History of Nova Scotia
with special attention given to
Communications and Transportation

Chapter 44
1999 July - August




1999 July 6

HRM Report on Y2K Preparations

Halifax Regional Municipality includes Halifax, Dartmouth, Bedford,
and Halifax County from Hubbards to Elmsdale
to Upper Musquodoboit to Necum Teuch

Operates about 1400 computers

Relies on 1375 critical vendors

The following is excerpted and adapted from
an official report dated 29 June 1999, received by HRM Council 6 July 1999
To:   Mayor Fitzgerald and Members of Halifax Regional Council
Submitted by:   Dan R. English, Deputy Chief Administrative Officer
Subject:   Year 2000 Project - Progress Report
    http://www.region.halifax.ns.ca/y2k/report_3.html

To accomplish our mandate, the Year 2000 Project Team has divided all of Halifax Regional Municipality's services/functions into two broad categories:
    Those areas viewed as being at high to medium risks (Phase 1); and
    Those areas viewed as being at medium to low risk (Phase 2). Phase 1 began in October 1998 and will be substantially complete in August 1999. This phase represents about 70% of our total Y2K exposure and is where most of our efforts have been focused over the past nine months. As of today (29 June 1999), approximately 85% of the work to be done in this phase has been completed. This phase represents about 30% of our total Y2K exposure. Work began in May 1999, as scheduled, and we expect to finish in October. As of today, approximately 35% of the work to be done in this phase has been completed.

Notes: Halifax Regional Municipal website
    http://www.region.halifax.ns.ca/
HRM Y2K Plan Overview
    http://www.region.halifax.ns.ca/y2k/hrm_plan/index.html
Ten Critical Dates
    http://www.region.halifax.ns.ca/y2k/hrm_plan/sld006.html
        1998 Dec. 31
        1999 Jan. 1
        1999 Sep. 9
        1999 Dec. 31
        2000 Jan. 1
        2000 Feb. 28
        2000 Feb. 29
        2000 Mar. 1
        2000 Dec. 31
        2001 Jan. 1


1999 July 14

CRTC Approves Sale
of
Annapolis Valley Radio
to
Maritime Broadcasting System Limited


CRTC Decision 99-170, issued this day: [Source: http://www.crtc.gc.ca/scripts/ ]


Also see the Maritime Broadcasting System website at
    http://www.mbsradio.com/


1999 July 15

American Orient Express at Halifax

The American Orient Express is due to arrive in Halifax, Nova Scotia, three times this summer. It arrives at 1700 July 15th, July 25th, and August 4th, and leaves at 0925 on July 18th, July 28th, and August 7th. The power is expected to be freshly painted CN GP40-2's 9671 and 9672 with one Amtrak F40.
Source: Canada Calling, June 1999
    http://www.freenet.edmonton.ab.ca/trains/data/cancall/cancall_9906.html

The American Orient Express is a deluxe passenger train in the tradition of the legendary Orient Express. Since its inaugural journey from Paris to Istanbul in 1883, the Orient Express has set the standard for luxury rail travel worldwide. The 15 carriages of the American Orient Express wear the signature royal blue and gold colors of the deluxe trains of Europe. Its vintage rail cars are from the streamliner era of the 1940 and '50s, built by Pullman and the other great names of railroading. Carefully restored at an investment of $14 million, they once again glisten with polished mahogany and brass, preserving a part of America's history and reviving an elegant, relaxed style of travel that has not been seen in decades. In 1999 the American Orient Express will travel through some of the most stunning landscapes on the North American continent. It is a rare chance to relax in comfort and view the country from the unique perspective that only comes with travel by rail. And each trip is accompanied by expert lecturers to enhance your understanding of all you encounter along the way. Oregon Rail Corporation and its subsidiaries including AOE Rail Expeditions Inc. and American Orient Express Rail Company, are private companies that operate independently of Amtrak and the railroads, but work closely with these companies for locomotive power and access to scenic routes throughout the United States and Canada.
American Orient Express: The Train
    http://www.travelpower.com/aoe/train.htm



1999 July 19

Icelandair to Fly Larger Aircraft to Nova Scotia

Nova Scotia can expect more visitors from Europe now that Icelandair has decided to fly a larger aircraft into Halifax in August and September. An Icelandair official says a larger 757 aircraft means an additional 132 seats a week into Halifax. Both Nova Scotia and Icelandair have invested a significant amount of money into promoting Nova Scotia as a destination in European markets. With this one decision to increase capacity, officials estimate an increase in tourism expenditures of up to $1,400,000 for the season. Icelandair flies to and from Nova Scotia three times a week year round.
[Cape Breton Post, 19 July 1999]


1999 July 20

Trail Website Goes Online

http://www.trails.gov.ns.ca/

The new Trails Nova Scotia website, containing useful information for trail users and planners, was launched this day. The project's information on existing formal and informal trails helps communities plan their trails. The database contains full-colour topographical maps and information on directions, land ownership, hazards and other details that trail users will find useful in planning safe outdoor adventures in Nova Scotia. The database contains information on more than 500 trails; information on about 200 trails is available online. Presently, work is continuing to update mapping of canoe routes and snowmobile trails. Much of the trail network in Nova Scotia is located along the rights of way of abandoned railways.
[Source: Nova Scotia government press release
    http://www.gov.ns.ca/news/details.asp?id=19990720006



1999 July 21

Ferry Traffic at Record Level

Marine Atlantic carried 32,799 people to Newfoundland from North Sydney over the first 18 days of July, an increase of 4,281 compared to the same period last year. Last year was a record year for Marine Atlantic so it is a safe bet that the company carried more people than ever before on what the employees refer to as "the big weekend." "The third weekend in July traditionally is the busiest for us with respect to eastbound traffic. From Friday to early Monday morning we carried 5,715 passengers to Port aux Basques and Argentia," said Marine Atlantic spokesman Ted Bartlett. Bartlett said according to Hospitality Labrador and Newfoundland, the province is having a record tourist year. "We squeezed an extra sailing for Smallwood out of Port aux Basques Monday which cleaned up a lot of traffic and helped to keep it current. The Smallwood makes three trips weekly to Argentia and four to Port aux Basques. We've put on a fifth sailing for Smallwood the past couple of weeks and I'm sure this will happen a few more times before the peak tourist season is over." Bartlett said the company expects a great deal from both its ships and its people. "Our people have been fantastic despite being under a lot of pressure. I've been keeping an eye on the situation and for the most part people coming in with reservations seldom have to wait any longer than twelve hours if they come in without a reservation. A lot of people are traveling this time of year and the employees are holding up well under the strain." He said so far this season both Smallwood and Caribou have performed without any major glitches or mechanical difficulties. Bartlett said the ships are seldom idle and regular maintenance is ongoing.
[Cape Breton Post, 21 July 1999]


Ferry Traffic Staying Busy

In the period from July 1 - 25, a total of 88,292 passengers traveled to Newfoundland via Marine Atlantic from North Sydney, up 8,912 passengers over the corresponding period last year. Overall passenger numbers for the ferry line are up between 10 and 15 per cent from 1998. "It's been a very, very busy summer," said terminal manager Len Rhyno. "This is the best summer (in terms of passenger numbers) we've had to date." According to Rhyno, the added traffic has kept all three of the ferries filled to peak capacity. Caribou and Joseph and Clara Smallwood each carry 350 automobiles and between 1,100 and 1,200 passengers. Atlantic Freighter, which mainly transports vehicles, can accommodate 24 passengers.
[Cape Breton Post, 3 August 1999]


1999 July 22

Fitzgerald Studio Wins AMTEC Award

A Fur Trade Odyssey, a new CD-ROM produced by Fitzgerald Studio of Sydney, in association with Old Fort William in Thunder Bay, Ontario, has won major recognition in a national competition, the AMTEC 99 Awards in Ottawa. A national showcase for educational media recognizing outstanding examples of educational television, film, multimedia, and computer software is held each year as part of The Association for Media and Technology in Education in Canada (AMTEC 99). A wide range of entries are judged within the five classifications of school system, post-secondary institution, government organization, commercial/industry agency and student productions. Awards are presented annually in areas such as television, film, slide, audio programs, multimedia and computer software. Old Fort William and Fitzgerald Studio were presented the Award of Merit for A Fur Trade Odyssey CD-ROM. The Award of Merit was the highest award presented in its category. During this year long project, Fort William was responsible for research and editorial copy while Fitzgerald Studio was responsible for CD production and design.

