History of Nova Scotia
with special attention given to
Communications and Transportation

Chapter 79
2001 April - December

Every six months or so, the number of lambdas ("colors" of light, each carrying a full-capacity data stream) on a single fibre thread, doubles.

In 1996 the number was 16; in 1998, it was 40; in 2000, it was 160; in 2001, it may well reach 320.

All with no increase in cost.

Meanwhile, the capacity of each "color" on a fibre has risen from... 2.4 gigabits per second in 1996... to 40 gigabits per second in some rare applications last year.  Nortel plans to offer 80 gigabits per second early next year, and Lucent proclaims the laboratory feat of putting 160 gigabits per second on a single lambda.

  — Gilder Technology Report, May 2001     http://www.gildertech.com/

What is a Lambda?

Lambda is the English name of the eleventh letter of the Greek alphabet.
For decades, lowercase lambda has been used in Physics as the mathematical
symbol representing wavelength.

The following equation is familiar to everyone who has studied high-school Physics.
It applies to light waves, sound waves, ocean waves, and waves in general.
Wavelength (lambda) equals velocity (V) divided by frequency (f)
Wavelength (lambda) equals velocity (v) divided by frequency (f).
Wavelength is measured in metres,
velocity in metres per second,
and frequency in hertz.

Whereas initial fiber deployments sent only one light signal through each strand of fibre, current methods break the light into different frequencies (commonly called "colors," though many of the frequency ranges aren't in the visible spectrum) and carry a different signal in each range.

Using this wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) approach, brain-staggering amounts of throughput can be achieved.  Current dense WDM (DWDM) technologies routinely achieve on the order of 100 gigabytes per second throughput, with throughputs approaching 400 gigabytes per second expected in the near term.  NEC Corporation (the company was originally named Nippon Electric Company, and officially became NEC Corporation in 1983) announced in October 2000 that it had successfully transmitted 6.4 terabytes per second on a long-haul fibre.

And this is per strand.

Consider that the cables Qwest used when laying in its network in 1998 and 1999 contained 48 strands (not to mention that Qwest also left an open conduit for future cables).

Consider also that while Qwest may have the newest international long-haul optical infrastructure, it's only one of the usual handful of giant carrier suspects, each with thousands of miles of backbone fibre in the ground...

Excerpted from Optical Networks: The Lambda That Roared, December 2000

2001 April 1

Mulgrave Loses Road Cost-Sharing

The provincial Department of Transportation has given the Town of Mulgrave written notice of the termination, effective 31 March 2001, of its cost-sharing program for road maintenance and repair.  In a letter to the town, transportation minister Ron Russell says the Aids-to-Towns road maintenance agreement between Mulgrave and the province was signed in 1996, and provided funding for snow and ice removal, summer maintenance, and capital improvements.  The minister's letter, received by the town in August 2000, noted that ninety days' notice was needed prior to the October signing date to change the agreement.  "Effective April 1, 2001, the Town will be responsible for all maintenance and construction activities on all streets within the town boundaries," the minister wrote.  Mulgrave mayor Leonard MacDonald says the cut will cost the town about $10,000 a year.  MacDonald said that figure is what the provincial department has contributed toward road repairs in past years.
[The Guysborough Journal, 16 August 2000]

2001 April 24

Digby Company Hooks Up with IBM and Cisco

Digby — A local company involved in the Western Valley Smart Community Program is teaming with IBM to help spread Internet access throughout Annapolis and Digby counties.  Peck Communications of Digby announced its partnership with the computer giant on Friday, April 20th.

The Western Valley was selected in May 2000 to become one of Canada's twelve models for high-tech innovation through the federal government's Connecting Canada initiative.  The Smart Community Program is funded by Industry Canada and the Western Valley project was the first to get underway.

Goals of the $5,000,000 Western Valley project include delivering online education in English and French, helping businesses adopt e-commerce, giving all 43,000 citizens of the region free access to e-mail, and providing public Internet access through 100 kiosks.

"Through partnerships with multinationals like IBM and Cisco Systems this local firm is proving that the Western Valley has a place in the international technology industry," said Janet Larkman, executive director of the Western Valley Development Authority, which is managing the Smart Community Program.

She said Peck Communications is recognized as a wireless networking specialist in Atlantic Canada and possesses technology that will allow businesses to link computers as far as 25 kilometres apart.  As a partner in the Smart Community Program, Peck Communications will provide networking solutions to deliver high-speed Internet to locations in the Western Valley where no other viable options exist.

The company's technology will be showcased this week at a trade show in Digby where the Internet will be accessed without wires. Peck Communications is a division of Peck Auto Glass Ltd.  The company has been an MTT Dealer for the past 5 years, offering wireline telephone sets, wireless phones, and recently Sympatico and Mpowered Internet service. Peck Communications is also in partnership with Cisco Systems, Aliant Telecom and Xwave Solutions.

The Halifax Chronicle-Herald, 24 April 2001, and
Smart Community press release, 20 April 2001

Western Valley Development Authority

Remarkably, Peck Communications does not appear to have a website!
On 28 April 2001 I did an extensive search and found nothing.

(Later) In December 2001, an email informed me that
Peck Communications now has a website at

2001 April 27   7:05am

CKCL AM Signs Off Forever

On The Air for 54 Years

TRURO   A familiar voice in Truro radio for more than 40 years will bid a final farewell to CKCL listeners Friday, April 27th, when the station signs off permanently at 7:05am.

Frank MacDonald, retired for four years, will conclude the AM radio station's 54 years of continuous broadcasting by sitting behind the microphone for the final hour.  "I think it's great that they asked me to do this," MacDonald said Wednesday.  "It puts a kind of closure to CKCL."

The veteran broadcaster, who was the station's longest employee, admitted it will seem strange to be on the air again.  So much has changed in such a short time, including the equipment.  But he looks forward to speaking once again to his long-time friends.

"We're excited about it too," said Dan Barton, program manager at the station.  "In recognition of the great history CKCL has had in this area, how fitting to have someone who was there for so much of it."

Telemedia Radio Atlantic Inc. is replacing CKCL AM 600 kHz with a new FM station at 99.5 MHz.  It will join sister station CKTO 100.9 MHz which is already on the FM band.

"Surrendering the broadcast licence for CKCL was required by the CRTC (Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission) in order to get a new high-powered FM licence for Truro," said John Eddy, vice-president of the company.

"Naturally there is a sadness and a sense of loss for everyone connected with CKCL because it has been so much a part of the history of the region," he said.  "But at the same time it is the beginning of a new and exciting era."

The change means people living in areas that could not pick up Truro's AM station will be able to hear broadcasts on the stronger FM signal, transmitting from Nuttby Mountain.

Some North Shore residents welcomed the news this week, especially country music fans accustomed to listening to CFCY in Charlottetown.  "For sure I'll switch to the new station," said Debbie Ferguson, a Tatamagouche area resident and country music enthusiast.  Theda Boyce, community development co-ordinator in Tatamagouche, said it will be super for area residents to have a choice and variety.  "I like the idea of listening to a Nova Scotia station whereas a lot of people here listen to Prince Edward Island stations," she said.

As part of the transition period, CKCL will simulcast the new FM programming for two weeks before it is silenced.

CKCL originated on September 10, 1947 when announcer Sid Davison leaned into the microphone and said 'good morning' to central Nova Scotia for the first time.

[The Truro Daily News, 24 April 2001]

A personal note by ICS (written 26 April 2001):
I worked with Sid Davison in the summer of 1953,
at CBH in Halifax.  I remember Sid well.  He was the
staff announcer and I was the control room operator.

2001 May 4

Friday May 4th, 2001 Seaside Broadcasting Organization of Eastern Passage, Nova Scotia filed application with the Canadian Radio-Television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC) in Halifax seeking permission to operate a 24 hours a day, year round not-for-profit community radio station with the station's programming aimed at the mature residents of Eastern Passage-Cow Bay and other surrounding communities, with a power output of 50 watts.  On the same date, an application was mailed Express Post to Industry Canada in Moncton, New Brunswick with the proper technical documents that are needed by their department from Seaside Broadcasting.  We are very pleased to announce we have reached an agreement with the Halifax Regional Fire and Emergency Services to have our permanent antenna located on the existing tower at the Eastern Passage-Cow Bay fire hall.  Given the height and location of the tower, the CKEP broadcast signal will surely reach a wide area.
Source: CKEP website

2001 May 7

Kings County Trails Society Formed

The Kings County Trails Society will meet at the Kentville recreation centre at seven o'clock Monday evening, May 7th, 2001.  The new organization's stated purpose is to provide an association for the establishment, preservation, and promotion of shared trail systems within Kings County, Nova Scotia.

The society was officially formed on February 12th of this year.  Its objectives include compiling an inventory of types and accessibility of trails in the county; mapping and description of the trails; advocacy of shared use of abandoned railway lines; encouragement of partnerships with landowners for a trail authority; promotion of networking between trail users and trail developers; and investigation and acquisition of resources needed for the group's work.

