History of Nova Scotia
with special attention given to
Communications and Transportation

Chapter 81
2004 January – 2005 December




2004 March 1-12

Traffic Lights Converted to LEDs

During the first two weeks of March 2004, the five sets of traffic lights in New Minas, Kings County, were converted from incandescent lamps to LEDs (light-emitting diodes), as the light source for the green-yellow-red lights that govern trafffic flow through highway intersections.

These traffic lights are installed along Commercial Street (Highway One) at the 101 Connector/Cornwallis River Crossing, Highbury Road, Prospect Road, Valley View Drive and Cornwallis Avenue.

These conversions were part of a provincial program to change all provincially-operated traffic lights from incandescent to LEDs. The LEDs save money two ways, through reduced energy consumption and longer intervals between replacements of the light source. The new lights use about 87 per cent less energy than the bulbs they replace and last five to seven times longer. The LED life span is about ten years, compared to incandescent lights which last about 18 months. (The government did not release information about the initial cost of LEDs.)
    http://www.gov.ns.ca/news/details.asp?id=20030610006
    http://www.gov.ns.ca/energy/documents/lednewsrelease.pdf
    http://www.gov.ns.ca/energy/documents/LEDfactsheet2.pdf
    http://www.cee1.org/gov/led/led_brochure.pdf


A 30cm-diameter [12 inch] traffic light requires 135 watts of incandescent light, compared to 12 watts for the same-size LED. A 20cm [8 inch] traffic light requires 69 watts of incandescent light, compared to 7 watts for an LED. (These diameters are the size of the circle of coloured light displayed toward oncoming traffic.)
    http://www.bchydro.com/business/implement/implement742.html


LED replacements for one set of traffic lights costs in the vicinity of $4000 more or less depending on the complexity of the intersection, such as turn arrows and pedestrian signals. Green and yellow LEDs cost about twice as much as same-sized red LEDs.

Early red LEDs used gallium arsenide (GaAs) and, for super bright red, aluminum gallium arsenide (AlGaAs). More recently, aluminum indium gallium phosphide has emerged as a material for making red, amber, and yellow LEDs. The first compound used to produce shorter-wavelength colors like blue and green was gallium nitride (GaN), but this compound tended to contain impurities or defects in its crystalline structure that increased with time, which rapidly dimmed the light output of LEDs based on it. Today's longer-lasting green LEDs used in traffic signals lights are based on indium gallium nitride (InGaN) – an alloy of indium nitride and gallium nitride that is less sensitive to crystalline defects.

LED Colour Charts
    http://www.ledtronics.com/datasheets/Pages/led_color_chart/38.htm
    http://www.oksolar.com/led/led_color_chart.htm


LED Traffic Signal Technology: Comparison of Traffic Signal Requirements
    http://www.lrc.rpi.edu/programs/lightingTransformation/
        led/LEDTrafficSignalComparison.asp


LED Traffic Signals Get the Geen Light, Fall 2002
Berkeley Engineering, College of Engineering, University of California, Berkeley
In 1999, red was the only color of LED light available. Since then, industry has developed the capability to produce cost-effective green and amber lights...
    http://www.coe.berkeley.edu/forefront/fall02/led.html



2004 June 17   (Eleven days before the election)

Federal General Election
On The Internet

Nominations closed: 7 June 2004   2:00pm
Election date: 28 June 2004




Federal Party Campaign Websites

Conservative Party of Canada
    http://www.conservative.ca/


Liberal Party of Canada
    http://www.liberal.ca/
    http://web1.liberal.ca/
    http://www.paulmartin.ca/
    http://www.paulmartintimes.ca/
    http://www.on.liberal.ca/

(All five URLs point to the same site.)
    Liberal Party of Canada's online headquarters in Nova Scotia
        http://www.liberal.ns.ca/


New Democratic Party of Canada
    http://www.ndp.ca/

Other Registered Political Parties
(listed alphabetically)

All of these URLs were working as of 17 June 2004

Bloc Quebecois
    http://blocquebecois.org/


Canadian Action Party
    http://www.canadianactionparty.ca/


Christian Heritage Party of Canada
    http://www.chp.ca/
    http://www.chpelection.ca/


Communist Party of Canada
    http://www.communist-party.ca/


Communist Party of Canada (Marxist-Leninist)
Registered for elections purposes as the Marxist-Leninist Party of Canada
    http://www.cpcml.ca/