Fitzgerald emphasizes that this project was very significant in that it is the first major production contract for Fitzgerald Studio, from outside the Maritimes and an important step in the creation of a new economy in Cape Breton. One of the primary objectives of this initiative was to develop a tool, which will foster a better understanding of the Canadian Identity. This study of the fur trade provides an excellent vehicle to demonstrate how the various ethnic and cultural entities worked in partnership to lay the foundations of Canada. This CD-ROM will serve as a "National Unity" building tool by using fur trade themes to explore a period in our history that provides relevant insights into Canada's contemporary social, economic, and political evolution. Fitzgerald Studio has received international recognition for its work in multimedia, in particular for its educational CD-ROMs Fortress of Louisbourg, Alexander Graham Bell as well as for A Fur Trade Odyssey. Its award winning CDs are now in 70% of Canadian schools. In the March 1998 edition of the Financial Post Magazine, the Branham Group selected Fitzgerald Studio as one of the Top 25 Up and Coming IT companies in Canada.

A Fur Trade Odyssey is an authorative CD-ROM that tells the story of the Canadian Fur Trade and takes the user on a cross-cultural, multidisciplinary exploration of the fur trade using Fort William, "The World's Largest Fur Trade Post" as the portal to the past. The CD includes a virtual tour of Old Fort William, video segments, biographies, a timeline, a place index map, complete history of the fur trade and a Teacher's Guide. A Fur Trade Odyssey highlights the dynamic relationship among the European traders, native peoples, Metis and French Canadians that served to lay the foundation for the development of Canada. Old Fort William plans to market the CD-ROM to over 31,000 schools in North America — 19,000 in Canada and another 12,000 in the northern U.S. border states. The revenue will support the Fort's interpretive and educational programs.

Sources:
The Cape Breton Post, 22 July 1999
Fitzgerald Studio website
    http://www.fitzgeraldstudio.com/
Fitzgerald Studio media release
    http://www.fitzgeraldstudio.com/html/Pages/ofwpr.html
A Fur Trade Odyssey CD-ROM
    http://www.fitzgeraldstudio.com/html/Pages/fort.html
Old Fort William website
    http://www.oldfortwilliam.on.ca/


1999 July 23

Animation Work Coming to Sydney

Some of the animation work for several popular television series will be done in Sydney. ImX Communications has joined with Funbag Animation Studios Inc. and PIP Animation Services, Ottawa, to establish two new production houses — Helix Animation Inc. in Halifax and Helix Digital Inc. in Sydney. The Sydney operation, employing 55 people, will be established in the next several weeks at Silicon Island Innovation Centre. Both companies will be in operation before year end. Economic Development Minister Manning MacDonald said Friday, July 23rd, that the province will provide a rebate of ten per cent of the company's incremental payroll for five years, up to a maximum of $642,867 for the Halifax operation. A similar agreement was reached for the Sydney facility up to a maximum of $425,000. Payments will be made by the government to the companies at the end of each year after the jobs have been created. The studios will provide animation services for Canadian and American clients, they also plan three new co-productions of their own. They will be doing a television series based on the comic strip For Better or For Worse, an animated Christmas musical, and Crafty Cow, a character from The Real Howard Spitz.
[The Cape Breton Post, 24 July 1999]

Also see:
Funbag Animation Studios' website at
    http://www.funbag.com/
PIP Animation Services' website at
    http://www.pipanimation.com/








1999 July 24

Cochran to Film Pit Pony Episodes

Cochran Entertainment is cashing in on the popularity of their CBC family series, Pit Pony, to film another 18 episodes at the Filmscape sound stage, Sydport Industrial Park. The filming will be done from July until November and will employ about 200 people including cast and crew. Executive producer Andrew Cochran said it was just a year ago he stood on the same spot when it was a graveled lot. Cochran with the Pit Pony kitchen stage set in the background said he wouldn't be here without the support of the community. "The community is part of every frame exposed here." He also praised CBC executive director Phyllis Platt and her vision for the series. Pit Pony has been sold to Mid-East countries, Korea, Turkey, and Scandinavian countries. Platt said the movie has sold well around the world. "It is being made in Cape Breton, by Cape Bretoners. It is really something extraordinary."

The first 26 episodes had a $23,000,000 impact on the island and resulted in about 159 jobs. The Economic Development Department this time around approved a $1,750,000 loan to help with the production of the additional 18 episodes. The work represents 140 full-time people and 100 extras. A second season should result in over $17,000,000 to the local economy. During the first production season, the longest in Nova Scotia's film and television history, 70 per cent of the employees were from Cape Breton, and 20 per cent from the mainland.

[The Cape Breton Post, 24 July 1999]


1999 July 24

Florence CAP Site

For the past few years, Dr. T.L. Sullivan Junior High School in Florence, Cape Breton County, has been a CAP site. Summer intern Fred Goora, who is in his fourth year of electrical engineering at the University of New Brunswick, is running this year's program. It offers Internet access as well as training in the use of, and access to, word processing, spread sheet, and database software. There are 26 computers available, with printers and a scanner. "There is no age limit for participants and we welcome everyone including first-time users. Community interest groups are encouraged to come in for training as a group. The site will work around their schedule and if need be I can come in evenings or weekends," Goora said. He is seeking volunteers to assist at the CAP site. "We are hoping that the site can be open year round and can be operated during the fall and winter by a volunteer or volunteers. Having the site open year round would be ideal for students as well as those who may be working on projects as part of their school work and could work on them after school hours." Industry Canada's Community Access program (CAP) works with rural Canadian communities to take advantage of new communications technologies. The goal of the program is to encourage economic, social, and cultural growth in a community setting.
[The Cape Breton Post, 24 July 1999]

How to get there: Access map, Florence CAP site
http://www.geocities.com/CollegePark/Classroom/8062/how_to.htm

References:
Reproduction (image) of the Cape Breton Post article
    http://www.geocities.com/CollegePark/Classroom/8062/article.htm
Website of the Dr. T.L. Sullivan School CAP site
    http://www.geocities.com/CollegePark/Classroom/8062/
Dr. T.L. Sullivan Junior High School website
    http://www.ednet.ns.ca/educ/schoolpages/sullivan/index.htm


1999 July 26

Political Websites Update

[Written: 26-27 July 1999]

During the evening of 26-27 July, a few hours before the polls opened in Nova Scotia's 1999 general election, I did a check of the official campaign biography for every candidate in all four political party websites. Below is a list of all candidates which listed an email address, or a personal website, in his/her campaign biography.

Liberal Party of Nova Scotia

http://www.nsliberals.com/

The following information was in the Candidates webpage at
http://www.NSLiberals.com/candidates/
  1. Bedford - Fall River:     Gerry St.-Amand
    http://www.NSLiberals.com/candidates/hylfra.html
    Website:   http://www.bedfordfallriver.org/
    This website included a highly-desirable but rare feature, an invitation to the public to provide input. In a webpage titled Your Input, at http://www.bedfordfallriver.org/yourinput.htm "I believe in government that is sensitive and responsive to the overall needs of the community. So if there are matters you think should be brought to my attention before you cast your ballot, please let me know. Drop by my campaign headquarters, speak to me when you see me, or complete this online form..."
    No email address was listed in the contact information (but for those viewers with a forms-capable browser the online form could be used to communicate with the campaign headquarters staff).
  2. Dartmouth North:     Jim Smith
    http://www.NSLiberals.com/candidates/jimsmi.html
    Email:   jsmith_liberal@hotmail.com
    No website listed in the contact information
  3. Eastern Shore:     Keith Colwell
    http://www3.ns.sympatico.ca/keith.colwell/
    Email:   keith.colwell@ns.sympatico.ca
    Website:   http://www3.ns.sympatico.ca/keith.colwell/
    "We're Averaging 20 - 30 hits a Day!"
  4. Lunenburg West:     Don Downe
    http://www.NSLiberals.com/candidates/dondow.html
    Email:   feedback@dondowne.ns.ca
    Don Downe website:
          http://www.dondowne.ns.ca/index.htm
    The Lunenburg West Liberal Association website has disappeared. Four weeks ago, it was located at
          http://www.dondowne.ns.ca/lwliberals/index.htm
    but that URL now returns an Error message: The requested URL /lwliberals/index.htm was not found on this server