With the formation of the society in February, forty interested volunteers finalized the bylaws and goals of the new organization and elected the first slate of interim executive officers.

Interim secretary Ken Reade explained that the agenda for the May 7 meeting will include the election of a slate of officers and the further discussion of ideas, long- and short-term goals, and objectives.  "We're trying to get together all the groups that use the trails so we can help provide better and safer trails."  These would include fishermen, boaters, and canoeists.

Reade noted that the society intends to deal with "all trails, including multi-uses, so that everybody can enjoy them."  The types of trails include, among others, walking, snowshoeing, skiing, equestrian, and ATVs.

[The Kentville Advertiser, 27 April 2001]

2001 May 10   Thursday

Routine Adjournment Motion Contains a Time Bomb

Nova Scotia Legislature, Halifax

Motion to adjourn
page 3215, Hansard's report of proceedings
in the Nova Scotia Legislature
on 2001 May 10:

Hon. Ronald Russell, the honourable Government House Leader
    Mr. Speaker, I move the House do now rise to meet again on the morrow at the hour of 8:00 a.m.  We will sit until 12:00 p.m., or in the event that we finish Bill No. 20 we would adjourn earlier.  The order of business will be Public Bills for Second Reading, and we will continue with Bill No. 20.

Hon. Murray Scott, Speaker
    The motion is to adjourn until 8:00 a.m., until 12:00 p.m.
    Is it agreed?
    It is agreed.
    The House is adjourned until 8:00 a.m.

[The House rose at 10:57 p.m.]

2001 May 11   Friday

Time for a Break?

MLAs spend 25 minutes arguing if 12 p.m is noon or midnight

Unable to decide meaning of ordinary time language

As if Nova Scotia MLAs didn't have enough to argue about, they're now debating whether 12 p.m. is midnight or high noon.

Conservative House leader Ron Russell, who sets hours for the legislature, said Thursday night that MLAs would sit from 8 a.m. to 12 p.m. on Friday.

Gleeful opposition members said that meant noon, although Mr. Russell said he meant midnight.

The parties debated the point for almost 25 minutes Friday morning, with Mr. Russell sticking to his guns.

"Midnight of course means 12 p.m.," he said.

"I believe that there is such a thing as 12 p.m. midnight because there is a nanosecond before you reach..." he said before being interrupted by opposition laughter.

Mr. Russell extended the hours of the House starting Thursday in response to opposition delaying tactics on the government's restructuring bill.  The House sat for fifteen hours Thursday, up from the usual eight.

NDP House leader John Holm said Hansard, the official record of proceedings in the legislature, showed Mr. Russell and Mr. Scott both said 8 a.m. to 12 p.m. Thursday night.  Mr. Holm said 12 p.m. is noon.

"It was quite clear if he made a faux pas, Mr. Speaker, he has to live with that," Mr. Holm said.  "We cannot go back after the fact and change the official record.  And a motion was made and carried unanimously by all members of the House."

Mr. Holm and Liberal MLA Manning MacDonald both noted it's extremely rare to sit late on Friday, when MLAs generally head home to their constituencies.

But Mr. Scott ruled that Mr. Russell meant midnight, and that's how long they'd sit.

"There's no clear definition of 11:59 p.m. or a.m. or 12:01 a.m. or p.m.  There is not.  There is not," Mr. Scott said.  "My ruling is the House will sit til midnight tonight."

Mr. Russell then put on his glasses and consulted a dictionary in hopes of proving his point.

"'Post-meridian.  Afternoon, used chiefly in the abbreviated form to specify the hour.' ...Um, where am I here? Also, also... Mr. Speaker, it does not state what I was..."  Mr. Russell said as opposition members hooted and slapped their desks.

The legislature recessed while the House leaders discussed the matter, coming back with a compromise — the House would sit until 3 p.m.

Robert Dawson, a Saint Mary's University mathematician, said technically, all the MLAs were wrong.

"Neither a.m. nor p.m. is correct for noon or midnight and, technically, they should be referred to as 12 noon or 12 midnight," Mr. Dawson said.

"The point being, a.m. stands for ante meridiem, that is before noon, and p.m. is post meridiem, that is to say afternoon.  And noon is clearly neither of these and midnight is not distinguished by being either one."

Mr. Dawson said he has heard midnight referred to as 12 p.m., but the convention is that 12 p.m. refers to noon.

Mr. MacDonald summed up the dispute: "What's said in this House and what's meant to be said in this House are two fairly different matters."

Nova Scotia legislature, Hansard, 11 May 2001, page 3223     http://nslegislature.ca/index.php/proceedings/hansard/C53/h01may11/i01may11.htm#[Page%203223]

[The Halifax Chronicle-Herald, 12 May 2001]


Nova Scotia MLAs Display Incredible Illiteracy
About Ordinary Everyday Technology

"There is no clear definition
of 11:59 p.m. or a.m., or 12:01 a.m. or p.m."
— Astonishingly Misinformed Official Ruling
by the Speaker of the Nova Scotia Legislature

The Hamm government tried but failed yesterday to turn 12 noon into 12 midnight.

The three parties spent nearly twenty minutes discussing whether 12 p.m. means midnight or noon.

When the House adjourned Thursday, government House leader Ron Russell announced it would sit yesterday from 8 a.m. until 12 p.m.

First thing yesterday morning, NDP House leader John Holm said the official record of proceedings showed Russell had said 12 p.m., or noon, and he couldn't now keep the legislature open until 12 a.m., or midnight.

Russell said he had made it clear he meant "12 midnight and midnight, of course, means 12 p.m."  He went on to explain: "I believe that in police terminology, that there is such a thing as 12 p.m. midnight because there is a nanosecond before you reach..."

The House erupted into laughter.

"There's an old expression: say what you mean and mean what you say... If he made a faux pas, he has to live with that," Holm replied.

Speaker Murray Scott said Russell's intention was clear, given the events of the week.  The House was open fifteen hours Thursday, from 8 a.m. until 11 p.m.  He went on to give his understanding of time-telling.

"There is no clear definition of 11:59 p.m. or a.m., or 12:01 a.m. or p.m.  There is not," Scott said.  "My ruling is that the House will sit until midnight tonight."

Russell said that because there was no consensus to sit until midnight, then "we'll adjourn at 12 p.m., at noon."

After a ten-minute recess, the three House leaders agreed to sit until 3 p.m.

[The Halifax Daily News, 12 May 2001]

Are noon and midnight 12 a.m. or 12 p.m.?

This is a tricky question.

The answer is that the terms 12 a.m. and 12 p.m. are wrong and should not be used.

To illustrate this, consider that "a.m" and "p.m."  are abbreviations for "ante meridiem" and "post meridiem."  They mean "before noon" and "after noon," respectively.  Noon is neither before or after noon; it is simply noon. Therefore, neither the "a.m." nor "p.m." designation is correct.

On the other hand, midnight is both 12 hours before noon and 12 hours after noon.  Therefore, either 12 a.m. or 12 p.m. could work as a designation for midnight, but both would be ambiguous as to the date intended.

When a specific date is important, and when we can use a 24-hour clock, we prefer to designate that moment not as 12:00 midnight, but rather as 0000 if we are referring to the beginning of a given day (or date), or 2400 if we are designating the end of a given day (or date).

To be certain of avoiding ambiguity (while still using a 12-hour clock), specify an event as beginning at 12:01 a.m. (one minute after midnight) or ending at 11:59 p.m. (one minute before midnight).  This method is used by the railroads and airlines for schedules, and is often found in legal papers such as contracts and insurance policies.

If one is referring not to a specific date, but rather to several days, or days in general, use the terms noon and midnight instead of 12 a.m. and 12 p.m.  For example, a bank might be open on Saturdays from 8 a.m. to noon.  Or a grocery store might be open daily until midnight.  The terms "12 noon" and "12 midnight" are also correct, though redundant.

Time and Frequency Division
U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology

Please consider the 12h time to be a relic from the dark ages when Roman numerals were used, the number zero had not yet been invented and analog clocks were the only known form of displaying a time.  Please avoid using it today...

The international standard notation for the time of day is hh:mm:ss where hh is the number of complete hours that have passed since midnight (00-24), mm is the number of complete minutes that have passed since the start of the hour (00-59), and ss is the number of complete seconds since the start of the minute (00-60)...

As every day both starts and ends with midnight, the two notations 00:00 and 24:00 are available to distinguish the two midnights that can be associated with one date.  This means that the following two notations refer to exactly the same point in time:
1995-02-04 24:00 = 1995-02-05 00:00
In case an unambiguous representation of time is required, 00:00 is usually the preferred notation for midnight and not 24:00. Digital clocks display 00:00 and not 24:00...

A remark for readers from the U.S. and some other English-speaking countries:
The 24h time notation specified here has already been the de-facto standard all over the world in written language for decades.  The only exception are some English speaking countries, where still notations with hours between 1 and 12 and additions like "a.m." and "p.m." are in wide use.  The common 24h international standard notation starts to get widely used now even in England.  Most other languages don't even have abbreviations like "a.m." and "p.m." and the 12h notation is certainly hardly ever used on Continental Europe to write or display a time.  Even in the U.S., the military and computer programmers have been using the 24h notation for a long time.