Green Party of Canada
    http://www.greenparty.ca/

    http://green.ca/


Libertarian Party of Canada
    http://www.libertarian.ca/


Marijuana Party
    http://marijuanaparty.org/
    http://marijuanaparty.com/


Progressive Canadian Party
    http://www.pcparty.org/

Other Political Parties
(not registered with Elections Canada)

All of these URLs were working as of 17 June 2004

Natural Law Party
    http://www.natural-law.ca/


Socialist Party of Canada
    http://www.worldsocialism.org/canada/


Western Canada Concept Party
    http://www.westcan.org/



...While in West Nova recently, I was surprised by the strength and breadth of Arthur Bull's NDP campaign.  Bull is the only local candidate who not only advertises his website on many of his posters but also uses technology to inform voters of the issues...
— Political scientist Agar Adamson in the Kentville Advertiser, Tuesday, 15 June 2004

...Setting up a website is now part of the price that a candidate pays for entry into the political game.  That said, not every website is created equal.  There are better websites and there are worse websites, and each party running in this year's federal campaign here in Canada has carved out a distinct web identity...
— Commentator Dan Brown in Rating the Party Websites
CBC News Analysis and Commentary, Tuesday, 1 June 2004
http://www.cbc.ca/canadavotes/analysiscommentary/columns/danbrown010604.html

The Wayback Machine
has archived copies of this document:
Howard Dean they ain't
Analysis & Commentary by Dan Brown
1 June 2004

Archived: 2004 June 19
http://web.archive.org/web/20040619180325/http://www.cbc.ca/canadavotes/
        analysiscommentary/columns/danbrown010604.html

Archived: 2004 August 23
http://web.archive.org/web/20040823085027/http://www.cbc.ca/canadavotes/
        analysiscommentary/columns/danbrown010604.html

Archived: 2005 February 08
http://web.archive.org/web/20050208233348/http://www.cbc.ca/canadavotes/
        analysiscommentary/columns/danbrown010604.html

Archived: 2005 September 19
http://web.archive.org/web/20050919081154/http://www.cbc.ca/canadavotes/
        analysiscommentary/columns/danbrown010604.html



Election Websites by Citizens

Canada 2004: Canada's Updated Federal Election Resource
    http://www.nodice.ca/election2004/

Canadian Federation of Students Federal Elections Information Centre
    http://www.cfs-fcee.ca/vote2/index_dev_en.html

Federal Political Parties in Canada, by Trevor Tymchuk
    http://www.altstuff.com/federal.htm

Canadian Political Parties by Alex Ng of Burnaby, a private enthusiast who maintains an excellent webpage listing all Canadian political parties, federal and regional...
    http://home.ican.net/~alexng/can.html

The Wayback Machine
has archived copies of this document:
Canadian Political Parties
by Alex Ng

Archived: 2004 February 02
http://web.archive.org/web/20040202001709/http://home.ican.net/~alexng/can.html

Archived: 2004 June 02
http://web.archive.org/web/20040602192936/http://home.ican.net/~alexng/can.htmlv

Archived: 2004 June 16
http://web.archive.org/web/20040616091216/http://home.ican.net/~alexng/can.html

Archived: 2004 June 29
http://web.archive.org/web/20040629085242/http://home.ican.net/~alexng/can.html

Archived: 2004 July 12
http://web.archive.org/web/20040712074226/http://home.ican.net/~alexng/can.html

Archived: 2004 September 11
http://web.archive.org/web/20040911080725/http://home.ican.net/~alexng/can.html



Candidates Nominated in Nova Scotia

Conservative Party of Canada
http://www.conservative.ca/

17 June 2004
Conservative Candidates in Nova Scotia
Candidates nominated in all eleven ridings.
http://www.conservative.ca/english/search_ridding_province.asp
("ridding" is the Conservative Party's spelling!)
Cape Breton - Canso

Kenzie MacNeil
cbcanso@seaside.ns.ca
No campaign website is mentioned in the official Conservative Party candidates list.
Central Nova

Peter MacKay
No e-mail is mentioned in the official
Conservative Party candidates list.