Progressive Conservative Party of Nova Scotia

http://www.pcparty.ns.ca/

The following information was in the Candidates webpage at
http://www.pcparty.ns.ca/cgi-bin/view?src=candidates
  1. Cape Breton South:     Leland Lewis
    http://www.pcparty.ns.ca/cgi-bin/view?src=lewis
    Email:   leland@canplus.net
    Website:   http://www.canplus.net/cb/
          At 4:48am, 27 July (election day) this website counter read 00012.
  2. Colchester - Musquodoboit Valley:     Brooke Taylor
    http://www.pcparty.ns.ca/cgi-bin/view?src=taylor
    Email:   sherri.richard@ns.sympatico.ca
    Website:   http://www.atlantic-lifestyles.com/btaylor/
  3. Cole Harbour - Eastern Passage:     Nadine Cooper Mont.
    http://www.pcparty.ns.ca/cgi-bin/view?src=cooper_mont
    Email:   cooper.mont@ns.sympatico.ca
    Website:   http://www3.ns.sympatico.ca/cooper.mont/
          At 5:07am, 27 July (election day) this website counter read 000155.
  4. Cumberland South:     Murray Scott
    http://www.pcparty.ns.ca/cgi-bin/view?src=scott
    Email:   murray.scott@ns.sympatico.ca
    No website listed in the contact information
  5. Dartmouth North:     Jane MacKay
    http://www.pcparty.ns.ca/cgi-bin/view?src=mackay
    Email:   janemackay@janemackaypc.com
    Website:   http://www.janemackaypc.com/
  6. Dartmouth South:     Tim Olive
    http://www.pcparty.ns.ca/cgi-bin/view?src=olive
    Email:   timolive@mailroom.com
    Website:   http://www.windemere.com/tim/
  7. Halifax Atlantic:     Bruce Cooke
    http://www.pcparty.ns.ca/cgi-bin/view?src=cooke
    Email:   the.cookes@ns.sympatico.ca
    No website listed in the contact information
  8. Halifax Bedford Basin:     Mary Ann McGrath
    http://www.pcparty.ns.ca/cgi-bin/view?src=mcgrath
    Email:   marypc@virtualhalifax.ns.ca
    Website:   http://www.virtualhalifax.ns.ca/pc
  9. Halifax Chebucto:     Sean Phillips
    http://www.pcparty.ns.ca/cgi-bin/view?src=phillips
    Email:   seanphillips@hfx.andara.ca
    Website:   http://www.chebucto.ns.ca/~ar710/
  10. Hants East:     Reese Morash
    http://www.pcparty.ns.ca/cgi-bin/view?src=r_morash
    Email:   rmorash@sprint.ca
    No website listed in the contact information
  11. Hants West:     Ron Russell
    http://www.pcparty.ns.ca/cgi-bin/view?src=russell
    Email:   pc_hantswest@hotmail.com
    No website listed in the contact information
  12. Kings South:     David Morse
    http://www.pcparty.ns.ca/cgi-bin/view?src=morse
    Email:   ksouthpc@glinx.com
    No website listed in the contact information
  13. Preston:     David Hendsbee
    http://www.pcparty.ns.ca/cgi-bin/view?src=hendsbee
    Email:   david.hendsbee@ns.sympatico.ca
    Website:   http://www3.ns.sympatico.ca/david.hendsbee
          At 6:23am, 27 July (election day) this website counter read 0795.
  14. Queens:     Kerry Morash
    http://www.pcparty.ns.ca/cgi-bin/view?src=k_morash
    Email:   queenspc@auracom.com
    No website listed in the contact information
  15. Sackville - Beaver Bank:     Barry Barnet
    http://www.pcparty.ns.ca/cgi-bin/view?src=barnet
    Email:   barry@attcanada.net
    Website:   http://www.attcanada.net/~barry/
  16. Sackville - Cobequid:     Wade Marshall
    http://www.pcparty.ns.ca/cgi-bin/view?src=marshall
    Email:   wademarshall@canada.com
    No website listed in the contact information
  17. Yarmouth:     Richard Hurlburt
    http://www.pcparty.ns.ca/cgi-bin/view?src=hurlburt
    Email:   pcyarmouth@klis.com
    Website:   http://home.klis.com/~pcyarmouth/