The old English 12h notation has many disadvantages like:
       •   It is longer than the normal 24h notation.
       •   It takes somewhat more time for humans to compare two times in 12h notation.
       •   It is not clear how 00:00, 12:00 and 24:00 are represented.  Even encyclopedias and style manuals contain contradicting descriptions and a common quick fix seems to be to avoid "12:00 a.m./p.m." altogether and write "noon", "midnight", or "12:01 a.m./p.m." instead, although the word "midnight" still does not distinguish between 00:00 and 24:00.
       •   It makes people often believe that the next day starts at the overflow from "12:59 a.m." to "1:00 a.m.", which is a common problem not only when people try to program the timer of VCRs shortly after midnight.
       •   It is not immediately clear for the unaware, whether the time between "12:00 a.m./p.m." and "1:00 a.m./p.m." starts at 00:00 or at 12:00, i.e. the English 12h notation is more difficult to understand.

Please consider the 12h time to be a relic from the dark ages when Roman numerals were used, the number zero had not yet been invented and analog clocks were the only known form of displaying a time. Please avoid using it today, especially in technical applications.  Even in the U.S., the widely respected Chicago Manual of Style now recommends using the international standard time notation in publications...

International Standard Date and Time Notation
International Standard ISO 8601 specifies numeric representations of date and time. This standard notation helps to avoid confusion in international communication caused by the many different national notations...

"There is no clear definition
of 11:59 p.m. or a.m., or 12:01 a.m. or p.m.
There is not.  There is not."

— Astonishingly Misinformed Official Ruling
by the Speaker of the Nova Scotia Legislature

Hansard, May 11, 2001

There are 52 Members in the Nova Scotia legislature.  All of them graduated from high school – which should be enough to be able to tell time with the ordinary language used by everyone every day and get it right (although this lamentable episode provides clear evidence this is not a proposition that one can place much reliance on these days).  Many of them are lawyers, which means they have years of university education.  Most of those who are not lawyers have years of university education in other fields, such as medicine and teaching.

One should not expect that every person who has four or more years of university education will be sufficiently informed about ordinary time terminology to know clearly how it works, but here we have fifty-two people, most of them with four or more years of university education, and none of them was able to explain the correct meaning of our everyday time terminology.  None.  Nobody.

So here is a clear and correct explanation of the meaning of "11:59 p.m. or a.m., or 12:01 a.m. or p.m." which do have clearly defined meanings that have been widely known for more than a century – contrary to the learned ruling of the Speaker of the Nova Scotia Legislature (which was not challenged by any Member of the Legislature) that there is "no clear definition" these terms:

       11:59 p.m. means one minute before midnight.

       11:59 a.m. means one minute before noon.

       12:01 a.m. means one minute after midnight.

       12:01 p.m. means one minute after noon.

The people who publish TV schedules bear a substantial responsibility for the muddled state of mind of the population at large.  TV schedules have a frequent need for times that are 12 o'clock noon or 12 o'clock midnight.  These cannot be correctly expressed in the usual "a.m." or "p.m." terminology.  However, the methods used in publishing TV schedules provide only for an "a.m." time or a "p.m." time; there is no way to insert "noon" or "midnight".  So they make do with "12:00 a.m." or "12:00 p.m.", counting on the position of these times within the overall schedule to convey what is meant.  Over time, the general population have come to believe that "12:00 a.m." or "12:00 p.m." do mean either "noon" or "midnight", and they are impervious to any explanation.

2001 May 14

Marconi Towers Replica

Nova Scotia Legislature, Halifax

Resolution no. 1130
page 3368, Hansard's report of proceedings
in the Nova Scotia Legislature
on 14 May 2001:

MR. SPEAKER (Hon. Ronald Russell): The honourable member for Cape Breton East.

Mr. David Wilson, (Cape Breton East):
    Mr. Speaker, I hereby give notice that on a future day I shall move the adoption of the following resolution:
    Whereas the Italian Consul General visited Glace Bay on May 9th to announce plans for a major fundraising campaign to build a replica of the Marconi Towers; and
    Whereas a replica of the original four Marconi Towers will be constructed within the Marconi National Historic Site at Table Head; and
    Whereas the replica will be a smaller version of the original four 210 feet towers that existed in 1902;
    Therefore be it resolved that the members of the House of Assembly congratulate the Italian Consulate's hard work and this House also recognize the importance of keeping history alive in our communities.
    Mr. Speaker, I request waiver of notice.

Mr. Speaker:
    There has been a request for waiver.
    Is it agreed?
    It is agreed.
    Would all those in favour of the motion please say Aye.  Contrary minded, Nay.
    The motion is carried.

Nova Scotia legislature, Hansard, 14 May 2001, page 3368

2001 May 15

Privatization of Harbours

Nova Scotia Legislature, Halifax

Resolution no. 1150
page 3461, Hansard's report of proceedings
in the Nova Scotia Legislature
on 15 May 2001:

MR. SPEAKER (Hon. Ronald Russell): The honourable member for Lunenburg West.

Mr. Donald Downe, (Lunenburg West):
    Mr. Speaker, I hereby give notice that on a future day I shall move the adoption of the following resolution:
    Whereas a federal proposal exists to divest public ownership of thirteen harbours in Nova Scotia; and
    Whereas our river mouths, bays and harbours have always been regarded as common property by Nova Scotians in any era; and
    Whereas the prospect of private ownership of these waterways would alter forever our economic, social, recreational and community endeavours;
    Therefore be it resolved that this House oppose any effort to remove harbours, rivers or any other shared resources from the public domain.
    Mr. Speaker, I request waiver of notice.

Mr. Speaker:
    There has been a request for waiver.
    Is it agreed?
    It is agreed.
    Would all those in favour of the motion please say Aye.  Contrary minded, Nay.
    The motion is carried.

Nova Scotia legislature, Hansard, 15 May 2001, page 3461

2001 May 16

Legislature TV Channel May Become Available
Beyond Metro Halifax

Nova Scotia Legislature, Halifax

Resolution no. 1184
page 3514, Hansard's report of proceedings
in the Nova Scotia Legislature
on 16 May 2001:

MR. SPEAKER (Hon. Ronald Russell): The honourable member for Sackville-Cobequid.

Mr. John Holm, (Sackville-Cobequid):
    Mr. Speaker, I hereby give notice that on a future day I shall move the adoption of the following resolution:
    Whereas Eastlink Cable Systems intends to consolidate ownership of most cable systems in Nova Scotia; and
    Whereas one of the companies subject to this friendly takeover, Shaw Cable, provides a dedicated analog channel for Legislative TV coverage in a great portion of metro Halifax; and
    Whereas Eastlink's consolidation would finally make it possible for a dedicated channel for Legislative TV to be broadcast throughout most of Nova Scotia;
    Therefore be it resolved that this House calls upon Eastlink Cable to show its community spirit and dedicate an analog channel to broadcast Legislative TV throughout its soon to be consolidated, province-wide cable system.
    Mr. Speaker, I request waiver of notice.

Mr. Speaker:
    There has been a request for waiver.
    Is it agreed?
    It is agreed.
    Would all those in favour of the motion please say Aye.  Contrary minded, Nay.
    The motion is carried.

Nova Scotia legislature, Hansard, 16 May 2001, page 3514

2001 May 26

Lighthouse Day

On Saturday, May 26th, more than 160 navigational beacons along Nova Scotia's coastline will be honoured by the celebration of Lighthouse Day 2001, timed to coincide with International Safe Boating Week, 20-26 May.  Community groups across the province invite everyone to take part in the celebrations.  Activities this year will include a variety of choices, from lobster bakes and kayaking to riding in a fishing boat and trekking to one of the many lights along our coast to listen to the stories of former light keepers.  The Coastal Communities Network (CCN) is organizing the event, along with the Lighthouse Preservation Society.  A complete list of Lighthouse Day events can be found on the Internet, at the Lighthouse Day 2001 webpage or Coastal Communities website.
The Guysborough Journal, 4 April 2001
CCN media release

Lighthouse Day webpage

Coastal Communities website

Lightnouse Facts

Lightnouse Day Events

2001 July 11

Final Fantasy: The Spirits Within

The first movie to try to create realistic human characters
through computer animation

With the release of Final Fantasy: The Spirits Within in movie theatres across North America, today marks a new era in the evolution of film: the first movie to try to create realistic human characters through computer animation.  Other movies have been made entirely on computers, but Final Fantasy is the first to attempt realistic human characters.  Roger Ebert wrote: "Final Fantasy is a technical milestone, like the first talkies or 3-D movies.  You want to see it whether or not you care about aliens or space cannons.  It exists in a category of its own, the first citizen of the new world of cyberfilm."
[The National Post, 11 July 2001]

2001 July 12

Present Status of Digital Radio in Canada

Dramatic Price Breakthrough for Digital Radios

Media release by Digital Radio Roll-Out Inc.
TORONTO, July 12, 2001 /CNW/ — An important joint announcement from Texas Instruments and RadioScape has shattered cost barriers for DAB receivers.  The new chip set and complete reference design for Canadian format DAB receivers is priced at US$45 [about C$70].  This complete receiver solution will enable manufacturers to offer full featured DAB radios (including AM/FM and MP3 capability) for under US$135 [about C$205] at retail.  The simplified design will give manufacturers flexibility and ease-of-build which should facilitate the fast market delivery of differentiated, inexpensive products.  The new chip set also consumes very low power, enabling manufacturers to offer digital receivers for the automotive, home-entertainment and portable radio markets.

