifax.

Prince Edward Island
Mail steamers run daily during summer between Pictou and Charlottetown.
J.C. Mackintosh, agent, Halifax

Furness Line
Direct service from Halifax to London and Hamburg.
Pickford & Black, agent

Quebec Steamship Line
Connecting Pictou, Prince Edward Island, Perce, Gaspe, Father Point, Quebec and Montreal, leaving Pictou every second Monday.
R.F. Armstrong, agent, Halifax

Source: Belcher's Farmers' Almanack, 1893, pages 166-168

1893 March 4

Town of Wolfville

On this day, Wolfville was incorporated as a town.
[Halifax Daily News, 4 March 2000]

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