New Democratic Party of Nova Scotia

http://www.robertchisholm.net/

In the Candidates webpage at
http://www.robertchisholm.net/candidates.html
  1. Annapolis:     Tom Clahane
    http://www.robertchisholm.net/candidates/clahane.html
    Email:   tclahane@ns.ndp.ca
    No website listed in the contact information
  2. Argyle:     Belinda Tucker
    http://www.robertchisholm.net/candidates/tucker.html
    Email:   btucker@ns.ndp.ca
    No website listed in the contact information
  3. Bedford - Fall River:     Jane Earle
    http://www.robertchisholm.net/candidates/earle.html
    Email:   jearle@ns.ndp.ca
    No website listed in the contact information
  4. Cape Breton Centre:     Frank Corbett
    http://www.robertchisholm.net/candidates/corbett.html
    Email:   fcorbett@ns.ndp.ca
    No website listed in the contact information
  5. Cape Breton East:     Cecil Saccary
    http://www.robertchisholm.net/candidates/saccary.html
    Email:   csaccary@ns.ndp.ca
    No website listed in the contact information
  6. Cape Breton North:     Archie MacKinnon
    http://www.robertchisholm.net/candidates/mackinnon.html
    Email:   amackinnon@ns.ndp.ca
    No website listed in the contact information
  7. Cape Breton Nova:     Gordie Gosse
    http://www.robertchisholm.net/candidates/gosse.html
    Email:   ggosse@ns.ndp.ca
    No website listed in the contact information
  8. Cape Breton South:     Elizabeth Cusak
    http://www.robertchisholm.net/candidates/cusack.html
    Email:   ecusack@ns.ndp.ca
    No website listed in the contact information
  9. Cape Breton - The Lakes:     Helen MacDonald
    http://www.robertchisholm.net/candidates/macdonaldh.html
    Email:   hmacdonald@ns.ndp.ca
    No website listed in the contact information
  10. Cape Breton West:     Brian Slaney
    http://www.robertchisholm.net/candidates/slaney.html
    Email:   bslaney@ns.ndp.ca
    No website listed in the contact information
  11. Chester - St. Margaret's:     Hinrich Bitter-Suermann
    http://www.robertchisholm.net/candidates/bsuermann.html
    Email:   hbsuermann@ns.ndp.ca
    No website listed in the contact information
  12. Clare:     Don Melanson
    http://www.robertchisholm.net/candidates/melanson.html
    Email:   dmelanson@ns.ndp.ca
    No website listed in the contact information
  13. Colchester - Musquodoboit Valley:     Jim Harpell
    http://www.robertchisholm.net/candidates/harpell.html
    Email:   jharpell@ns.ndp.ca
    No website listed in the contact information
  14. Colchester North:     Ralph Martin
    http://www.robertchisholm.net/candidates/martin.html
    Email:   rmartin@ns.ndp.ca
    No website listed in the contact information
  15. Cole Harbour - Eastern Passage:     Kevin Deveaux
    http://www.robertchisholm.net/candidates/deveaux.html
    Email:   kdeveaux@ns.ndp.ca
    No website listed in the contact information
  16. Cumberland North:     Doug Wilson
    http://www.robertchisholm.net/candidates/wilson.html
    Email:   dwilson@ns.ndp.ca
    No website listed in the contact information
  17. Cumberland South:     Scott McKee
    http://www.robertchisholm.net/candidates/mckee.html
    Email:   smckee@ns.ndp.ca
    No website listed in the contact information
  18. Dartmouth - Cole Harbour:     Darrell Dexter
    http://www.robertchisholm.net/candidates/dexter.html
    Email:   ddexter@ns.ndp.ca
    No website listed in the contact information
  19. Dartmouth East:     Heather Henderson
    http://www.robertchisholm.net/candidates/henderson.html
    Email:   hhenderson@ns.ndp.ca
    No website listed in the contact information
  20. Dartmouth North:     Jerry Pye
    http://www.robertchisholm.net/candidates/pye.html
    Email:   jpye@ns.ndp.ca
    No website listed in the contact information
  21. Dartmouth South:     Don Chard
    http://www.robertchisholm.net/candidates/chard.html
    Email:   dchard@ns.ndp.ca
    No website listed in the contact information
  22. Digby Annapolis:     Steve Downes
    http://www.robertchisholm.net/candidates/downes.html
    Email:   sdownes@ns.ndp.ca
    No website listed in the contact information
  23. Eastern Shore:     Mary Alice Tzagarakis
    http://www.robertchisholm.net/candidates/tzagarakis.html
    Email:   mtzagarakis@ns.ndp.ca
    No website listed in the contact information
  24. Guysborough - Port Hawkesbury:     Wendy Panagopoulos
    http://www.robertchisholm.net/candidates/panagopoulos.html
    Email:   wpanagopoulos@ns.ndp.ca
    No website listed in the contact information
  25. Halifax Atlantic:     Robert Chisholm
    http://www.robertchisholm.net/candidates/chisholm.html
    Email:   rchisholm@ns.ndp.ca
    No website listed in the contact information
  26. Halifax Bedford Basin:     Dr. Errol Gaum
    http://www.robertchisholm.net/candidates/gaum.html
    Email:   egaum@ns.ndp.ca
    No website listed in the contact information
  27. Halifax Chebucto:     Howard Epstein
    http://www.robertchisholm.net/candidates/epstein.html
    Email:   hepstein@ns.ndp.ca
    No website listed in the contact information
  28. Halifax Citadel:     Peter Delefes
    http://www.robertchisholm.net/candidates/delefes.html
    Email:   pdelefes@ns.ndp.ca
    No website listed in the contact information
  29. Halifax Fairview:     Eileen O'Connell
    http://www.robertchisholm.net/candidates/oconnell.html
    Email:   eoconnell@ns.ndp.ca
    No website listed in the contact information
  30. Halifax Needham:     Maureen MacDonald
    http://www.robertchisholm.net/candidates/macdonaldm.html
    Email:   mmacdonald@ns.ndp.ca
    No website listed in the contact information
  31. Hants East:     John MacDonell
    http://www.robertchisholm.net/candidates/macdonell.html
    Email:   jmacdonnell@ns.ndp.ca
    No website listed in the contact information
  32. Inverness:     Roy Yipp
    http://www.robertchisholm.net/candidates/yipp.html
    Email:   ryipp@ns.ndp.ca
    No website listed in the contact information
  33. Kings South:     Mary DeWolfe
    http://www.robertchisholm.net/candidates/dewolfe.html
    Email:   mdewolfe@ns.ndp.ca
    No website listed in the contact information
  34. Kings West:     Jacquie deMestral
    http://www.robertchisholm.net/candidates/demestral.html
    Email:   jdemestral@ns.ndp.ca
    No website listed in the contact information
  35. Lunenburg:     Marilyn Keddy
    http://www.robertchisholm.net/candidates/keddy.html
    Email:   mkeddy@ns.ndp.ca
    No website listed in the contact information
  36. Lunenburg West:     Eric Hustvedt
    http://www.robertchisholm.net/candidates/hustvedt.html
    Email:   ehustvedt@ns.ndp.ca
    No website listed in the contact information
  37. Pictou Centre:     Jeff Callaghan
    http://www.robertchisholm.net/candidates/callaghan.html
    Email:   jcallaghan@ns.ndp.ca
    No website listed in the contact information
  38. Pictou East:     Andy Thompson
    http://www.robertchisholm.net/candidates/thompson.html
    Email:   athompson@ns.ndp.ca
    No website listed in the contact information
  39. Pictou West:     Charlie Parker
    http://www.robertchisholm.net/candidates/parker.html
    Email:   cparker@ns.ndp.ca
    No website listed in the contact information
  40. Preston:     Yvonne Atwell
    http://www.robertchisholm.net/candidates/atwell.html
    Email:   yatwell@ns.ndp.ca
    No website listed in the contact information
  41. Queens:     John Wiles
    http://www.robertchisholm.net/candidates/wiles.html
    Email:   jwiles@ns.ndp.ca
    No website listed in the contact information
  42. Richmond:     Wilma Conrod
    http://www.robertchisholm.net/candidates/conrod.html
    Email:   wconrod@ns.ndp.ca
    No website listed in the contact information
  43. Sackville - Beaver Bank:     Rosemary Godin
    http://www.robertchisholm.net/candidates/godin.html
    Email:   rgodin@ns.ndp.ca
    No website listed in the contact information
  44. Sackville - Cobequid:     John Holm
    http://www.robertchisholm.net/candidates/holm.html
    Email:   jholm@ns.ndp.ca
    No website listed in the contact information
  45. Shelburne:     Dianne Nickerson
    http://www.robertchisholm.net/candidates/nickerson.html
    Email:   dnickerson@ns.ndp.ca
    No website listed in the contact information
  46. Timberlea - Prospect:     Bill Estabrooks
    http://www.robertchisholm.net/candidates/estabrooks.html
    Email:   bestabrooks@ns.ndp.ca
    No website listed in the contact information
  47. Truro - Bible Hill:     Ibel Scammell
    http://www.robertchisholm.net/candidates/scammell.html
    Email:   iscammell@ns.ndp.ca
    No website listed in the contact information
  48. Victoria:     Nancy MacKeigan
    http://www.robertchisholm.net/candidates/mackeigan.html
    Email:   nmackeigan@ns.ndp.ca
    No website listed in the contact information
  49. Yarmouth:     John Deveau
    http://www.robertchisholm.net/candidates/deveau.html
    Email:   jdeveau@ns.ndp.ca
    No website listed in the contact information





Nova Scotia Provincial Party

http://www.nspparty.ns.ca/

In the Candidates webpage at http://www.nspparty.ns.ca/candidates.htm
  1. Clare:     Anne Marie Boyer
    http://www.nspparty.ns.ca/anne_marie_boyer.htm
    Email:   amery@fox.ns.ca
    No website listed in the contact information
  2. Guysborough Port Hawesbury:     Courtney Kinney
    http://www.nspparty.ns.ca/courtney_kinney.htm
    Email:   CourtneyKinney@Hotmail.com
    No website listed in the contact information
  3. Halifax Atlantic:     Gerald Rodgers
    http://www.nspparty.ns.ca/gerald_rodgers.htm
    Email:   grodgers@hfx.andara.com
    No website listed in the contact information
  4. Halifax Bedford Basin:     Janice Lively
    http://www.nspparty.ns.ca/janice_lively.htm
    Email:   g.j.m.lively@ns.sympatico.ca
    No website listed in the contact information
  5. Halifax Chebucto:     Hilda Stevens
    http://www.nspparty.ns.ca/hilda_stevens.htm
    Email:   hms@sympatico.ns.ca
    (This email address is copied here as shown in the NSPP website, but it looks wrong. Probably should be hms@ns.sympatico.ca )
    No website listed in the contact information
  6. Halifax Needham:     Scott Higgins
    http://www.nspparty.ns.ca/scott_higgins.htm
    Email:   shiggins@supercity.ns.ca
    No website listed in the contact information
  7. Timberlea Prospect:     Ken Bumstead
    http://www.nspparty.ns.ca/ken_bumstead.htm
    Email:   kbumstead@ns.sympatico.ca
    No website listed in the contact information
  8. Yarmouth:     Brian Hurlburt
    http://www.nspparty.ns.ca/brian_hurlburt.htm
    Email:   sav_program@hotmail.com
    No website listed in the contact information


1999 July 28

Final Morse Code Transmission
Received at Marconi Museum

Glace Bay was part of an important piece of history July 28th as the Marconi Museum received the last marine Morse code transmission the world will ever hear. Although amateurs will continue to send messages around the world as a hobby, Morse code will no longer be used by mariners, the Canadian Coast Guard, the Navy or other organizations. The loud beeps of the incoming code broke through the silence of the museum as amateur radio operators, retired commercial operators and Morse code enthusiasts listened closely to the final marine message transmission to come across the waves. The message was sent by John A. Weir, retired area operations supervisor, from the Sydney Coast Guard College's radio station at Point Edward.
[The Cape Breton Post, 29 July 1999]