Texas Instruments Incorporated is the world leader in digital signal processing and analog technologies, the semiconductor engines of the Internet age.  RadioScape Ltd. is an UK-based leading developer of software-defined radio products for the digital broadcast and digital wireless communications market.

More Than Fifty Digital Stations Now Broadcasting in Canada

With over 50 DAB stations currently broadcasting in Vancouver, Toronto, Windsor, and Montreal, DAB is now available to over 35% of Canadians, establishing this country as a world leader in the field.  Ottawa is next in line to be added to the market list, with technical preparations currently underway.

DAB has numerous advantages over both current analogue transmission and the more recent audio streaming via the world wide web.  "Digital" offers both outstanding CD quality sound and portability.  It will lead to host of data display services for the consumer including song credits, traffic and weather information, advertising supplements, and a good deal more.  All the while the listener is treated to interference-free reception.  DAB's "point to multi-point" capabilities serve to illustrate the Web's "point to point" limitations and afford digital radio stations the opportunity to play to a much wider audience.

The marketing of the introduction of DAB services in Canada is co-ordinated by Digital Radio Roll-Out Inc. (DRRI), a non-profit joint initiativeof private and public broadcasters with the support of the Canadiangovernment.

Media release, 12 July 2001

Digital Radio Roll-Out Inc. website

2001 September 7

Sixty Digital TV Channels

Numerous New Services Start Today

DTV: digital television
The frontier of television was changed irrevocably on this day.  We witnessed a quietly momentous milestone in Canadian television when the switch was thrown to sign on more than forty new digital television channels, the biggest launch of channels in Canada's history.

Today's launch was seen as an important first step for broadcasters hoping to find a niche with Canadian viewers.  One day, in the not-too-far-distant future, digital TV will replace the current analog system.  But in September 2001, only a fraction of TV owners were able to tune in — only two million of Canada's twelve million TVs had access to the new channels.

For many the arrival of the new channels was of little or no concern, since the number of people who had digital service (roughly two million in Canada) are still in the minority compared to regular cable subscribers (more than seven million).  These channels are available only to viewers who have paid to have a digital box or to have a satellite service.

Halifax's Eastlink Communications started up the new channels at 7:00pm on September 7th in Halifax, with Dartmouth customers seeing them starting on September 18th.

Many of the new channels are, to begin with, little more than phantom broadcasters.  Some were still putting a schedule together this week and the listings for tonight are filled with "TBA" (To Be Announced).

There were distinct benefits for broadcasters.  Since it is possible to squeeze a minimum of six digital channels into the space of one regular, analog channel, the advantages are obvious.

More channels can be transmitted in the same spectrum space (or bandwidth) using digital technology than by using analogue.  This is why last November the CRTC, Canada's broadcasting regulator, approved a whopping 283 applications for new digital channels, the first of which was launched today.

It will not be necessary, during the first few months or even a few years, for viewers to buy a digital television set.  Although the channels are being delivered digitally, most of the programming is still being produced in the old analog NTSC format and the quality benefit of digital is marginal.  However, some programming — such as The Tonight Show with Jay Leno — began digital HDTV production several months ago, and as time goes by other production facilities will be converted to digital.  This process of converting production from analog to digital will resemble the process four or five decades ago, of converting from a monochromatic (black-and-white) picture to colour — at first just a few high-profile shows were produced in colour, then more and more went to colour, and finally all production was in colour as monochromatic shows became unsaleable.

These channels were divided into two groups — Category One (21 channels) and Category Two (the remaining 262 channels).

Category One consists of sixteen English and five French channels.  Distributors who use DTV are required to carry all approved Category One services appropriate to their markets.

Category Two — which distributors are not required to carry, and thus depend on negotiation between suppliers and distributors — contains a wider range of specialty channels, covering everything from pets and parenting to hockey games and game shows.

It was the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC) that encouraged the cut-throat competition when it licensed a total of 283 new digital services in November 2000, in an effort to encourage the switch from analog to digital.  Digital promises a better picture and better sound, not to mention the capacity to carry as many as 600 channels.  Analog was limited to fewer than 100, in most cable systems.

The CRTC may have approved 283 digital licences, but on September 7th no one knew exactly if or when they would make it to air.  Forty-seven new channels launched during the following week, with another three planning to start up by December 2001.

Digital TV doesn't just offer more channels.  It also promises to give television CD-quality sound and resolution as good if not better than your computer monitor. Good resolution is what makes tiny letters much easier to read on computers than on conventional television screens.

There are actually eighteen different formats of digital TV under the Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC) standard that Canada adopted in 1997.  The United States has the same standard so all you Canadian couch potatoes were still able to immerse themselves in American television.

The formats range from Standard-Definition Television (SDTV) to High-Definition Television (HDTV).  Each is significantly better than analogue but the quality gets even better the higher up the scale you go. The resolution you get with HDTV is six times higher than analogue.

HDTV also uses the wide-screen format that you see in movie theatres, having an aspect ratio of 16:9 instead of the standard 4:3.

Television is switching to digital, but the transition will be slow.  The U.S. originally planned to stop analog broadcasting by 2006 but has since put off the deadline.  Canada doesn't have a clear timeline for the transition, but it looks like analog will continue to be used for at least another decade.

The 16 English Category One Digital Channels

  1. The Canadian Documentary Channel
    (Corus, CBC, NFB, 4 other independent producers)
    Will show award-winning documentaries as well as movies based on real events.
  2. Country Canada (formerly Land & Sea) (Corus, CBC)
    News, weather, movies and more about rural Canada.
  3. The Biography Channel (Rogers, Shaw, A&E)
    "Biography" (A&E's highest-rated series) gets its own channel.
  4. Mystery
    New and old police dramas, spy flicks, thrillers and mysteries.
  5. Booktelevision
    (Learning and Skills Television of Alberta — LTA)
    TV about the written word including movies adapted from books or about writing.
  6. Fashion Television: The Channel (CHUM)
    Fashion, style, art, architecture, photography and more.
  7. TechTV Canada
    (formerly ZDTV Canada) (Rogers, Shaw, techtv (formerly ZDTV))
    Programming about computers, the Internet and technology.
  8. Travel TV (BCE Media, CTV, TVA)
    Includes practical tips on travelling in Canada and a show where teams race across the country.
  9. Discovery Health Channel (Alliance Atlantis, WebMD)
    Includes reality inside-the-hospital TV and educational shows about the human body.
  10. One: The Body, Mind and Spirit Channel
    (Vision TV, Radio Nord, Wisdom Media Group)
    Alternative medicine, natural and organic food, and the metaphysical or paranormal.
  11. The Independent Film Channel Canada
    (Salter Street, Triptych Media)
    A showcase for independent films and how the people who made them.
  12. WTSN (Women's Sports Network)
    A showcase for women's sports.
  13. M (MenTV) (TVA, Global)
    Barbecues, gambling, sex and other stuff men love.
  14. PrideVision (Levfam, Alliance Atlantis)
    Programming aimed at Canada's gay and lesbian community.
  15. MTV Canada (Global, TVA, Rogers)
    Programming aimed at Canadians aged 12 to 24, promises to be more than just music videos.
  16. i Channel Issues Channel (Stornoway, Cogeco)
    Talk shows, documentaries, dramas and movies that promise to give context to current issues

Partial list of the Category Two Channels
starting to broadcast on September 7th, 2001

  1. Animal Planet
  2. BBC Canada   British programming
  3. bpm:tv   dance music
  4. Court TV Canada
  5. DejaView   retro TV
  6. Discovery Science & Civilization
  7. Discovery Kids
  8. The Documentary Channel
  9. Edge TV   new rock music
  10. ESPN Classic Canada   sports
  11. Fox Sports World Canada
  12. Leafs TV
  13. Lonestar   westerns
  14. Movieola   short films
  15. MSNBC   news
  16. MTV2   music
  17. MuchLoud   rock, metal music
  18. MuchVibe   R&B, hip-hop music
  19. National Geographic
  20. Raptors/NBA.comTV
  21. Scream   horror movies
  22. Sex TV
  23. Showcase Action   "guy movies"
  24. Showcase Diva   "chick flicks"
  25. TRN   racing
  26. TV Land   classic TV
  27. Xtreme Sports

The Globe and Mail, 7 September 2001
The Halifax Chronicle-Herald, 7 September 2001
The National Post, 7 September 2001