Peter MacKay campaign website:   http://www.votemackay.ca/
Dartmouth - Cole Harbour

Michael MacDonald
mike@dartmouthcoleharbour.ca
Michael MacDonald campaign website:   http://www.dartmouthcoleharbour.ca/
Halifax

Kevin Keefe
ken@kenmacphee.ca
Kevin Keefe campaign website:   http://www.kevinkeefe.ca/
Halifax West

Ken MacPhee
ken@kenmacphee.ca
Ken MacPhee campaign website:   http://www.kenmacphee.ca/
Kings - Hants

Bob Mullan
info@bobmullan.com
Bob Mullan campaign website:   http://www.bobmullan.com/
North Nova

Bill Casey
No e-mail address could be found.

Bill Casey campaign website:   http://www.billcasey.ca/
No campaign website is mentioned in the official Conservative Party candidates list.
Sackville - Eastern Shore

Steven Streatch
info@stevestreatch.ca
Steven Streatch campaign website:   http://www.stevestreatch.ca/
South Shore - St. Margaret's

Gerald Keddy
No e-mail address could be found.

Gerald Keddy campaign website:
http://www.geraldkeddy.ca/
http://www.geraldkeddymp.ca/
(Both URLs point to the same website.)
Sydney - Victoria

Howie MacDonald
sydney.victoria@ns.sympatico.ca
No campaign website is mentioned in the official Conservative Party candidates list.
West Nova

Jon Carey
kingston@joncarey.com
Jon Carey campaign website:   http://www.joncarey.com/





Liberal Party of Canada
http://www.liberal.ca/

17 June 2004
Liberal Candidates in Nova Scotia
Candidates nominated in all eleven ridings.
http://www.liberal.ca/tm_candidates_e.aspx
Cape Breton - Canso

Rodger Cuzner
cuzner@teammartin.ca
No campaign website is mentioned in the official Liberal Party candidates list.
Central Nova

Susan Green
greens@teammartin.ca
No campaign website is mentioned in the official Liberal Party candidates list.
Dartmouth - Cole Harbour

Michael Savage
savagm@teammartin.ca
mike@mikesavage.ca
Michael Savage campaign website:   http://www.mikesavage.ca/
Halifax

Sheila Fougere
fouges@teammartin.ca
No campaign website is mentioned in the official Liberal Party candidates list.
Halifax West

Geoff Regan
regang@teammartin.ca
geoff@geoffregan.com
Geoff Regan campaign website:   http://www.geoffregan.com/
No campaign website is mentioned in the official Liberal Party candidates list.
Kings - Hants

Scott Brison
info@brison.ca
Scott Brison campaign website:   http://www.brison.ca/
North Nova

Dianne Brushett
brushd@teammartin.ca
dianne@diannebrushett.ca
amherst@diannebrushett.ca
Dianne Brushett campaign website:   http://www.diannebrushett.ca/
Sackville - Eastern Shore

Dale Stevens
steved@teammartin.ca
contact@dalestevens.ca
Dale Stevens campaign website:   http://www.dalestevens.ca/
South Shore - St. Margaret's

John Chandler
chandj@teammartin.ca
John Chandler campaign website:   http://www.johnchandler.ca/
Sydney - Victoria

Mark Eyking
eykinm@teammartin.ca
No campaign website is mentioned in the official Liberal Party candidates list.
West Nova

Robert Thibault
robert.thibaultlib@ns.aliantzinc.ca
No campaign website is mentioned in the official Liberal Party candidates list.





New Democratic Party of Canada
http://www.ndp.ca/

17 June 2004
NDP Candidates in Nova Scotia
Candidates nominated in all eleven ridings.
Cape Breton - Canso

Shirley Hartery
shirleyhartery@ndp.ca
No campaign website is mentioned in the official NDP candidates list.
Central Nova

Alexis MacDonald
alexis@alexismacdonald.ca
Alexis MacDonald campaign website:   http://www.alexismacdonald.ca/
Dartmouth - Cole Harbour

Susan MacAlpine-Gillis
susanmacndp@eastlink.ca
No campaign website is mentioned in the official NDP candidates list.
Halifax

Alexa McDonough
alexa@alexahfx.ca
Alexa McDonough campaign website:   http://www.alexahfx.ca/
Halifax West

Bill Carr
billcarr@ndp.ca
No campaign website is mentioned in the official NDP candidates list.
Kings - Hants