1999 July 31 - August 8

One-Week Radio Station

During Summer Carnival time in Eastern Passage and Cow Bay, Halifax County, an operating license has been issued for K106 Special Events Radio, 25 watts at 106.9 MHz on the FM band, starting at 6:00pm on Saturday July 31st, and continuing through Sunday, August 8th... "It's going to be a reunion of some of your favourite radio folk from yesterday..." including Paul Marr and "his nostalgic Candlelight and Wine."
The planned schedule included:
     Sat. Jul 31:   7:00 - 10:00   Candlelight and Wine
                   10:00 - 12:00   Starlight Serenade
     Sun. Aug  1:   6:00 -  9:00   Candlelight and Wine
     Sat. Aug  7:   7:00 - 10:00   Candlelight and Wine
                   10:00 - 12:00   Starlight Serenade
     Sun. Aug  8:   6:00 -  9:00   Candlelight and Wine
[The Halifax Daily News, 21 July 1999]


1999 August

Kings County Municipal Airport

In a cooperative effort involving the Kings CED (Community Economic Development) Agency and a group of airport stakeholders, the Kings Municipal Council has agreed to transfer operational management of the Kings County Municipal Airport to a non-profit management cooperative. While ownership of the facility will remain with the Municipality, day to day operations will be the responsibility of the new authority through a Board of Directors. A three-year agreement is expected to become effective on 1 September 1999. The current municipal financial committment to the airport will decline during this period.

Translation: The Municipality plans to give the airport less money.


The Municipality assumed ownership of the Kings County Municipal Airport in 1976. In September of 1987, the Municipal Council assumed direct management responsibility for the Municipal Airport with the termination of Annapolis Valley Flying Services. Its administration became the responsibility of the Community Development Department. The Airport facilities consist of a 3,000 foot 915 metre paved and lighted runway, a 1.2 acre 4800 square metre apron and an 800 foot 240 metre taxiway serving 7 hangars. Operations are conducted from an administration building which houses the Airport Manager's Office, Flight Planning Area, Scotia Flight Centre Office and Classroom, Passenger/Pilot Lounge, and washrooms. Businesses and services located at the site include: Waterville Aircraft Maintenance, Scotia Flight Centre and Valley Search and Rescue.

[Excerpted from Kings County Municipal Newsletter, volume 1, number 1, August 1999,
and from http://www.county.kings.ns.ca/comdev/airport.html ]


1999 August 4

Sudden Rush Drains Service Station Tanks

Customers anxious to fill their vehicles before the scheduled gasoline price increase on Thursday forced one Sydney service station to close its pumps early Wednesday night, August 4th. The King's Road Ultramar was fueling self-serve customers for 61.9 cents per litre Wednesday, nearly four cents cheaper than its nearest competitor. Although owner Brian Martin felt the station had enough gas to handle demands, a sudden influx of customers drained the tanks at around 7pm. The station normally closes at 10pm. "We were the last one to move the prices up and that caused business to be brisk out there on King's Road," said Martin, who moved the price at the station up to 63.7 cents per litre. On Thursday, stations across Cape Breton, as well as many parts of the mainland and New Brunswick, raised their prices, with some people blaming big oil companies for doubling the margins at their refineries. In Halifax, the price of a litre of regular gasoline jumped by four full cents to 66.9 cents Thursday. In Saint John the price is 65.5 cents. In Fredericton it's 64.9 cents. The latest price increase has prices in the industrial Cape Breton area ranging from 63.7 to 67.9 cents per litre. Martin, who owns two other Ultramar stations in the area, said his King's Road location was one of the last stations to raise the price at the pumps, drawing the added business. He said the low price at the location didn't indicate a gas war in the area, but that it was part of Ultramar's Valu Plus program.
[The Cape Breton Post, 6 August 1999]


1999 August 9

Vogue Theatre For Sale

It may be time to roll the credits on Sydney's last big house movie theatre. The Vogue Theatre, which showed its last film in late April, is now officially up for sale. Owner Ardath Dockwrey listed the stately single screen movie house August 9th, citing years of financial losses in a multi-screen marketplace. While Dockwrey admitted it would be nice if new ownership revived the theatre her father D.P. MacDonald built in 1938, she said family-owned theatres are becoming a thing of the past. "There's really no flexibility from the exhibitors standpoint, especially when you only have one screen," she explained. "There's competition from eight screens and you're committed to showing a movie for three or four weeks. It was very difficult to go on pouring money into it." Along with the other nine people employed by the theatre, Ken Williamson was hoping the Vogue would reopen. The man who managed the operation since 1956 agreed that making money with one screen is nearly impossible. However, Williamson added the business was still viable.
[Cape Breton Post, 19 August 1999]


1999 August 11   6:19am ADT

Solar Eclipse

Six minutes after sunrise, partially-eclipsed sunlight Eclipse, August 11th, 1999 shimmers across the Fundy mud flats at Economy, Nova Scotia. Photograph by John Potter, of Pembroke, Ontario, who traveled to Economy specially to see and photograph this eclipse, the last solar eclipse before the Big Rollover to 2000. He stayed at the Four Seasons Retreat in Economy, on the north shore of Cobequid Bay, at the head of the Bay of Fundy; he said, "with the alignment of the Moon and Sun the tides were amazing." Ordinarily this area has some of the highest tides in the world, but when there is an eclipse the tides are extra extreme. In Nova Scotia, the Sun rose over the horizon already partially eclipsed.

Mr. Potter:
Sunrise in Economy happened at 6:13am
My estimate is that at sunrise, sun was approx 40% eclipsed
This picture was taken at 6:19am looking toward Bass River, with Kodak 100ASA film, a shutter speed of 1/125 sec, and fstop of f11
Max was around 6:33am at around 90%
Eclipse ended at 7:32am at this location.

This photo was taken 5.8 kilometres north-west of Burntcoat Head. Economy and Burntcoat Head are on opposite sides of Cobequid Bay. At Burntcoat Head, on 11 August 1999, from the time of high tide at 1:01am to low tide at 7:27am, the ocean surface fell 14.22 metres 46 feet 7 inches, — the height of a five-storey building — exposing the mud flat seen in the foreground. On 23 January 2000, between high tide at 2:30pm and low tide at 8:53pm, the tidal range here will be 15.59 metres 50 feet 6 inches.


1999 August 14

Port Hawkesbury Airport

Used by Martin Marietta, Statia and Stora

The group overseeing the Port Hawkesbury Airport hopes to be able to launch some improvements at the airstrip. Ken Anderson, chair of the airport committee, said this week the group recently received a final report on potential improvements at the airport. Among the projects the group would like to launch are improvements to the runway itself, new lights, and the addition of an automatic weather system. Anderson said the group looked at recent improvements made to the Sydney airport and decided to try to launch a similar program here. The airport committee will apply to Enterprise Cape Breton Corporation for assistance in funding the project, Anderson added. Traffic at the airport has increased dramatically over the past few years, he said. "Use is way up for the past two years over previous years."

There are currently limitations at the airport, which have prevented it from seeing much activity from the Sable Offshore Energy Project (SOEP), Anderson noted. The airport is not currently home to all of the amenities the project's proponents want in a facility. "The Mobil people said they weren't using Port Hawkesbury as an alternate airport for two reasons — there wasn't weather information available and they wanted around the clock coverage," he said. Anderson noted it's difficult to provide full-time coverage at the airport. "We would be struggling with keeping it manned 24 hours a day to be an optional landing site if they can't get to Halifax," Anderson said, noting the SOEP flights are currently using an airport in Stellarton. Anderson said the airport would like to provide weather information, via an automated system.