CBC News

Globe and Mail Television

Complete list of the Category Two Channels
Approved by the CRTC in November 2000

(all languages)

  1. @work.ca   (Stornoway Communications Limited Partnership)
  2. ABC Gold   (Global Television Network Inc.)
  3. About God   (Covenant Communications Inc.)
  4. Academy Television   (Learning and Skills Television of Alberta Limited)
  5. A-Channel News Now, Alberta   (Craig Broadcast Systems Inc.)
  6. A-Channel News Now, Calgary   (Craig Broadcast Systems Inc.)
  7. A-Channel News Now, Edmonton   (Craig Broadcast Systems Inc.)
  8. A-Channel News Now, Manitoba   (Craig Broadcast Systems Inc.)
  9. A-Channel News Now, West   (Craig Broadcast Systems Inc.)
  10. Action Channel   (Craig Broadcast Systems Inc.)
  11. Action Television   (Showcase Television Inc.)
  12. Adult Alternative Music Channel   (Corus Entertainment Inc.)
  13. Adventure   (Global Television Network Inc.)
  14. Adventure One   (Alliance Atlantis Broadcasting Inc.)
  15. Ana Canada   (Ana Canada)
  16. Animal Planet   (CTV Inc.)
  17. Animal World   (Northern Response (International) Ltd.)
  18. Arab TV Network   (Asian Television Network International Limited)
  19. ATN MultiCultural Channel   (South Asian Television Network International Limited)
  20. Aviation TV   (Salter Street Films)
  21. Balkan Express   (Xybermedia Inc.)
  22. BBC Canada   (Alliance Atlantis Broadcasting Inc.)
  23. BBC Kids   (Alliance Atlantis Broadcasting Inc.)
  24. Best of the Commonwealth   (Sextant Entertainment Group Inc.)
  25. Bloomberg Television Canada   (869933 Alberta Ltd.)
  26. Canal Aventure   (Alliance Atlantis Broadcasting Inc.)
  27. Canal de Hockey   (Jim Gregory)
  28. Canal F   (9072-1184 Quebec inc.)
  29. Canal Habitat   (Metromedia CMR Broadcasting Inc.)
  30. Canal National Geographic   (Alliance Atlantis Broadcasting Inc.)
  31. Canal Nature   (9072-1184 Quebec inc.)
  32. Careers TV   (Life Network Inc.)
  33. CareersTV-The Jobs and Management Channel   (Learning and Skills Television of Alberta Limited)
  34. Caribbean & African Network   (Asian Television Network International Limited)
  35. Caribe Canada   (Caribe Canada)
  36. Celebration: Vision Inspired Music   (Vision TV)
  37. Celtic Country   (Corus Entertainment Inc.)
  38. Challenge TV   (Global Television Network Inc.)
  39. Cinemania   (Astral Tele Reseaux inc.)
  40. Cityscape TV   (Solitudes Ltd.)
  41. Classic Sports   (Global Television Network Inc.)
  42. Classic Sports   (Sportscope Television Network Ltd.)
  43. Classic Sports   (The Sports Network Inc.)
  44. Classics TV   (Salter Street Films)
  45. CMT Hits   (Corus Entertainment Inc.)
  46. Comedy for Kids   (Salter Street Films)
  47. Consumer TV   (Mark Jan Vrem)
  48. Corporate Events   (Canadian Satellite Communications Inc.)
  49. Corporate TV   (Salter Street Films)
  50. Cottage Life Television   (Alliance Atlantis Broadcasting Inc.)
  51. CTV News Centre Nouvelles   (CTV Inc.)
  52. CTV Newsnet Alberta   (CTV Inc.)
  53. CTV Newsnet BC   (CTV Inc.)
  54. CTV NewsVu   (CTV Inc.)
  55. D.I.Y. Television   (Alliance Atlantis Broadcasting Inc.)
  56. DesigNation   (Global Television Network Inc.)
  57. Digipix   (Groupe TVA inc.)
  58. Discovery Civilization Channel   (CTV Inc.)
  59. Discovery Kids   (Corus Entertainment Inc.)
  60. Discovery Science Channel   (CTV Inc.)
  61. Doragi Television Network   (Jang Sung Lee)
  62. Easy Shop TV   (909591 Ontario Limited)
  63. Edge TV   (Corus Entertainment Inc.)
  64. E-Sports   (Sportscope Television Network Ltd.)
  65. Exploration Network   (CTV Inc.)
  66. Extreme Sports   (Global Television Network Inc.)
  67. Festival Portuguese Television   (1395047 Ontario Inc.)
  68. FITNESS   (Global Television Network Inc.)
  69. Fox News Canada   (Global Television Network Inc.)
  70. Fox Sports World Canada   (Global Television Network Inc.)
  71. Front Row   (Groupe TVA inc.)
  72. G& L   (Les Chaines Tele Astral inc.)
  73. Game One   (Groupe TVA inc.)
  74. Game One   (Groupe TVA inc.)
  75. Garvi Gujarat   (I.T. Productions Ltd.)
  76. Girls TV   (Salter Street Films)
  77. Golden Age TV   (Solitudes Ltd.)
  78. GTV: The Girls' Network   (Kaleidoscope Entertainment Inc.)
  79. Gujarati Channel   (South Asian Television Network International Limited)
  80. Hindi Movie Channel   (South Asian Television Network International Limited)
  81. HobbyTV.ca   (Hobby T.V. Inc.)
  82. Hockey Net   (Sportscope Television Network Ltd.)
  83. HorrorVision   (Corus Entertainment Inc.)
  84. Horse Network   (Levfam Holdings Inc.)
  85. HTV Canada   (HTV Canada)
  86. Interactive Trivia Network   (Interactive Trivia Network)
  87. International Film Festival Channel   (EIFFC) (CFMT)
  88. Investment Online   (Mark Jan Vrem)
  89. Jackpot TV   (Jackpot TV)
  90. Jazz & Blues TV   (Craig Broadcast Systems Inc.)
  91. Jobs TV   (Salter Street Films)
  92. Justice TV   (Alliance Atlantis Broadcasting Inc.)
  93. Landscape   (Xybermedia Inc.)
  94. Late Night Vidiot   (Late Night Vidiot Inc.)
  95. Law   (CTV Inc.)
  96. Le Reseau Grand Air   (Le Reseau des sports (RDS) inc.)
  97. Luso! TV   (Xybermedia Inc.)
  98. Magazine Rack Television   (Alliance Atlantis Broadcasting Inc.)
  99. Manitoba News Network   (Global Television Network Inc.)
  100. Maple Leaf Channel   (Maple Leaf Sports & Entertainment Ltd.)
  101. Maritime News Network   (Global Television Network Inc.)
  102. Martial Arts Channel   (Kaleidoscope Entertainment Inc.)
  103. Martial Arts TV   (Salter Street Films)
  104. MasterMusic   (CHUM Limited)
  105. Military Television   (Alliance Atlantis Broadcasting Inc.)
  106. Moods   (CHUM Limited)
  107. MSNBC Canada   (Rogers Broadcasting Limited)
  108. MuchLoud   (CHUM Limited)
  109. MuchMoreClassicVideo   (CHUM Limited)
  110. MuchOnDemand   (CHUM Limited)
  111. MuchPoP   (CHUM Limited)
  112. MuchVibe   (CHUM Limited)
  113. Multilingual Sports   (The Sports Network Inc.)
  114. Museum TV   (Solitudes Ltd.)
  115. Music 5   (Craig Broadcast Systems Inc.)
  116. Music 5   (Pay)   (Craig Broadcast Systems Inc.)
  117. National Geographic Channel   (Alliance Atlantis Broadcasting Inc.)
  118. Nature TV   (Salter Street Films)
  119. Network Italia   (Network Italia)
  120. Northern Alberta News Network   (Global Television Network Inc.)
  121. Nostalgia TV   (Alliance Atlantis Broadcasting Inc.)
  122. NRT Canada   (NRT Canada)
  123. NTI Tamil Service   (Network Television International)
  124. NTV International   (The Eurasian Canadian Television Network)
  125. Ocean Life TV   (Salter Street Films)
  126. Odyssey II   (Odyssey Television Network Inc.)
  127. On Trial: The Court Channel   (Kaleidoscope Entertainment Inc.)
  128. Pacific Food Channel   (Sextant Entertainment Group Inc.)
  129. Parent TV   (Corus Entertainment Inc.)
  130. ParentTV   (Alliance Atlantis Broadcasting Inc.)
  131. Passion Television   (Passion Villlage Inc.)
  132. PATV   (Pets & Animals) (Craig Broadcast Systems Inc.)
  133. PAWS: The Pet Channel   (Kaleidoscope Entertainment Inc.)