Skip Hambling
electskip@ns.aliantzinc.ca
Skip Hambling campaign website:   http://www.skipw5.ca/
North Nova

Margaret Sagar
sagarndp@eastlink.ca
Margaret Sagar campaign website:   http://users.eastlink.ca/~sagarndp/
Sackville - Eastern Shore

Peter Stoffer
peterstoffer@ndp.ca
Peter Stoffer campaign website:   http://www.peterstoffer.ca/
South Shore - St. Margaret's

Gordon Earle
gordonearle@ndp.ca
No campaign website is mentioned in the official NDP candidates list.
Sydney - Victoria

John Hugh Edwards
johnhughedwards@ndp.ca
No campaign website is mentioned in the official NDP candidates list.
West Nova

Arthur Bull
mailinfo@arthurbull.ca
Arthur Bull campaign website:   http://www.arthurbull.ca/





Green Party of Canada
http://www.greenparty.ca/

17 June 2004
Green Party Candidates in Nova Scotia
Candidates nominated in all eleven ridings.
http://www.greenparty.ca/index.php?
module=fatcat&fatcat[user]=viewCategory&fatcat_id=26
Cape Breton - Canso

Seumas Gibson
wenmacgibson@yahoo.ca
No campaign website is mentioned in the official Green Party candidates list.
Central Nova

Rebecca Steeves-Mosher
az545@chebucto.ca
No campaign website is mentioned in the official Green Party candidates list.
Dartmouth - Cole Harbour

Michael Marshall
gpcns@chebucto.ca
No campaign website is mentioned in the official Green Party candidates list.
Halifax

Michael Oddy
fernythicket@ns.sympatico.ca
No campaign website is mentioned in the official Green Party candidates list.
Halifax West

Martin Willison
greenmartinwillison@yahoo.ca
No campaign website is mentioned in the official Green Party candidates list.
Kings - Hants

Kevin Stacey
greenkevin2004@hotmail.com
No campaign website is mentioned in the official Green Party candidates list.
North Nova

Sheila Richardson
srichardson@greenparty.ca
No campaign website is mentioned in the official Green Party candidates list.
Sackville - Eastern Shore

David Fullerton
fullerton_david@hotmail.com
No campaign website is mentioned in the official Green Party candidates list.
South Shore - St. Margaret's

Katie Boudreau
kboudreau@greenparty.ca
No campaign website is mentioned in the official Green Party candidates list.
Sydney - Victoria

Chris Milburn
greenparty@ns.sympatico.ca
No campaign website is mentioned in the official Green Party candidates list.
West Nova

Matt Granger
hollie298@msn.com
No campaign website is mentioned in the official Green Party candidates list.





Progressive Canadian Party
http://www.pcparty.org/

17 June 2004
Progressive Canadian Party Candidates in Nova Scotia
Candidates nominated in three ridings.
http://www3.ns.sympatico.ca/corylagencies/political/candidates.htm
Dartmouth - Cole Harbour

Tracy Parsons
parsonst@pcparty.org
No campaign website is mentioned in the official Progressive Canadian Party candidates list.
North Nova

Jack Moors
jackmoors@hotmail.com
No campaign website is mentioned in the official Progressive Canadian Party candidates list.
Sackville - Eastern Shore

Greg Moors
gmoors@sympatico.ca
No campaign website is mentioned in the official Progressive Canadian Party candidates list.





Marijuana Party
http://www.marijuanaparty.org/

17 June 2004
Marijuana Party Candidates in Nova Scotia
Candidate nominated in one riding.
http://www.marijuanaparty.org/article.php3?id_article=99
Sydney - Victoria

Cathy Theriault
No e-mail and no campaign website is mentioned in
the official Marijuana Party candidates list.





Christian Heritage Party
http://www.chp.ca/

17 June 2004
Christian Heritage Party Candidates in Nova Scotia
Candidate nominated in one riding.
http://www.chpelection.ca/pages/ns.html
Kings - Hants

James Hnatiuk
chpns@hotmail.com
No campaign website is mentioned in the official Christian Heritage Party candidates list.





Marxist-Leninist Party of Canada
http://www.cpcml.ca/

17 June 2004
Marxist-Leninist Party Candidates in Nova Scotia
Candidate nominated one riding.
http://www.cpcml.ca/mlpc/candidates2004.html
Dartmouth - Cole Harbour

Charles Spurr
novascotia@cpcml.ca
Note: No known candidate's campaign website.