While it's difficult to quantify the value the airport has to supporting the local economy and local industries, Anderson believes it may be an important development tool for the Strait area. "Our feeling is that it is a valuable tool," he noted. "It's hard to put a handle on the value of the airport. We probably wouldn't know that until we didn't have it." Anderson said it's impossible to place a dollar figure on the airport's value, but he noted most of the larger industries in the Strait area make use of it. "Martin Marietta, Statia and Stora all use it and say they're glad it's there," he noted. The body overseeing the airport has made a concerted effort over the past six years to cut operating expenses at the facility, located in Port Hastings.

[Cape Breton Post, 14 August 1999]


Glider Training at Hawkesbury

Local air cadets are getting an opportunity to see what it must be like to fly "inside a paper airplane" with the help of the glider school operating at the Port Hawkesbury Airport. Since early July, air cadets from squadrons throughout the Strait region and other parts of the province have arrived at the airport for some instruction in the practice of flying a glider. The glider school provides cadets with an opportunity to become familiar with the engineless aircraft, and is held in conjunction with the regional air cadet camp. By the time the school wraps up Friday, 800 twelve-year-old cadets will have visited the site. Captain Joe Nearing says the opportunity serves two functions. The primary purpose is to expose the cadets to gliding. He noted it is the element of cadet life which is most closely tied to the air component of the cadet movement. The second is to possibly spark their interest to go on and train to become glider pilots. "We're also part of the regional gliding school as officers and instructors, and we train cadets," Nearing said, noting that at age 16 cadets may pursue their glider pilot licence, through the air cadet program. "We train those folks who do apply and are selected through a six-week program in Debert," Nearing said. "All of the senior people went through that program and are here now as staff and instructors to share knowledge and to keep it going." During the flights, a truck tows the glider down the runway, as it takes to the air. The glider then circles around the area. "It's like being inside a paper airplane," explains Nicholas Doyle, a cadet glider pilot.
[Cape Breton Post, 16 August 1999]


1999 August 14

Maritime Broadcasting System
Corporate Structure

Maritime Broadcasting System corporate structure, August 1999
Source: CRTC website at http://www.crtc.gc/Ownership/cht152.pdf Source: Nova Scotia Registry of Joint Stock Companies [RJSC]
    http://www.gov.ns.ca/bacs/rjsc/


1999 August 19

Telile Seeking VHF License

Isle Madame television wants to move
from cable-only signal distribution
to over-the-air broadcasting

A community television channel serving Isle Madame is continuing the process to obtain a VHF licence. Telile serves The Isle Madame and Louisdale area of Richmond County and began broadcasting in 1994. It was born out of the fisheries crisis which left Isle Madame on the brink of devastation. While it has become a successful business, employing several local residents, it hasn't completely fulfilled its hopes of fostering community development by highlighting local achievements, opportunities and difficulties, because there are still several areas on the island and in Louisdale which cannot receive the channel. Telile is currently carried via cable, but remains a community-owned and operated business that simply broadcasts its signal on a cable network. General manager Gloria Hill said obtaining a VHF licence would allow Telile to better fulfill its mandate. The channel is proceeding with a CRTC application to switch to VHF transmission. People who currently receive Telile via cable wouldn't notice any changes under the new system, however the channel would be able to reach as many as 600 additional homes. Moving to VHF transmission would sustain Telile's current three employees and could potentially create more positions.
[Cape Breton Post, 19 August 1999]


Telile-Isle Madame Community Television Association
Association Télévision Communautaire de l'Ile Madame

Application number 199906007 to the CRTC by Telile-Isle Madame Community Television Association, Arichat, Nova Scotia, for a broadcasting licence to carry on an English and French-language low-power television station at Isle Madame. The new station would operate on channel 10 with a transmitter power of 45.3 watts. The applicant has requested to be relieved, by condition of licence, of the requirements of Section 10(1) to 10(4) of the Television Broadcasting Regulations, 1987 with regard to the retention of program logs or records. The Commission will only proceed with this application at the public hearing if advised by the Department of Industry, at least ten days prior to the hearing, that it is technically acceptable.
Source:
http://www.crtc.gc.ca/ENG/BCASTING/HEARING/1999/N9910_0.txt


Arichat is located on Isle Madame, a lovely 35 km2 island which is home to 4,300 people, including me. Since the island was settled by the French in the 18th century, its major industry has been fishing. In 1992, however, the island's fishery was tottering. Its collapse would eliminate 500 jobs in a workforce of only 1,500. An emergency meeting formed a committee which obtained funding under the federal Industrial Adjustment Services program, and commissioned GTA Consultants to analyze the crisis and propose remedies. GTA polled the people, reviewed the alternatives, and concluded that the island's only hope was "community economic development." ... So we started with a non-profit community cable television studio. Telile Communications had plenty of growing pains, but it survived. It currently employs three people full-time, and also produces videos for government and industry...
Excerpted from People-Centered Economics by Silver Donald Cameron, published in Nova Scotia, Open to the World, Summer 1997
    http://www.munisource.org/richmond/econ-dev.htm


1999 August 20

Coal Contract Talks Between Devco, NSP Under Way

Result will affect cost of electricity everywhere in Nova Scotia

Devco and Nova Scotia Power have had several meetings on a new coal contract. The coal company has an agreement with NSP to supply coal until 2010. The coal is used to fire high-pressure steam boilers to drive electric generators, which supply power throughout Nova Scotia. Every five years the parties renegotiate quantities, tolerances on quality and prices. The current phase of the contract is due to expire December 31st. Devco president George White figures they will work through the process over the next two to three months. "We have a long standing good working relationship with NSP." He also anticipates negotiations will be tough. "But I anticipate we will come to some agreement and carry on."
[Cape Breton Post, 20 August 1999]


1999 August 21

Warning to Mariners: GPS Rollover

The Department of Fisheries and Oceans is reminding mariners and recreational boaters that the satellite based Global Positioning System (GPS) will experience an End of the Week (EOW) clock rollover today. The EOW rollover will occur a few seconds before
    9:30pm Newfoundland daylight time
    9:00pm Atlantic daylight time
    8:00pm Eastern daylight time
    7:00pm Central daylight time
    6:00pm Mountain daylight time
    5:00pm Pacific daylight time.

The GPS allows users with GPS receivers to continuously determine their geographic position. It has been counting weeks since January 6th, 1980, and can only count to a maximum of 1,024. Therefore at midnight today, the system will roll over, back to zero weeks. If the rollover was not taken into account when the GPS receiver was manufactured or has not been upgraded to account for the rollover, the unit may give incorrect positions, dates or times, or may stop altogether. Some GPS receivers may interpret the date as January 6th, 1980. Users can get more information on the GPS rollover from various sources.

[Cape Breton Post, 21 August 1999]


1999 August 21   8:59:47pm ADT

GPS Week Rollover

The widely-used Global Positioning System (GPS) experienced the first rollover of its internal clock, termed the End of Week (EOW) Rollover, August 21, 1999. The EOW rollover exists because the large increment for counting GPS system time is one week, and weeks are accumulated in a 10-bit register. GPS time started January 6, 1980 with week "0000" and continued until 23:59:47 Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), August 21, 1999. After the rollover, the GPS clock, that is the week counter, will reset itself to "0000." This is the first EOW rollover since the GPS constellation was established.

The Rollover occurred when the End Of Week counter incremented from 1111111111 and thus "reset" to 0000000000. The GPS End Of Week counter is a computer memory location that stores ten binary digits. At the end of each week, this counter increments by one bit. GPS Time is a "paper clock" ensemble of the Master Control Clock and the SV clocks. GPS Time is measured in weeks and seconds from 24:00:00, January 5, 1980, and is kept within one microsecond of UTC except for the leap second adjustments described below. GPS Time has no leap seconds and is ahead of UTC by a whole number of seconds. GPS receivers compute the current time readout in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), which is computed from GPS Time using the UTC correction parameters sent as part of the navigation data bits.

At the transition between 23:59:59 UTC on December 31, 1998 and 00:00:00 UTC on January 1, 1999, UTC was retarded by one second. GPS Time is now (1999) ahead of UTC by 13 seconds.

http://hpiers.obspm.fr/webiers/general/earthor/leapsec.html
On 31 December 1998, the last minute of the day lasted 61 seconds. Why ?

For additional explanation, see http://tycho.usno.navy.mil/leap.html

See http://www.utexas.edu/depts/grg/gcraft/notes/gps/gif/gpstime.gif for a more detailed explanation of the relationship between UTC and GPS time.