  134. People + Arts   (CTV Inc.)
  135. Pet TV   (Corus Entertainment Inc.)
  136. Play TV   (Salter Street Films)
  137. Pop TV   (Global Television Network Inc.)
  138. Power Television   (Nextlevel Television Inc.)
  139. Premiere Loge   (Groupe TVA inc.)
  140. Pro-TV   (Les Chaines Tele Astral inc.)
  141. PSN Canada   (PSN Canada)
  142. Punjabi Channel   (South Asian Television Network International Limited)
  143. Quebec News Network   (Global Television Network Inc.)
  144. RAI Canada   (Corus Entertainment Inc.)
  145. Ran Punjabi   (I.T. Productions Ltd.)
  146. Raptors Basketball Channel   (Raptors Basketball Channel Ltd.)
  147. Real TV   (Alliance Atlantis Broadcasting Inc.)
  148. Recovery TV   (Salter Street Films)
  149. Relationships TV   (Salter Street Films)
  150. Remote Control Games - TV   (Remote Control Games - TV)
  151. Retro   (Craig Broadcast Systems Inc.)
  152. Romance Television   (Showcase Television Inc.)
  153. Saskatchewan News Network   (Global Television Network Inc.)
  154. Scream TV   (Salter Street Films)
  155. Sitcom Canada   (Sitcom Canada)
  156. Skating TV   (Salter Street Films)
  157. Soap World   (Global Television Network Inc.)
  158. Solitudes TV   (Solitudes Ltd.)
  159. Southern Alberta News Network   (Global Television Network Inc.)
  160. Southern B.C. News Network   (Global Television Network Inc.)
  161. Sports Talk TV   (The Sports Network Inc.)
  162. Sportsnet2   (CTV Inc.)
  163. SSTV   (Ravinder Singh Pannu)
  164. Tamil Channel   (South Asian Television Network International Limited)
  165. Tele Tout P'tit   (Corus Entertainment Inc.)
  166. Tele-Filipino   (Global Television Network Inc.)
  167. Telegu Channel   (South Asian Television Network International Limited)
  168. Telemundo Canada   (TV Italy)
  169. Teleservice   (9072-1184 Quebec inc.)
  170. Teletoon Action   (TELETOON Canada Inc.)
  171. Teletoon Adult   (TELETOON Canada Inc.)
  172. Teletoon Art   (TELETOON Canada Inc.)
  173. Teletoon Multi   (TELETOON Canada Inc.)
  174. Teletoon Pop   (TELETOON Canada Inc.)
  175. Teletoon Retro   (TELETOON Canada Inc.)
  176. TEN - Channel 1   (Ten Broadcasting Inc.)
  177. TEN - Channel 2   (Ten Broadcasting Inc.)
  178. The Art Channel   (Boxer Four Entertainment Inc.)
  179. The Auction Channel   (Global Television Network Inc.)
  180. The Automobile Channel   (Global Television Network Inc.)
  181. The Baseball Channel   (Global Television Network Inc.)
  182. The Business Channel   (Mark Jan Vrem)
  183. The Canadian Consumer Channel   (Salter Street Films)
  184. The Christian Channel   (Vision TV)
  185. The Classical Channel   (Corus Entertainment Inc.)
  186. The Coaches Network   (The Sports Network Inc.)
  187. The Collectors Network   (Salter Street Films)
  188. The Dance Channel   (Stornoway Communications Limited Partnership)
  189. The Fairchild Body and Soul Channel   (Fairchild)
  190. The Fairchild Children's Channel   (Fairchild)
  191. The Fairchild Food Channel   (Fairchild)
  192. The Fairchild Movie Channel   (Fairchild)
  193. The Fairchild Music Channel   (Fairchild)
  194. The Fairchild News Channel   (Fairchild)
  195. The Fairchild Spiritual Channel   (Fairchild)
  196. The Fairchild Technology Channel   (Fairchild)
  197. The Festival Network   (Global Television Network Inc.)
  198. The Fishing Network   (The Sports Network Inc.)
  199. The Gameshow Network   (3740161 Canada Inc.)
  200. The Gesher Channel   (Kaleidoscope Entertainment Inc.)
  201. The Hockey Channel   (Corus Entertainment Inc.)
  202. The Hockey Channel   (Jim Gregory)
  203. The Hockey Network   (The Sports Network Inc.)
  204. The Horror Channel/The Creep Show   (Boxer Four Entertainment Inc.)
  205. The Jazz Channel   (Corus Entertainment Inc.)
  206. The Jazz Channel   (Global Television Network Inc.)
  207. The Last Picture Show Inc.   (The Last Picture Show Inc.)
  208. The Law & Order Channel   (Learning and Skills Television of Alberta Limited)
  209. The Legal Television Network   (3629651 Canada Inc.)
  210. The Love Channel   (Boxer Four Entertainment Inc.)
  211. The Love Channel   (Kaleidoscope Entertainment Inc.)
  212. The Luxe Network   (Alliance Atlantis Broadcasting Inc.)
  213. The Met   (Craig Broadcast Systems Inc.)
  214. The Model Network   (Boxer Four Entertainment Inc.)
  215. The Nautical Channel   (Global Television Network Inc.)
  216. The Nelvana Channel   (Nelvana Channel Inc.)
  217. The Nerd Network   (Boxer Four Entertainment Inc.)
  218. The Parent Channel   (The Family Channel Inc.)
  219. The Parenting Channel   (Northern Response (International) Ltd.)
  220. The Pet Network   (Stornoway Communications Limited Partnership)
  221. The Poetry Channel   (Boxer Four Entertainment Inc.)
  222. The Racing Network Canada   (The Ontario Jockey Club)
  223. The Real Estate Channel   (Corus Entertainment Inc.)
  224. The Real Estate Channel   (Mark Jan Vrem)
  225. The Reality Zone   (Kaleidoscope Entertainment Inc.)
  226. The Short Film Channel   (Boxer Four Entertainment Inc.)
  227. The Single's Channel   (1395053 Ontario Limited)
  228. The Theatre Channel   (Veni Vici Entertainment Inc.)
  229. The World Cinema Channel   (Salter Street Films)
  230. The Zoo Channel   (Boxer Four Entertainment Inc.)
  231. To Be Continued... The Soap Channel   (Kaleidoscope Entertainment Inc.)
  232. Today's Parent TV   (Rogers Broadcasting Limited)
  233. Tourist Channel   (Tapley Ent. Ltd.)
  234. Trains, Boats and Planes   (Alliance Atlantis Broadcasting Inc.)
  235. TSN2   (The Sports Network Inc.)
  236. TV Chile Canada   (TV Chile Canada)
  237. TV Guide Channel   (Alliance Atlantis Broadcasting Inc.)
  238. TV Italy   (TV Italy)
  239. TV to Web - The Information Network   (KRG Television Limited)
  240. U-8-TV   (Alliance Atlantis Broadcasting Inc.)
  241. Urban Nation   (Nextlevel Television Inc.)
  242. Urdu Channel   (South Asian Television Network International Limited)
  243. Video Italia   (Video Italia)
  244. Violet   (Global Television Network Inc.)
  245. WealthNet Television   (Magnacom)
  246. Wedding Bells   (Key Media Ltd.)
  247. Weddings   (Alliance Atlantis Broadcasting Inc.)
  248. WETV Canada   (WETV Canada)
  249. Wheels   (Salter Street Films)
  250. Wheels Channel   (Alliance Atlantis Broadcasting Inc.)
  251. Wild Canada   (Alliance Atlantis Broadcasting Inc.)
  252. Wine Television Network   (Vintage Keeper Inc.)
  253. Workopolis TV   (Mark Jan Vrem)
  254. Workworld   (Barna-Alper Productions inc.)
  255. World and Roots Music Channel   (Boxer Four Entertainment Inc.)
  256. World News TV   (Salter Street Films)
  257. X-Treme TV   (Alliance Atlantis Broadcasting Inc.)
  258. Your Money   (Global Television Network Inc.)
  259. YTV OneWorld   (Corus Entertainment Inc.)
  260. YTV POW!   (Corus Entertainment Inc.)
  261. Zone Jeux   (Les Chaines Tele Astral inc.)
  262. ZTV   (Salter Street Films)
—  Source: CRTC Issues List of Approved...New Specialty Television Services..., 24 Nov. 2000