Independent Candidates

17 June 2004
Independent Candidates in Nova Scotia
Independent candidates nominated in two ridings.
Kings - Hants

Richard Hennigar
Note: No known email address or candidate's campaign website.
Sydney - Victoria

Chris Gallant
Note: No known email address or candidate's campaign website.



2004 December 13

200th Anniversary

Joe Howe's Birth
13 December 1804

Who Was Joe Howe?
by the Nova Scotia government
http://nslegislature.ca/index.php/about/joe-howe/

Joseph Howe (1804-1873)
by the Dictionary of Canadian Biography
Journalist, politician, and public servant
MLA for Halifax County: 1836 - 1851
MLA for Cumberland County: 1851 - 1856
Speaker of the Nova Scotia House of Assembly: 1840-1843
Premier of Nova Scotia: August 1860 - June 1863
Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia: 1873
In December 1827, Howe took over the Novascotian from George R. Young
and soon made it the most influential newspaper in the province.



2005

240th Anniversary

Old Meeting House
Barrington 1765

One of the oldest surviving buildings
in English-speaking Canada

Photographs: Old Meeting House, 1765 Shelburne County
    http://ns1763.ca/shelbco/barrmeethse.html



2005 August

Broadband (High Speed) Internet Access
Economic Impact in Parrsboro

(HTML Executive Summary)
Broadband Economic Impact Study Final Report: Impacts of Broadband in Churchill, Manitoba, and Parrsboro, Nova Scotia
...In Parrsboro, the BRAND program at Industry Canada, the Town of Parrsboro and the local Cumberland Regional Economic Development Agency collaborated to bring the telephone company's broadband service into the community in November 2004, now followed by the introduction of cable broadband...

(PDF Complete Report)
Broadband Economic Impact Study Final Report: Impacts of Broadband in Churchill, Manitoba, and Parrsboro, Nova Scotia
Study Findings for Parrsboro, Nova Scotia – pages 19-28
...In Parrsboro, 60% of organizations reported having their own website.  Of those, 67% manage their own website... There are a surprising number of local seniors who are using broadband, despite conventional thinking that the technology is geared toward the young.  The take-up among older residents has been surprising to Aliant...

What is Broadband?


Broadband Internet access, often shortened to "broadband Internet" or just "broadband", is a high data-transmission rate internet connection... There is no specific bitrate defined by the industry as "broadband".  The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has defined broadband as 256 kilobits per second in at least one direction and this bit rate is the most common baseline that is marketed as "broadband" around the world.

In 2005, the usual alternative (non-broadband) internet connection service available in Nova Scotia (and throughout North America) was dial-up which operates over normal twisted-pair telephone lines with no additional infrastructure on top of the ordinary telephone network.  The nominal speed of a standard dial-up connection was 56 kilobits per second, but these often operated at a somewhat slower speed, in the range 30 to 50 kilobits per second, depending on network load.



2005 August 13

50th Anniversary

Official Opening of the
Canso Causeway

Canso Causeway 50th Anniversary website
    http://www.cansocauseway.ca/






Go To:   History of Telegraph and Telephone Companies in Nova Scotia
    http://ns1758.ca/tele/telephone.html

Go To:   History of Railway Companies in Nova Scotia
    http://ns1758.ca/rail/railways.html

Go To:   History of Electric Power Companies in Nova Scotia
    http://ns1758.ca/electric/electric.html

Go To:   History of Automobiles in Nova Scotia
    http://ns1758.ca/auto/automobiles.html

Go To:   Nova Scotia History, Chapter One
    http://newscotland1398.ca/hist/nshistory01.html

Go To:   Nova Scotia in the War of 1812
    http://ns1758.ca/1812war/war1812-atlantic.html#war1812-novascot

Go To:   Nova Scotia Historical Biographies
    http://newscotland1398.ca/hist/nshistory00.html#ns-historical-biog

Go To:   Proclamations: Land Grants in Nova Scotia 1757, '58, '59
    http://planter2010.ca/proc/proclamations-ndx.html

Go To:   Statutes of Nova Scotia, 1805, edited by Richard John Uniacke
    http://ns1763.ca/law/ns-statutes1805-titlepg.html

Go To:   Home Page
    http://newscotland1398.ca/index.html

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