The GPS concept of operation is based upon satellite ranging. Users figure their position on the Earth by measuring their distance from the group of satellites in space. The satellites act as precise reference points. GPS is a satellite-based radionavigation system developed and operated by the United States Department of Defense (DOD). Each GPS satellite transmits an accurate position and time signal. Civil (non-military) users worldwide can use the SPS without charge or restrictions. The user's receiver measures the time delay for the signal to reach the receiver, which is the direct measure of the apparent range to the satellite. Measurements collected simultaneously from four satellites are processed to solve for velocity, time, and the three dimensions of position, 24 hours a day, in all weather, anywhere in the world with a precision and accuracy far better than other radionavigation systems available today or in the foreseeable future. The GPS satellite array consists of 24 operational satellites in six circular orbits 20,200 km 10,900 nautical miles above the Earth at an inclination angle of 55 degrees with a 12 hour period. The satellites are spaced in orbit so that at any time a minimum of six satellites will be in view to users anywhere in the world. The satellites continuously broadcast position and time data to users throughout the world.

This is how the precise rollover date is computed:
The timescale origin (time zero) of GPS System Time, 00:00:00 UTC 6 January 1980, is Julian Day 2,444,244.500. A GPS cycle is 1,024 weeks, or 7,168 days, so the first GPS rollover will occur at Julian Day (2444244.5 + 7168) = 2,451,412.5, which is 00:00:00 UTC 22 August 1999 AD, which is the midnight between Saturday night the 21st of August, and Sunday morning the 22nd of August, 1999.

That is how it would have worked if GPS was running on UTC time. But there is a 13-second difference between GPS time and UTC time. That is why the EOW Rollover occurred 13 seconds ahead of the hour as shown on ordinary clocks on Earth.

Where Did That 13 Seconds Come From?

The EOW Rollover occurred exactly at midnight GPS time — at 00:00:00 22 August 1999 according to GPS. But this was 13 seconds before midnight UTC, which is the time system used by almost everyone on Earth. (Your household clocks, your watch, the clocks used by governments and businesses and radio and television broadcasting, all run on UTC time, — with a suitable time zone offset. The offset is -0400 hours for Atlantic Standard Time. A zero offset corresponds closely to what used to be known as Greenwich Mean Time.)

How come there is this difference between GPS time and UTC time? Thirteen seconds? Where did that thirteen seconds come from?

Question: Why didn't they design the GPS to keep the same time as UTC?

Answer: They did.

In the GPS, Time Zero was at 00:00:00 UTC 6 January 1980. As far as the GPS is concerned, this was the Beginning Of Time. At that moment, GPS time was set equal to UTC time. There was no difference. 00:00:00 GPS 6 January 1980 was exactly the same (within a microsecond) as 00:00:00 UTC 6 January 1980. But there is a problem — the Earth's rotation is not quite uniform. Once in a while, it is necessary to insert a "leap second" in UTC. A leap second is one extra second inserted occasionally to keep UTC in step with the rotation of the Earth. In the design of GPS, it was decided not to adjust the GPS time by inserting leap seconds. The designers decided to keep GPS time running smoothly and uniformly, as determined by the average of about 240 atomic clocks running at various places around the world.

So we have GPS running uniformly with no leap second adjustments, while UTC is running uniformly with occasional leap second adjustments. This means that, whenever a leap second is inserted in UTC (to keep UTC in agreement with the Earth's rotation), this produces a difference of one second between GPS and UTC. These differences are cumulative; between 6 January 1980 (the start of GPS time) and 21 August 1999 (the date of the first EOW Rollover) there were thirteen leap second adjustments to UTC, which accounts for the thirteen-second difference between GPS and UTC at the time of the Rollover.

Leap seconds are always inserted at 0h UTC. Leap seconds can be introduced in UTC at the end of the months of December or June. On the selected day, the last minute is lengthened to 61 seconds. The latest information on this adjustment is contained in a special document known as "Bulletin C." Bulletin C is mailed every six months, either to announce a time step in UTC, or to confirm that there will be no time step at the next possible date. Bulletin C is available on the Internet at http://hpiers.obspm.fr/iers/bul/bulc/bulletinc.dat
  Historic Record of Leap Second Insertions in UTC
    Since GPS Time Zero,  0:00:00 6 January 1980

     Date       Step     Accumulated
                         Difference
                           Between
                         GPS and UTC
  1981  Jul 1    1s           1s      GPS-UTC = +1s     UTC-TAI = -20s
  1982  Jul 1    1s           2s      GPS-UTC = +2s     UTC-TAI = -21s
  1983  Jul 1    1s           3s      GPS-UTC = +3s     UTC-TAI = -22s
  1985  Jul 1    1s           4s      GPS-UTC = +4s     UTC-TAI = -23s
  1988  Jan 1    1s           5s      GPS-UTC = +5s     UTC-TAI = -24s
  1990  Jan 1    1s           6s      GPS-UTC = +6s     UTC-TAI = -25s
  1991  Jan 1    1s           7s      GPS-UTC = +7s     UTC-TAI = -26s
  1992  Jul 1    1s           8s      GPS-UTC = +8s     UTC-TAI = -27s
  1993  Jul 1    1s           9s      GPS-UTC = +9s     UTC-TAI = -28s
  1994  Jul 1    1s          10s      GPS-UTC = +10s    UTC-TAI = -29s
  1996  Jan 1    1s          11s      GPS-UTC = +11s    UTC-TAI = -30s
  1997  Jul 1    1s          12s      GPS-UTC = +12s    UTC-TAI = -31s
  1999  Jan 1    1s          13s      GPS-UTC = +13s    UTC-TAI = -32s

TAI   International Atomic Time
UTC   Coordinated Universal Time
Sources:
http://hpiers.obspm.fr/iers/bul/bulc/TimeSteps.history
http://hpiers.obspm.fr/webiers/general/earthor/utc/table2.html

The first leap second ever, was inserted at midnight UTC between 30 June and 1 July 1972. Since then, to August 1999, there have been 21 leap second insertions, making a total of 22 leap seconds inserted since the beginning of this procedure.

The following references will provide abundant additional information about GPS, and especially about the way that it handles time:

http://hpiers.obspm.fr/
International Earth Rotation Service, Paris, France
This organization makes the decisions when to insert leap seconds in UTC.

http://hpiers.obspm.fr/webiers/general/earthor/ROT.html
Measuring the Irregularities in the Earth's Rotation

http://www.utexas.edu/depts/grg/gcraft/notes/gps/gps_ftoc.html
Department of Geography, University of Texas at Austin

http://www.navcen.uscg.mil/faq/gpsfaq1.htm#Rollover
United States Coast Guard Navigation Center
http://www.navcen.uscg.mil/gps/issues/gpsrollover.htm
The actual End of Week Rollover is in the Subframe One of the Navigation Signal and will happen at 23:59:47 UTC 21 August 1999.

http://www.laafb.af.mil/SMC/CZ/homepage/y2000/EOW-fact.htm
United States Air Force GPS Joint Program Office, Space and Missile Systems Center, Los Angeles Air Force Base, California

http://www.auslig.gov.au/new/094_99.htm
Australian Surveying and Land Information Group, AUSLIG, is Australia's national mapping agency. AUSLIG maintains a network of permanently positioned GPS receivers at strategic locations around Australia as part of the geodetic framework for Australia's spatial data infrastructure. The network is used primarily for surveying and mapping.

http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/~mgk25/iso-time.html
International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
A Summary of the International Standard Date and Time Notation

http://www.cnde.iastate.edu/staff/swormley/gps/
Iowa State University, Global Positioning System (GPS) Resources

http://gauss.gge.unb.ca/GPS.INTERNET.SERVICES.HTML
Canadian Space Geodesy Forum, Navstar GPS Internet Links

U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder,Colorado
http://www.boulder.nist.gov/timefreq/faq/faq.htm
Time and Frequency Division, NIST Time and Frequency FAQ
http://gpsmonitor.timefreq.bldrdoc.gov/gpstrace.htm
NIST Global Positioning System (GPS) Data Archive

http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/CORS/
United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),
Continuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS)

http://greenwich2000.com/time/
Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) also known as Zulu Time

http://www.gpsworld.com/
GPS World Magazine Online




http://tycho.usno.navy.mil/leap.html
                       LEAP SECOND ALERT! 
  