2001 September 8, Saturday   10:46:40pm ADT

Unix Turns One Billion

Unix turns One Billion (in Unix-time) at
             Sun  Sep 9  2001   01:46:40  UTC
             Sat  Sep 8  2001   22:46:40  ADT   -03:00
             Sat  Sep 8  2001   21:46:40  EDT   -04:00
The Beginning of Time according to Unix was 00:00:00 UTC January 1st, 1970.  There are 86,400 seconds in one day (24 h) and 1461 days in four years (any four-year period in our calendar includes three common years of 365 days or 31,536,000 seconds, and one leap year of 366 days or 31,622,400 seconds — that is, any four-year period between 1801 and 2099, which pretty much takes care of our present range of interest).  Thus the counter registers 126,230,400 seconds every four years, and 109 seconds works out to about 31.688188 years, or 31 years and about 251 days.

Early Sunday morning in Greenwich, England, the clock that keeps Universal Time will strike 01:46:40 — the 40th second of the 46th minute in the second hour of September 9, 2001.

That instant will be an anniversary for the Unix operating system: It marks 1,000,000,000 seconds since midnight on 1 January 1970, which is the moment Unix computers recognize as time zero, the Beginning of Time.

—  Source: Wired News


The Creation of the UNIX™ Operating System —After three decades of use, the UNIX™ computer operating system from Bell Labs is still regarded as one of the most powerful, versatile, and flexible operating systems in the computer world.  Its popularity is due to many factors, including its ability to run a wide variety of machines...
—  Source:


"Unix" was intended as a pun on Multics (and was written "Unics" at first — UNiplexed Information and Computing System).
—  Source:  http://www.faqs.org/faqs/unix-faq/faq/part6/

Note: Unix time is kept as a 32-bit signed binary integer.

2001 September 18

Cable TV Channel Changes
for Dartmouth, Bedford, and Sackville

...Eastlink's purchase of Shaw's Nova Scotia systems took effect on September 1.  We're very excited about providing your Cable/Digital Cable Television and High Speed Internet services.  And, over the next six to eighteen months, we plan to bring you our Local Telephone service.  We have already begun to upgrade the former Shaw systems and blend the two Metro area Cable and Internet systems into one.  It will take some time before the process is complete... Due to the launch of fifty new Digital Channels, some of your regular Cable channels are being relocated (to different channel numbers)...

These changes are effective Tuesday, 18 September 2001

Old Line-up New Line-up
(September 18)
  2     SRC (CBC French)   2     SRC (CBC French)
  3     Broadcast News   3     The Shopping Channel
  4     PBS Boston   4     PBS Boston
  5     The Shopping Channel   5     News Direct
  6     Global   6     Global
  7     ASN   7     ASN
  8     TV Guide   8     TV Guide
  9     ATV   9     ATV
10     Eastlink Television 10     Eastlink Television
11     CBC 11     CBC
12     NBC Boston 12     NBC Boston
13     Home Hunters Network 13     Real Estate Network
14     TNN 14     TNN
15     TSN 15     TSN
16     A&E 16     A&E
17     WTN 17     MuchMusic
18     MuchMoreMusic 18     CNN
19     CNN 19     MuchMoreMusic
20     TLC 20     TV5
21     MuchMusic 21     TLC
22     TV5 22     WTN
23     CPAC 23     Outdoor Life
24     CMT 24     CTV News 1
25     CTV News 1 25     CMT
26     TreeHouse 26     TreeHouse
27     YTV 27     YTV
28     Vision 28     Vision
29     CBC Newsworld 29     CBC Newsworld
30     The Weather Network 30     The Weather Network
31     ABC Boston 31     ABC Boston
32     CBS Boston 32     CBS Boston
33     Provincial Legislature 33     Provincial Legislature
34     Bravo 34     Prime TV
35     CNN Headline News 35     PBS Detroit
36     Fox Rochester 36     Fox Rochester
37     Prime TV 37     Bravo
38     Discovery Channel 38     Discovery Channel
39     Showcase 39     Showcase
40     Life 40     Life
42     CNBC 41     Headline News
43     Family Channel 42     CNBC
44     Teletoon 43     Family Channel
45     TBS 44     Teletoon
46     Speedvision 45     Speedvision
47     The Golf Channel 46     History
48     CTV SportsNet 47     Space
49     Space 48     HGTV
50     BET 49     Comedy
51     Comedy 50     BET
52     History 51     TBS
53     HGTV 52     CTV SportsNet
54     Headline Sports 53     The Golf Channel
66     RDI 54     Headline Sports
67     TQS 55     Infomercials
68     TVA 56     CPAC
69     Outdoor Living 67     RDI
70     APTN 68     TQS
69     TVA
70     APTN
Free three-month preview of over fifty new Digital Channels

Eastlink Digital Cable — the Entertainment Superhighway — just got a great deal wider.  Over 50 new digital channels... are now launching.  If you have a Digital Box, you'll see them all free for three months, from now until December.  If you don't have Digital Cable, you can now get a Box for just $99 after programming credit.see note You can also choose to rent the Box for only $10.95 per month...

Note (printed in type 1.0 mm high): Digital Box purchase price is $199.  When you subscribe to two months of MOVIE CHOICE programming, you will receive a $100 programming credit.

Source: Eastlink's display advertisement in
the Halifax Daily News, 18 September 2001

Shaw's Nova Scotia cable systems sold for $220,000,000

Sale price about $3,300 per Subscriber

Calgary, Alberta, May 3, 2001 — Shaw Communications today announced it has sold its shares in the Nova Scotia based cable systems to EastLink, a company owned by Bragg Communications, subject to CRTC approval.

Jim Shaw, C.E.O. of Shaw Communications said "the sale is beneficial to both parties as EastLink will be able to consolidate its cable holdings in Nova Scotia, and Shaw continues to execute its previously announced strategy of monetizing assets to reduce its level of debt".

The purchase price for the shares is based on $3,300 per subscriber or is approximately 16 times operating income before income taxes, depreciation and amortization for approximately 80,000 equivalent subscribers and is subject to closing adjustments for working capital and debt.  The net proceeds are estimated to be approximately $220,000,000.

Shaw Communications Inc. is a diversified Canadian communications company whose core business is providing broadband cable television, Internet and satellite services to approximately 2.8 million customers...

Shaw Communications media release, 3 May 2001
available in SEDAR's website   http://www.sedar.com/

The following is an incomplete outline of the corporate history
of Bragg Communications Inc. and associated companies:

Bragg Communications Incorporated [RJSC ID#2022573] was formed on 1 September 1990, as an amalgamation of the following companies:
    • Central Cable Television Limited [RJSC ID#1061202]
          Incorporated 10 May 1971, Amalgamated 5 Sep 1990
    • Mid-Valley Cablevision Limited [RJSC ID#1065348]
          Incorporated 10 Jun 1974, Amalgamated 5 Sep 1990
    • Antigonish Cablevision Limited [RJSC ID#1078266]
          Incorporated 24 Jul 1975, Amalgamated 5 Sep 1990
    • Tri-Town Holdings Limited [RJSC ID#1112900]
          Incorporated 30 Jan 1978, Amalgamated 5 Sep 1990
    • Springhill Cable TV Limited [RJSC ID#1114355]
          Incorporated 3 Feb 1978, Amalgamated 5 Sep 1990
    • Sackville Cable TV Limited [RJSC ID#2048560]
          Incorporated 7 Feb 1978, Amalgamated 5 Sep 1990

Bragg Communications Incorporated [RJSC ID#2295617] was organized on 1 September 1993, as an amalgamation of the following companies:
    • New Germany Cablevision Limited [RJSC ID#1569984]
          Incorporated 13 Apr 1984, Amalgamated 1 Sep 1993
    • Birchgrove Communication Systems Limited [RJSC ID#1674631]
          Incorporated 9 Dec 1985, Amalgamated 1 Sep 1993
    • Port Bickerton Cable Limited [RJSC ID#1724663]
          Incorporated 28 Jul 1986, Amalgamated 1 Sep 1993
          [Previous name Nictaux Cable Limited, in business since 31 Aug 1991]
    • Bragg Communications Incorporated [RJSC ID#2022573]

Bragg Communications Incorporated [RJSC ID#3022964] was organized on 1 September 1998, as an amalgamation of the following companies:
    • Collingwood Cablevision Limited [RJSC ID#2488786]
          Incorporated 28 Aug 1995, Amalgamated 23 Sep 1998
    • Bragg Communications Incorporated [RJSC ID#3017129]

Note: The above is as close as I can come to a chronology
of the several companies, all with the same name:
Bragg Communications Incorporated [RJSC ID#2022573]
Bragg Communications Incorporated [RJSC ID#2295617]
Bragg Communications Incorporated [RJSC ID#3017129]
Bragg Communications Incorporated [RJSC ID#3022964]

Bay Communications Incorporated [RJSC ID#3022355] was almagamated from the following:
    • Able Cablevision Limited [RJSC ID#1064143]
          Incorporated 6 May 1974, Amalgamated 27 Aug 1998
    • Viking Cable T. V. Limited [RJSC ID#1097985]
          Incorporated 17 Feb 1977, Amalgamated 27 Aug 1998
    • Seabreeze Cablevision Limited [RJSC ID#1119429]
          Incorporated 1 Jun 1978, Amalgamated 27 Aug 1998
    • St. Margaret's Bay Cable Company Limited [RJSC ID#1514857]
          Incorporated 29 Apr 1983, Amalgamated 27 Aug 1998
    • Prospect Bay Cable Company Limited [RJSC ID#1526927]
          Incorporated 9 Mar 1984, Amalgamated 27 Aug 1998
    • Tancook Island Television System Limited [RJSC ID#1635416]
          Incorporated 27 Mar 1986, Amalgamated 27 Aug 1998
    • Sheet Harbour Cable Limited [RJSC ID#1757450]
          Incorporated 21 Jan 1987, Amalgamated 27 Aug 1998
    • Bay Cable Holdings Limited [RJSC ID#3003977]
          Incorporated 12 Feb 1997, Amalgamated 27 Aug 1998

As of mid-September 2001, the following companies have their registered office address at 4881 Main Street, Oxford, Cumberland County, Nova Scotia, and/or have John Bragg as a member of their Board of Directors:

    • Avonport Cablevision Limited [RJSC ID#1666181]
          Incorporated 1 Nov 1985, Amalgamated 28 Aug 1998

    • Eastern Cablevision Limited [RJSC ID#1031409, 2392467, 2507514]
          Incorporated 9 Aug 1967, Amalgamated 31 May 2000

    • E & O Cable Holdings Limited [RJSC ID#2273613]
          Incorporated 10 Jan 1994

    • K-Right Communications Limited [RJSC ID#1938642]

K-Right Communications Limited [RJSC ID#3022358] was organized on 1 September 1998, as an amalgamation of the following companies:
    • Avonport Cablevision Limited [RJSC ID#1666181]
          Incorporated 1 Nov 1985, Amalgamated 28 Aug 1998
    • K-Right Communications Limited [RJSC ID#1938642]
          Organized 1 Apr 1990, Amalgamated 28 Aug 1998

K-Right Communications Limited [RJSC ID#3044784] was organized on 31 May 2000, as an amalgamation of the following companies:
    • Eastern Cablevision Limited [RJSC ID#1031409, 2392467, 2507514]
          Incorporated 9 Aug 1967, Amalgamated 31 May 2000
    • New Glasgow Cable Limited [RJSC ID#2512427]
          Incorporated 19 Dec 1995, Amalgamated 31 May 2000
    • K-Right Communications Limited [RJSC ID#3022358]
          Organized 1 Sep 1998, Amalgamated 31 May 2000
    • Island Cablevision Limited [RJSC ID#3043810]
          Incorporated 1 Oct 1998, Amalgamated 31 May 2000

    • Uniacke Cablevision Limited [RJSC ID#1581099]
          Incorporated 18 Oct 1984
          Amalgamated 3 Sep 1991 into Shaw Cablesystems (N.S.) Ltd. [RJSC ID#1050200]
    • Shaw Cablesystems Limited [RJSC ID#2125869] was almagamated on 1 September 1995 from the following:
    • Uniacke Cablevision Limited
    • Shaw Televisual Networks Inc.
    • Shaw Cablesystems (N.S.) Limited

2001 September 19

First New Domains Since 1985

Web surfers will be able to find addresses such as cocacola.info starting September 19th, marking the first time an unrestricted domain, such as the widely used dot-com, will be added to the Internet since 1985.  Dot-info is the first new regulator-approved Internet domain since dot-com, which went into use in 1985.  Dot-biz is scheduled to go live on October 1st, 2001.
—  Source: Wired News

2001 October 17

CKBW Moving to FM

On October 17, 2001, radio station CKBW received official approval from the CRTC to switch from the AM (amplitude modulated) band to FM (frequency modulated) at a carrier frequency of 98.1 MHz. The station began operation in Bridgewater in 1947.  In the 1970s CKBW installed auxiliary transmitters to extend its signal to Queens and Shelburne Counties, and these auxiliary transmitters have always operated on FM, but until now the main transmitter at Bridgewater, which provides the signal for Lunenburg County, has been AM at 1000 kHz.  Construction work has begun for the new FM transmitter at Bridgewater, and it is expected the changeover will be completed early in 2002.
[The Bridgewater Bulletin, 5 December 2001]

Conversion of AM radio station CKBW to FM

Acadia Broadcasting Company Limited
Bridgewater, Nova Scotia

CRTC Decision 2001-658
17 October 2001

1. The Commission approves the application for a new English-language FM radio station at Bridgewater to replace AM station CKBW. The terms and conditions of licence are set out in the appendix to this decision.

2. The new station will offer a Country Music format.  It will continue to respond to the needs and interests of the residents of the area that it serves...

8. The applicant has requested authority to broadcast simultaneously on the AM and FM bands for a period of six months.  A condition of licence to this effect is set out in the appendix to this decision.  At the end of this period, the Commission expects the licensee to surrender the AM licence for revocation by the Commission.

Appendix to Decision CRTC 2001-658

The station will broadcast on the FM band, on the frequency 98.1 MHz, channel 251B, with an effective radiated power of 32,000 watts...
The FM licence, when issued, will expire 31 August 2008...

CRTC Decision 2001-658

For the complete text of the CRTC Decision see:

2001 December

Three-Year OnLine Archive
Bridgewater Bulletin

Every copy of the Bridgewater Bulletin for the last three years is now archived on the Internet, and is available to subscribers.  This includes all copies for the calendar years 1999, 2000, and 2001.  The earliest copy in this electronic archive is 6 January 1999.  The Bridgewater Bulletin is a weekly newspaper published in Bridgewater, Nova Scotia, by Lighthouse Publishing Limited.
—  Sources:
Bridgewater Bulletin OnLine Archive (subscriber password required)

Lighthouse Publishing Company

2001 December 9

MLA Websites
Nova Scotia

Only 4% (2 out of 52) have a website

A survey of websites operated by/for Nova Scotia MLAs, done on this day, found the following active sites:

•  Annapolis
        Frank Chipman (PC) (no website)
•  Antigonish
        Hon. Angus MacIsaac (PC) (no website)
•  Argyle
        Honourable Neil J. LeBlanc (PC) (no website)
•  Bedford - Fall River
        Honourable Peter G. Christie (PC) (no website)
•  Cape Breton Centre
        Frank Corbett (NDP) (no website)
•  Cape Breton North
        Cecil Clarke (PC) (no website)
•  Cape Breton Nova
        Paul MacEwan (L) (no website)
•  Cape Breton South
        Manning MacDonald (L) (no website)
•  Cape Breton The Lakes
        Brian Boudreau (L) (no website)
•  Cape Breton West
        Russell MacKinnon (L) (no website)
•  Chester - St. Margaret's
        John E. Chataway (PC) (no website)
•  Clare
        Wayne Gaudet (L) (no website)
•  Colchester - Musquodoboit Valley
        Brooke Taylor (PC) (no website)
•  Colchester North
        H. William Langille (PC) (no website)
•  Cole Harbour - Eastern Passage
        Kevin Deveaux (NDP) (no website)
•  Cumberland North
        Honourable Ernest Fage (PC) (no website)
•  Cumberland South
        Honourable Murray Scott (PC) (no website)
•  Dartmouth - Cole Harbour
        Darrell Dexter (NDP) (no website)
•  Dartmouth East
        James Smith (L) (no website)
•  Dartmouth North
        Jerry Pye (NDP) (no website)
•  Dartmouth South
        Tim Olive (PC) (no website)
•  Digby - Annapolis
        Honourable Gordon D. Balser (PC) (no website)
•  Eastern Shore
        Bill Dooks (PC) (no website)
•  Glace Bay
        David Wilson (L) (no website)
•  Guysborough - Port Hawkesbury
        Ronald Chisholm (PC) (no website)
•  Halifax Atlantic
        Robert Chisholm (NDP) (no website)
•  Halifax - Bedford Basin
        Mary Ann McGrath (PC) (no website)
•  Halifax Chebucto
        Howard Epstein (NDP) (no website)
•  Halifax Citadel
        Honourable Jane S. Purves (PC)

•  Halifax Fairview
        Graham Steele (NDP) (no website)
•  Halifax Needham
        Maureen MacDonald (NDP) (no website)
•  Hants East
        John MacDonell (NDP) (no website)
•  Hants West
        Honourable Ronald S. Russell (PC) (no website)
•  Inverness
        Honourable Rodney J. MacDonald (PC) (no website)
•  Kings North
        Mark Parent (PC) (no website)
•  Kings South
        Honourable David Morse (PC) (no website)
•  Kings West
        Jon Carey (PC) (no website)
•  Lunenburg
        Honourable Michael G. Baker (PC) (no website)
•  Lunenburg West
        Don Downe (L) (no website)
•  Pictou Centre
        Honourable John F. Hamm (PC) (no website)
•  Pictou East
        James DeWolfe (PC) (no website)
•  Pictou West
        Muriel Baillie (PC) (no website)
•  Preston
        David Hendsbee (PC)

•  Queens
        Kerry Morash (PC) (no website)
•  Richmond
        Michel Samson (L) (no website)
•  Sackville - Beaver Bank
        Barry Barnet (PC) (no website)
•  Sackville - Cobequid
        John Holm (NDP) (no website)
•  Shelburne
        Cecil O'Donnell (PC) (no website)
•  Timberlea - Prospect
        Bill Estabrooks (NDP) (no website)
•  Truro - Bible Hill
        Honourable Jamie Muir (PC) (no website)
•  Victoria
        Kenneth MacAskill (L) (no website)
•  Yarmouth
        Richard Hurlburt (PC) (no website)
—  Source: Nova Scotia Legislature

Go To:   History of Telegraph and Telephone Companies in Nova Scotia

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Go To:   History of Electric Power Companies in Nova Scotia

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