                     U.S. NAVAL OBSERVATORY
                  WASHINGTON, D.C.  20392-5420
                                
                                             July 23, 1998
                                             No. 64

               TIME SERVICE ANNOUNCEMENT SERIES 14
                                
                          UTC TIME STEP

1.  The International Earth Rotation Service (IERS) has announced the 
introduction of a time step to occur at the end of December, 1998.

2.  Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) will be retarded by 1.0s so that 
the sequence of dates of the UTC markers will be:

               1998 December 31   23h   59m   59s
               1998 December 31   23h   59m   60s
               1999 January  01    0h    0m    0s

3.  The difference between UTC and International Atomic Time (TAI) is:

from 1997   01 Jul, UTC to 1999 01 January, UTC:       TAI-UTC = +31s
from 1999   01 Jan, UTC until further notice:          TAI-UTC = +32s

4.  The insertion of one leap second will be evident by the change of 
sign of the DUT1 correction which will become positive.  Extrapolated 
values of DUT1 are distributed weekly in the IERS Bulletin A.

5.  All coordinated time scales will be affected by this adjustment.  
However, Loran-C and GPS will not be adjusted physically.  Times of 
Coincidence for LORAN-C are available on the Time Service Web Page 
(http://tycho.usno.navy.mil/loran.html).  For GPS, the leap second 
correction contained within the UTC data of subframe 4, page 18 of 
the navigation message transmitted by satellites will change.

     Before the leap second
     GPS-UTC = +12 (i.e., GPS is ahead of UTC by twelve seconds)

     After the leap second
     GPS-UTC = +13s (i.e., GPS will be ahead by thirteen seconds)

                              DENNIS D. McCARTHY
                              Director
                              Directorate of Time



1999 August 25

South Shore Genealogy Website

The 20-year-old South Shore Genealogical Society (SSGS) has launched a new website. Of interest to people researching their family trees, it's constantly being added to, says webmaster Sheevaun Nelson of Blue Rocks. Being online, says society president Sheila Chambers, heightens the public's awareness of us as a society and what we can do for them. The site's main feature is a cemetery index. SSGS member George Newbury figures he's about half way through locating the county's cemeteries including unmarked, private single graves. Perhaps surprisingly to the general public, "new" ones keep popping up. "I know of six I can't find," he says, "between Lunenburg and Hubbards." When residents hear of his project, they often recall burial grounds they haven't seen or thought about in years. He takes digital photographs of tombstones and cemeteries, then updates the website with the new information. In his efforts, he's joined by Paul Harmon, Martha Farrar and map maker Chris Young. To date, George has collected about 171 churches and over 270 cemeteries or single stones. "Each day there's another one," he says. "We hope to have all the cemeteries in the county photographed by summer's end." The information, including topographical maps, directions and photographs are available in the website. George and Sheevaun are also photographing memorials and cenotaphs including the Norwegian and Butterbox tributes. They load them into the website, printing off hard copies for the society's files. SSGS is a non-profit volunteer organization with about 300 members, dedicated to helping with genealogical matters and providing information on the South Shore. The SSGS collection, located on the third floor of the Fisheries Museum of the Atlantic on the Lunenburg waterfront, includes primary sources such as church and census records and passenger lists; genealogical research; files on families; cemetery lists; several of its books; out-of-print volumes about Lunenburg, Queens and Annapolis counties and material from the United States. On microfilm are back issues of The Progress Enterprise and The Bridgewater Bulletin.
[The Lunenburg Progress-Enterprise, 25 August 1999]
[Also: The SSGS website http://www.rootsweb.com/~nslssgs/ ]


1999 August 23

Gasoline Always Two Cents Cheaper

Four vehicles crowd the self serve island at the Ultramar gas station in Reserve as another two drivers wait patiently for their turn to pump their cars full with gas. This is not an uncommon scene for the service station which is the only gas station with a self serve pump in the Dominion, Reserve and Glace Bay areas on Cape Breton Island. So why the crowd if you have to do the work yourself? It's cheaper. Pure and simple. At today's price of 62.9 cents for regular gas at the self serve pump, buyers are getting at least a two cent saving over any of the other gas stations in the area. "They're always two cents cheaper," says Richie Christianson, a gas station attendant at Wilson's Esso a short drive down the road from the Ultramar at 935 Sydney Road in Reserve Mines. Christianson has been an attendant there for two years and says it's always been that way. The reason is the self serve pumps. Manager of this particular Ultramar, Jerome Campbell says the price is automatically lower if you pump your own gas and he has no say in the price of gas at his station. "We're a company-operated store, not privately owned or leased." Jerome says this means he is the last one to find out if the price of gas at the station will increase or decrease. He says if customers come to him saying another station is charging a few cents less than his, he makes a call to Ultramar's main office. He tells the customers it's out of his hands and he waits for the office to call with a decision.
[Cape Breton Post, 23 August 1999]


1999 August 26

Lunenburg Fully Prepared for Rollover

The Y2K bug won't affect the Town of Lunenburg. Finance and accounting director Norman Mossman told the August 26 meeting of the Town Council that the town is now about 95 per cent prepared for the new millennium. The only hold-ups, he said, had been reports from the fire department and Emergency Measures Organization. He now has those and is in the process of reviewing them. "Things are progressing quite well," Mr. Mossman said.
[The Lunenburg Progress-Enterprise, 1 September 1999]


1999 August 31

Cancom Merges with Star Choice

On August 31, 1999 Cancom and Star Choice merged their operations under Cancom's name, and Star Choice became a subsidiary of Cancom. Canadian Satellite Communications Inc. (Cancom) operates in three main lines of business. Cancom Broadcast Solutions delivers a wide range of digital TV signals to re-broadcasters across the continent; Cancom Tracking Solutions provides tracking and messaging for the Canadian trucking industry across North America and Mexico. Cancom Learning Solutions designs, builds and maintains private satellite interactive distance learning networks (SIDL) and communications for business and governments. Cancom is also a majority owner of Globalstar Canada, which is part of a group of service providers in over 100 countries that is preparing to launch affordable wireless voice and fax services which will be available world-wide via a low-earth-orbit (LEO) satellite system. Star Choice is a leading Canadian direct-to-home satellite television service provider that is quickly and effectively implementing a nation-wide service. Star Choice has grown to approximately 241,000 subscribers in fiscal 1999, an increase of 121% over the previous year. After the Cancom equity issue in December, 1999, Shaw Communications Inc. owns approximately 34% of the merged entity.
Source:
Shaw Communications Inc. Annual Information Form, 18 January 2000
at http://www.sedar.com/






Go To:   History of Telegraph and Telephone Companies in Nova Scotia
    http://ns1758.ca/tele/telephone.html

Go To:   History of Railway Companies in Nova Scotia
    http://ns1758.ca/rail/railways.html

Go To:   History of Electric Power Companies in Nova Scotia
    http://ns1758.ca/electric/electric.html

Go To:   History of Automobiles in Nova Scotia
    http://ns1758.ca/auto/automobiles.html

Go To:   Nova Scotia History, Chapter One
    http://newscotland1398.ca/hist/nshistory01.html

Go To:   Nova Scotia in the War of 1812
    http://ns1758.ca/1812war/war1812-atlantic.html#war1812-novascot

Go To:   Nova Scotia Historical Biographies
    http://newscotland1398.ca/hist/nshistory00.html#ns-historical-biog

Go To:   Proclamations: Land Grants in Nova Scotia 1757, '58, '59
    http://planter2010.ca/proc/proclamations-ndx.html

Go To:   Statutes of Nova Scotia, 1805, edited by Richard John Uniacke
    http://ns1763.ca/law/ns-statutes1805-titlepg.html

Go To:   Home Page
    http://newscotland1398.ca/index.html

Valid HTML 4.01 webpage

W3C HTML Validation Service
http://validator.w3.org/

Valid CSS webpage

W3C CSS Validation Service
http://jigsaw.w3.org/css-validator/


Moved to new hosting company:   2011 May 26
Latest update:   2011 May 28